Darfur: environment and recovery

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Presentation on key environmental challenges in Darfur.

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Darfur: environment and recovery

  1. 1. United Nations Sudan Environment and recovery in Darfur Apr-10 | 100321 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 1
  2. 2. United Nations Sudan Recovery priorities Four initial priorities for early recovery in Darfur Environment 2 Education 1 Priorities 3 Governance 4 Livelihoods Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 2
  3. 3. United Nations Sudan Climate change impacts livelihoods Rain only falls during four months of the year and has become increasingly erratic in Darfur. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 3
  4. 4. United Nations Sudan Rainfall will become more erratic 19 of the 25 driest years in North Darfur ( ) occurred after 1972 (average rainfall in mm) 700 Average rainfall in North Darfur in the year mm 25 years with lowest average rainfall Ten-year average 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Source: UNEP (2008) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 4
  5. 5. United Nations Sudan Water scarcity is a key problem Water scarcity is a major problem in Darfur. The high demand for water in IDP camps has impacted ground water levels. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 5
  6. 6. United Nations Sudan Forest trends in North Africa Unlike Sudan, many countries have managed to slow or reverse the loss of forest Change in forest area (1990=100) Tunisia +60% Egypt +40% Algeria +20% Morocco 100 Lybia Burkina Faso to 1990 relative Chad Sudan (2005=675,460 km2, 1990=763,810 km2) -20% Niger -40% 1990 1989 2005 Source: FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment (2005) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 6
  7. 7. United Nations Sudan Deforestation progresses A market in Darfur: The trees have been cut down for fuelwood ant to provide the animals with fodder. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 7
  8. 8. United Nations Sudan No African country lost more forest than Sudan Forest area destroyed 1990-2005 (million hectares) Brazil 42.3 Indonesia 28.1 Sudan 8.8 Destruction of South and West Darfur forests* Myanmar 7.0 DRC 6.9 Nyala (Kunduwa) 100% Gereida 50% Zambia 6.7 Murtagellow 100% Tanzania 6.2 El Geneina (Kyangata) 100% Nigeria 6.1 Sisi 100% El Geneina (green belt) 50% Mexico 4.8 Mornei 50% Zimbabwe 4.7 0 10 20 30 40 Source: FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment (2005), * selected forest reserves from UNEP, Destitution, distortion, deforestation (2008) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 8
  9. 9. United Nations Sudan Demand for fuelwood increases Charcoal and fuelwood in a market in Darfur. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 9
  10. 10. United Nations Sudan Woodland is lost to the desert The open woodland adjacent to a former settlement near El Geneina has been deliberately destroyed. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 10
  11. 11. United Nations Sudan Growing seasons frequently fail... Percentage of failed seasons (low / high ) Failed seasons 0 – 10% 10 – 20% 20 – 30% 30 – 40% 40 – 70% 70 – 80% 80 – 90% No season Source: Adapted from ILRI/TERI (2006), Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa, HadCM3 A1 Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 11
  12. 12. United Nations Sudan ...and will fail more often in the future Percentage of failed seasons by 2050 (low / high ) Failed seasons 0 – 10% 10 – 20% 20 – 30% 30 – 40% 40 – 70% 70 – 80% 80 – 90% No season Source: Adapted from ILRI/TERI (2006), Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa, HadCM3 A1 Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 12
  13. 13. United Nations Sudan Fertile lands under threat The boundary between the overgrazed sandy rangeland and the threatened rain-fed agricultural zone. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 13
  14. 14. United Nations Sudan Livelihoods are fragile Women, seeking out a livelihood, gather fodder 13 km from the camp to sell on the local market. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 14
  15. 15. United Nations Sudan Range land is overgrazed As a result of overgrazing, the topsoil of this rangeland near El Geneina, Western Darfur, is being eroded by wind and water. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 15
  16. 16. United Nations Sudan Land use patterns change Forest ( ) and agriculture ( ) in 1973 Forest ( ) and agriculture ( ) in 2000 Umm Danga Umm Danga Migration route Closed forest Bushland Wetland Rainfed agriculture Built-up areas Road River Settlement Source: UNEP, Sudan, Post-Conflict Assessment (2007) 0 5 10 15 20 25km Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 16
  17. 17. United Nations Sudan Brick making over-exploits limited resources A brick kiln at Abu Shouk camp in North Darfur. One large tree is needed to fire approximately 3,000 bricks. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 17
  18. 18. United Nations Sudan Brick production has surged Bricks produced and taxed in Nyala (in million) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: UNEP (11/2008) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 18
  19. 19. United Nations Sudan Brick making puts pressure on the environment In a mango orchard near Kalma IDP camp in Nyala, large amounts of clay have been extracted for use in brick-making. This has exposed the trees' root systems and will eventually lead to their death. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 19
  20. 20. United Nations Sudan Cities expand Prime agricultural land next to the wadi near expanding El Geneina. (UNEP) Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 20
  21. 21. United Nations Sudan Darfur’s population has increased almost six-fold since ‘73 Population growth puts additional pressure on the environment 8 Annual growth rate ~2% since 1993 6 4 2 million 0 1970 1973 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 Source: Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 21
  22. 22. United Nations Sudan Four priorities for recovery Programmes to help make life sustainable for more than 7.5 million people in Darfur 1 Environment • Help reforest Darfur’s national forest reserves • Improve management of water sources • Invest in environmental energy and construction 4 Governance and capacity Education 2 • Ensure state and local institutions • Primary and secondary education protect and perform accountably 4 priorities • Provide vocational training • Support development planning • Support to Darfur’s universities and decentralization Agriculture / livelihoods • Boost creation of value-added in urban livelihoods • Improve land management • Advance agro-forestry 3 Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 22
  23. 23. United Nations Sudan For more information please contact • Mr Georg Charpentier | Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General, Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, UNDP Representative charpentier@un.org | +249 9121 61133 | Special Assistant Mr Nicholas Aarons | aarons@un.org | +249 9121 74578 • Mr Toby Lanzer | Deputy Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator lanzer@un.org | +249 9121 57247 | Special Assistant Ms Myriam Mohammedi | mohammedi1@un.org | +249 9121 67760 • Mr Kersten Jauer | Coordination Specialist kersten.jauer@undp.org | +249 9121 46700 Apr-10 Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Slide 23

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