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Aid and development in a ro...
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Emperor Bokassa




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The world’s worst pu...
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Alarming chronic maln...
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One of the world’...
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Only 1 in 4 people can ge...
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More mothers die whi...
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Malaria is the number on...
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One of the lo...
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Landlocked and no paved ro...
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Is it because o...
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Rebellion grips the nort...
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Rebellion grips the north...
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Almost 300,0...
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Civilians caught in th...
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Mobilising the United Nations

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Accelerate decisions by managin...
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Go where help is needed...
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Overcome logistics challenges



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Create a...
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CAR: Today and tomorrow

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     www.hdptcar.net


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CAR: Cornered in the centre - aid and development in a rough neighbourhood

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The challenges of kick-starting and managing a humanitarian and development campaign for the Central African Republic, one of the world's forgotten crises. (Toby Lanzer, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator, London School of Economics, October 2007)

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CAR: Cornered in the centre - aid and development in a rough neighbourhood

  1. 1. United Nations Central African Republic Cornered in the Centre: aid and development in a rough neighbourhood Toby Lanzer United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator Central African Republic (CAR) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 1
  2. 2. United Nations Central African Republic Aid and development in a rough neighbourhood Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 2
  3. 3. United Nations Central African Republic 4.2 million people landlocked in the fragile centre of Africa Chad Sudan Nigeria Darfur CAR Cameroon DRC Congo Uganda Gabon Rebellion or internal conflict Source: Hamburg University Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 3
  4. 4. United Nations Central African Republic The least known of the least developed countries Google search results for bottom 10 countries on the Human Development Index (million) Mali 44.1 mn Chad 31.6 Niger 30.8 Mozambique 30.6 Burundi 28.9 Sierra Leone 28.6 Ethiopia 26.9 Burkina Faso 26.8 Guinea Bissau 25.5 Central African Republic 16.7 Source: Google search results (15 Oct 2007) for the 10 countries with lowest Human Development Index Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 4
  5. 5. United Nations Central African Republic Emperor Bokassa Jean-Bédel Bokassa Head of state 1966-1979 Crowned emperor in 1977 Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 5
  6. 6. United Nations Central African Republic Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide Landed in Bangui after leaving Haiti in 2004 Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 6
  7. 7. United Nations Central African Republic The third poorest people on earth Share of population living on less than 1 dollar a day (bottom 7 seven countries) 73 70 67 64 61 61 59 Mali Nigeria CAR Zambia Niger Burkina Faso Gambia Source: World Bank (2002) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 7
  8. 8. United Nations Central African Republic Gap widening GDP per head in Sub-Saharan Africa rose by 78% since 1985, but not even by 10% in CAR GDP (PPP) Growth, Base = 100 (1985) Sub-Saharan Africa +80% CAR +60% +40% +20% 100 -20% 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: IMF (2007), Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 8
  9. 9. United Nations Central African Republic Falling behind Human Development indices for bottom 5 rose since 1985, while CAR’s fell by 8.8% .40 CAR .35 Guinea Bissau Burkina Faso .30 Mali Niger .25 1985 1990 1995 2000 2004 Source: HDR (2006) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 9
  10. 10. United Nations Central African Republic The world’s worst pupil / teacher ratio in primary education Source: RESEN (2007) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 10
  11. 11. United Nations Central African Republic Alarming chronic malnutrition rates for children under 5 years Source: MICS III (2006) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 11
  12. 12. United Nations Central African Republic One of the world’s highest child mortality rates / 1,000 Source: MICS III (2006) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 12
  13. 13. United Nations Central African Republic Only 1 in 4 people can get safe drinking water Source: MICS III (2006) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 13
  14. 14. United Nations Central African Republic More mothers die while giving birth than almost anywhere / 100,000 Source: General Census (2003) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 14
  15. 15. United Nations Central African Republic Malaria is the number one cause of death Source: MSF Holland (2007) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 15
  16. 16. United Nations Central African Republic One of the lowest life expectancies in the world years Source: General Census (2003) Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 16
  17. 17. United Nations Central African Republic Landlocked and no paved road out km to the nearest port Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 17
  18. 18. United Nations Central African Republic Development assistance: where are we and why? Aid to Sub-Saharan Africa rose by 54% since 1985, but fell by 60% for CAR ODA Growth, Base = 100 (1985) Sub-Saharan Africa +60% CAR +40% +20% 100 -20% -40% -60% -80% 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: OECD (2007), Development Assistance Disbursements, All donors Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 18
  19. 19. United Nations Central African Republic Development assistance: where are we and why? Aid per head is the lowest in the region ($) Congo 160 Equat. Guinea 70.7 Sudan 44.7 Chad 39.6 Gabon 36.7 Congo, Dem. Republic of 29.1 Cameroon 24.1 Central African Republic 23.5 Source: OECD (2007), Development Assistance Disbursements, All donors Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 19
  20. 20. United Nations Central African Republic Because of political instability? CAR scores -1.69 on the World Bank’s political instability index -2.5 -1.0 0 1.0 2.5 South Africa Rwanda Angola Uganda Central African Republic Chad Nigeria Cote d’Ivoire Sudan Congo, Dem. Republic of Somalia Source: World Bank (2007), Worldwide Governance Indicators, Selection Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 20
  21. 21. United Nations Central African Republic Is it because of a lack of strategic natural resources? Sudan Chad Darfur Cameroon Bangui Diamonds Gold DRC Timber Congo Uranium Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 21
  22. 22. United Nations Central African Republic Because of corruption? CAR scores -1.06 on the World Bank’s corruption control index -2.5 -1.0 0 1.0 2.5 South Africa Rwanda Ethiopia Uganda Central African Republic Sudan Angola Chad Nigeria Congo, Dem. Republic of Somalia Source: World Bank (2007), Worldwide Governance Indicators, Selection Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 22
  23. 23. United Nations Central African Republic Because of an overly repressive regime? CAR scores -1.06 on the World Bank’s voice and accountability index -2.5 -1.0 0 1.0 2.5 South Africa Uganda Central African Republic Ethiopia Rwanda Nigeria Chad Zimbabwe Congo, Dem. Republic of Sudan Somalia Source: World Bank (2007), Worldwide Governance Indicators, Selection Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 23
  24. 24. United Nations Central African Republic Rebellion grips the north km to the sea Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 24
  25. 25. United Nations Central African Republic Rebellion grips the north Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 25
  26. 26. United Nations Central African Republic Almost 300,000 people forced to flee their homes since 2006 Sudan Chad Darfur Cameroon Bangui Displacement DRC Congo Source: UN OCHA Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 26
  27. 27. United Nations Central African Republic Who is involved in violence? Zaraguinas APRD UFDR In the Armée Populaire pour la Union des Forces north-west Restauration de la République et Démocratiques pour le la Démocratie in the north-west Rassemblement in the north-east FDPC Poachers Front démocratique pour In the north-east le peuple centrafricain in the north-west Poachers In the south-west Coupeurs de route GP FACA Throughout the country Garde Présidentielle Forces Armées Centrafricaines Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 27
  28. 28. United Nations Central African Republic Northwest: condition along Chadian border deteriorating Region ravaged by APRD rebels, government troops and road bandits CHAD Gore CAMEROON Ngaoundaye Bemal Markounda Ndim Paoua OUHAM Batangafo Boguila UN Border Bocaranga Nana Bakassa Prefecture City / large settlement Road Burnt settlement OUHAM-PENDE APRD / Zaraguinas / Bossangoa UN Bouca power vacuum Population movement Bozoum Armed groups 0 50 100 km Area shown: 51,000 sq km (Denmark = 43,000 sq km). Ngaoundaye, Bocaranga, Paoua ▲ : 6,200 sq km (West Bank = 5,800 sq km) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 28
  29. 29. United Nations Central African Republic Northeast: CAR, Chad, Darfur Fragile accord with rebels; new inflow of refugees possible; armed groups from Darfur Daffaq Original population: 12,000 Refugees in CAR: 3,000 IDPs in Darfur: 9,000 Chad Birao Am-Dafock Gordil VAKAGA Darfur Ouanda-Djallé Ndélé Sam Ouandja UN B.-BANGORAN Ouadda HAUTE-KOTTO Rumbek Kaga-Bandoro HAUT-MBOMOU Border Bria Prefecture UN UN City / large settlement Sibut Road Bambari Obo UFDR / power vacuum Refugees Armed groups (Tora-Bora) 0 150 300 km Area shown: 380,000 sq km (Zimbabwe = 390,000 sq km). Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 29
  30. 30. United Nations Central African Republic Rule of law and human rights Photo: OCHA Photo: Human Rights Watch Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 30
  31. 31. United Nations Central African Republic Civilians caught in the cross-fire and escape to the bush Photo: UN OCHA Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 31
  32. 32. United Nations Central African Republic Mobilising the United Nations Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 32
  33. 33. United Nations Central African Republic Work with the new president Jean-François Bozizé Coup d’etat in 2003 Won free and fair elections in 2005 Government supported by returning technocrats Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 33
  34. 34. United Nations Central African Republic Accelerate decisions by managing aid locally Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 34
  35. 35. United Nations Central African Republic Go where help is needed most: ensure security of personnel km to the sea Photo: Pierre HoltzUN OCHA Photo: | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 35
  36. 36. United Nations Central African Republic Overcome logistics challenges Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 36
  37. 37. United Nations Central African Republic Create a local presence: progress but a long way to go Sudan Chad Darfur Cameroon Bangui DRC Congo UN office opened or Source: UN OCHA reinforced in last 12 months Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 37
  38. 38. United Nations Central African Republic Call on NGOs to engage: progress but a long way to go Birao Ndélé IPHD Sam Ouandja Paoua** Kaga-Bandoro Bozoum Bossangoa *** Sibut Bambari Bouar Bangassou Bangui IPHD ** Presence of international aid agencies as of August 2007 ** MSF also has a presence in nearby Markounda and Boguila Kota *** COOPI also has a presence in Bouca, 100 km east of Bossangoa Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 38
  39. 39. United Nations Central African Republic Mobilise donors: progress but a long way to go Donors contributing $ 500,000 or more 19 humanitarian donors so far in 2007 13 Canada Cuba Denmark European Commission 9 Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Japan Luxembourg Netherlands 3 Norway Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States 2005 2006 2007 Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 39
  40. 40. United Nations Central African Republic Catalyse donors for development assistance km to the sea www.car-round-table.net Photo: Pierre Holtz | UNICEF Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 40
  41. 41. United Nations Central African Republic Focus on attaining the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) Unlikely to halve the share of people living on less than 1 dollar a day MDG 75 67 Current trend 62 50 31 25 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 41
  42. 42. United Nations Central African Republic Focus on the MDGs Enormous challenge of ensuring primary education for all children MDG 100 Current trend 75 58 60 50 55 49 25 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 42
  43. 43. United Nations Central African Republic Focus on the MDGs Huge challenge of reducing maternal mortality rate by three quarters MDG 1,600 Current trend 1,355 1,200 949 683 800 400 171 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Source: Human Development Report (2006) Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 43
  44. 44. United Nations Central African Republic CAR: Today and tomorrow Desperate poverty All trends in the wrong direction Stopping the slide now Moving forward Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 44
  45. 45. United Nations Central African Republic www.hdptcar.net Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 45
  46. 46. United Nations Central African Republic Oct-07 United Nations CAR Slide 46
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