Why What How
The Why, What, and How of
Geo-Information Observatories
Krzysztof Janowicz
STKO Lab
University of California,...
Why What How
Whyis this interesting?
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
Why What How
Astronomical Observatories
The Griffith Observatory
Griffith donated funds and land to build the observatory to...
Why What How
Astronomical Observatories
Observatories and Their Sensors
Whether on land or in space, observatories and the...
Why What How
Astronomical Observatories
Spectral Signatures, Bands, and Remote Sensing
Spectral signatures are the combina...
Why What How
Astronomical Observatories
Astronomical Breakthrough: Hubble Deep Field
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Informa...
Why What How
Astronomical Observatories
Astronomical Breakthrough: Hubble Deep Field
The universe is
(mostly)
Homogenous
I...
Why What How
Observatories In Other Sciences
Observatories In Other Sciences
What do these observatories have in common? W...
Why What How
Towards Information Observatories
Towards Information Observatories
Web Science Trust: A web observatory is a...
Why What How
Towards Information Observatories
How Does This Differ From the Digital Earth and CyberGIS?
The Digital Earth...
Why What How
Towards Information Observatories
Towards Information Observatories
Essentially, all models are wrong, but
so...
Why What How
Whatwould we observe?
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
Why What How
Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic?
Spatial Distribution of Data on the Social Web
The Why,...
Why What How
Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic?
Spatial Distribution of Data on the Social Web
In terms...
Why What How
Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic?
The Idealized Linked Data Cloud
A highly popular visual...
Why What How
Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic?
A Linear Cluster Map Of The LOD Cloud
Credit: Gueret, S...
Why What How
Are there Laws of the Information Universe?
A Law Of The Information Universe?
Terminological knowledge is or...
Why What How
Are there Laws of the Information Universe?
What are the "Elementary Particles", "Constants" and "Laws"
Gover...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
The Urban Observatory
’Urban Observatory – a live museum with a data puls...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory
Analyze (zoom, chang...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory
Theory-driven upper-...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory
User interaction and...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory
Burst mode adds real...
Why What How
Early Geo-Information Observatories
Frankenplace
Credit: Adams & McKenzie (2012)
Frankenplace and thematic si...
Why What How
Howcould we do this?
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
Why What How
Challenges for Information Observatories
Where Are The Information Observatories?
Prototypes Aside, Where Are...
Why What How
Challenges for Information Observatories
The Data Retrieval Problem Is Real
Even the major data hubs such as ...
Why What How
Challenges for Information Observatories
Sensemaking is Difficult – Fitness for Puspose is Key
There is no sh...
Why What How
Challenges for Information Observatories
Meaningful Analysis and Synthesis is Difficult
Ensuring that data is...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
So What Are These Semantic Signatures?
Semantic signatures are an analogy to spectral sig...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Semantic Signatures In POI Pulse
Semantic Signature
12 geospatial bands
based on geograph...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Semantic Signatures Example: Thematic Bands
A thematic band can be
computed out of unstru...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Semantic Signatures Example: Thematic Bands
City topics: 204>450>104>282>267>497>443>484>...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
The IARPA Finder Challenge
Finder is like facial recognition for backgrounds ;-)
Estimate...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
The IM2GPS System
’Estimating geographic information from a single image’
’Purely data-dr...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Our DiaLoc System: Exploiting Heterogeneity
Key Idea: Exploit the geo-indicativeness of t...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Estimation of Location And Type
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Cape Norman
Santa Barbara
City
Lake...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Thematic Semantic Signatures for DBpedia Classes
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Informatio...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Geolocation APIs – Mapping Space to Place
Geolocation APIs map geographic coordinates, e....
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Temporal Signatures: Combined Day + Hour Band for POI
When you are is what you are
Places...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Distort the POI Locations Based on Temporal Signatures
The likelihood of visiting a coffee...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Spatial-Semantic Bands and Signatures
POIs plotted by similarity to bar and post office in ...
Why What How
Semantic Signatures
Spatial-Semantic Bands and Signatures
Where you are is what you are
Dzero measures the li...
Why What How
Backup Slides
When Do You Need Semantics?
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
Why What How
Backup Slides
Observation-Driven Ontology Engineering
The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories...
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'The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories' GeoRich2014 Keynote

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'The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories' GeoRich2014 Keynote

  1. 1. Why What How The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories Krzysztof Janowicz STKO Lab University of California, Santa Barbara, USA GeoRich 2014 Keynote, Snowbird, Utah, June 2014 The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  2. 2. Why What How Whyis this interesting? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  3. 3. Why What How Astronomical Observatories The Griffith Observatory Griffith donated funds and land to build the observatory to make astronomy accessible to the public. This was in clear contrast to the prevailing idea of locating observatories on remote mountaintops and restrict them to scientists. Today, our society is willing to invest billions to study phenomena that may not even exist anymore (e.g., the Pillars of Creation). The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  4. 4. Why What How Astronomical Observatories Observatories and Their Sensors Whether on land or in space, observatories and their sensors serve different purposes and are most useful when they work together. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  5. 5. Why What How Astronomical Observatories Spectral Signatures, Bands, and Remote Sensing Spectral signatures are the combination of emitted, reflected or absorbed electromagnetic radiation at varying wavelengths (bands) that uniquely identify a feature type. Spectral libraries, the idea of sharing spectral signatures, has revolutionized remote sensing. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  6. 6. Why What How Astronomical Observatories Astronomical Breakthrough: Hubble Deep Field The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  7. 7. Why What How Astronomical Observatories Astronomical Breakthrough: Hubble Deep Field The universe is (mostly) Homogenous Isotropic We will do such an experiment in a few minutes. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  8. 8. Why What How Observatories In Other Sciences Observatories In Other Sciences What do these observatories have in common? Why are they useful? Physical location to phenomenon, collaboration between observatories, tangible. Observatories beyond Astronomy Ocean observatories initiative Volcano observatories Meteorological observatories Geological observatories The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  9. 9. Why What How Towards Information Observatories Towards Information Observatories Web Science Trust: A web observatory is a system that gives public access to some specific aspects of the WWW and provides the infrastructure and visualization techniques to support monitoring, analysis, and experiments. Web Science Trust wants to establish a network of observatories. The information universe has entered a phase of exponential growth but its foundations are still purely understood. We need observatories that are tangible (physical) installations; remember Griffith’s will. {Web, Data, Information, Knowledge, Virtual Earth} Observatory? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  10. 10. Why What How Towards Information Observatories How Does This Differ From the Digital Earth and CyberGIS? The Digital Earth is a data archive to access and visualize data layers on a digital globe. CyberGIS is mostly concerned with creating online workbenches for scientists to ease the storage of data on the cloud and to do complex spatial analysis on the cloud. Recall Griffith’s vision of making observatories available to the public, not just scientists. A way to handle some common sampling bias and quality arguments. Most examples will relate the information universe back to the physical universe. However, it is important to note that the information universe can also be studied in its own rights. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  11. 11. Why What How Towards Information Observatories Towards Information Observatories Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful. (George E. P. Box) What we know is an artifact of the technical infrastructure we use (e.g., sensors) and the models we develop. The physical universe is governed by physical laws, constants, elementary particles, and so forth. What about the information universe? Are there laws of information? Complex sociotechnical interactions. Physical-Cyber- Social systems (cf. Sheth 2013). The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  12. 12. Why What How Whatwould we observe? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  13. 13. Why What How Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic? Spatial Distribution of Data on the Social Web The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  14. 14. Why What How Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic? Spatial Distribution of Data on the Social Web In terms of geospatial distribution the Social (media) Web is neither homogenous nor isotropic. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  15. 15. Why What How Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic? The Idealized Linked Data Cloud A highly popular visualization of the Linked Data Cloud by Cyganiak and Jentzsch from Sept 2011. Is the LOD Cloud homogenous, isotropic? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  16. 16. Why What How Is the Information Universe Homogenous amd Isotropic? A Linear Cluster Map Of The LOD Cloud Credit: Gueret, Schlobach, Wang, Groth, van Harmelen (2011) In terms of link structure, the Linked Data web is neither homogenous nor isotropic. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  17. 17. Why What How Are there Laws of the Information Universe? A Law Of The Information Universe? Terminological knowledge is orders of magnitude smaller than factual knowledge. (cf. van Harmelen, ISWC 2011) The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  18. 18. Why What How Are there Laws of the Information Universe? What are the "Elementary Particles", "Constants" and "Laws" Governing the Information Universe? Interestingly, the power law applies to terminological and factual knowledge. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  19. 19. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories The Urban Observatory ’Urban Observatory – a live museum with a data pulse.’ (urbanobservatory.org) The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  20. 20. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory Analyze (zoom, change time, select categories, etc.) the pulse of a city via its Points of Interest and user behavior on social media (http://poipulse.com/). The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  21. 21. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory Theory-driven upper-level categories and default behavior based on semantic signatures. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  22. 22. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory User interaction and fine-grained, data-driven categorization. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  23. 23. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories POI Pulse: Point Of Interest Information Observatory Burst mode adds real-time data; tweets [red circles] and Foursquare check-ins. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  24. 24. Why What How Early Geo-Information Observatories Frankenplace Credit: Adams & McKenzie (2012) Frankenplace and thematic signatures support to study the geo-indicativeness of text and sense of place. Note how POI Pulse and Frankenplace allow for observational and experimental research. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  25. 25. Why What How Howcould we do this? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  26. 26. Why What How Challenges for Information Observatories Where Are The Information Observatories? Prototypes Aside, Where Are The Information Observatories? Well, it’s a difficult task Data Publishing Data Retrieval Data Synthesis Data Reuse Sensemaking Semantic Web technologies and ontologies aim at exactly those challenges and we are beginning to see their wide scale adoption. However, we need to work on approaches that combine data-driven and theory-driven techniques. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  27. 27. Why What How Challenges for Information Observatories The Data Retrieval Problem Is Real Even the major data hubs such as Data.gov still rely on keyword-based search and have unreliable, incomplete, and missing metadata. For this type of retrieval problems, even a little semantics goes a long way (Hendler 1997). The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  28. 28. Why What How Challenges for Information Observatories Sensemaking is Difficult – Fitness for Puspose is Key There is no shortage of data, but finding data that is fit for a certain purpose is difficult. Data as statements (think RDF) not as truth. Heterogeneity is caused by cultural differences, progress in science, viewpoints, granularity, etc. Alchemist Fallacy1; semantics does not come for free. Lack of provenance information Sensemaking requires more powerful semantic technologies and ontologies (compared to IR). 1You cannot transmute base metals into gold and even if you could, gold would not be precious anymore. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  29. 29. Why What How Challenges for Information Observatories Meaningful Analysis and Synthesis is Difficult Ensuring that data is analyzed and combined in a meaningful way is far from trivial. What if the information on how to use the data would come together with these data? Focus on smart data instead of (merely on) smart applications. The purpose of ontologies is not to agree on the meaning of terms but to make the data provider’s intended meaning explicit. A little experiment: The statement all rivers flow into other water bodies is not useful because it is "true"2, but because...? 2It is not; rivers can flow into the ground or just dry up entirely before reaching another water body. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  30. 30. Why What How Semantic Signatures So What Are These Semantic Signatures? Semantic signatures are an analogy to spectral signatures used in remote sensing Combine numerical and statistical models and data with ontologies to derive local primitives (reifications) Multiple spectral bands → multiple semantic bands A shared semantic signatures library will hopefully have the same impact that spectral signatures had on remote sensing. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  31. 31. Why What How Semantic Signatures Semantic Signatures In POI Pulse Semantic Signature 12 geospatial bands based on geographic location ANND (1) Ripley’s K Bins (10) J Measure (1) 168 temporal bands based on geo-social check-Ins 24 Hours 7 Days 60 thematic bands based on venue tips and reviews LDA topics Makes use of data heterogeneity, social machines The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  32. 32. Why What How Semantic Signatures Semantic Signatures Example: Thematic Bands A thematic band can be computed out of unstructured text using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA); data source Wikipedia and travel blogs. Non-georeferenced plain text is often still geo-indicative Different types (taken from DBpedia) of geographic features have different, diagnostic topics associated to them (out of 500 topics) The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  33. 33. Why What How Semantic Signatures Semantic Signatures Example: Thematic Bands City topics: 204>450>104>282>267>497>443>484>277>97>... Town topics: 425>450>419>367>104>429>266>69>204>308>... Mountain topics: 27>110>5>172>208>459>232>398>453>183>... The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  34. 34. Why What How Semantic Signatures The IARPA Finder Challenge Finder is like facial recognition for backgrounds ;-) Estimate the location of pictures and videos without any explicit geolocation information. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  35. 35. Why What How Semantic Signatures The IM2GPS System ’Estimating geographic information from a single image’ ’Purely data-driven scene matching’ (low-level features) Big Data Check Volume: 6 million (out of 6 billion) of Flickr photos Velocity: in theory, new pictures every second Variety: single type of data The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  36. 36. Why What How Semantic Signatures Our DiaLoc System: Exploiting Heterogeneity Key Idea: Exploit the geo-indicativeness of thematic bands. ’market food street narrow dense populated asia economy air conditioning smog fog humid warm building construction skyscrapers skyline shipping export channel harbor transportation tram city advertisement’ Variety: Plain text, not image features as data source The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  37. 37. Why What How Semantic Signatures Estimation of Location And Type 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Cape Norman Santa Barbara City Lake Valley Mountain HistoricPlace Town WorldHeritageSite ProtectedArea Village Cave Island Museum Stream Park Theatre Lighthouse Stadium Hotel Restaurant Airport Hospital Volume: > 500,000 Wikipedia articles & travel blog entries. Velocity: in theory, new travel blog entries every minute IM2GPS and DiaLoc each exclude 99.9% of the land-surface of the Earth, what if we combine them. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  38. 38. Why What How Semantic Signatures Thematic Semantic Signatures for DBpedia Classes The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  39. 39. Why What How Semantic Signatures Geolocation APIs – Mapping Space to Place Geolocation APIs map geographic coordinates, e.g., from a user’s smartphone, to an ordered sets of nearby candidate POI. These services typically return the n nearest POI within a certain radius and use spatial distance to the provided coordinates to determine their order. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  40. 40. Why What How Semantic Signatures Temporal Signatures: Combined Day + Hour Band for POI When you are is what you are Places can be semantically annotated based on geo-social check-ins. Primitives: weekday vs. weekend, evening vs. morning, etc. Sometimes day or hour bands alone are not indicative (e.g., university) but jointly form a signature. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  41. 41. Why What How Semantic Signatures Distort the POI Locations Based on Temporal Signatures The likelihood of visiting a coffee shop, university, bakery, etc at 7pm is rather low, while it is a peak hour for restaurants. Modify the purely spatial ranking by pulling and pushing places based on their check-in probability. The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  42. 42. Why What How Semantic Signatures Spatial-Semantic Bands and Signatures POIs plotted by similarity to bar and post office in OSM data, London, UK Local Reifications (Primitives): e.g., Uniform and Clumped Bars (and similar features) tend to clump together Post Offices (and similar features) are rather uniformly distributed The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  43. 43. Why What How Semantic Signatures Spatial-Semantic Bands and Signatures Where you are is what you are Dzero measures the likelihood of features of a certain type to co-occur within a specific semantic and spatial range. User support: generate recommendations, and clean up data based on type likelihood. ’How likely is a post office directly next to an existing one?’ The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  44. 44. Why What How Backup Slides When Do You Need Semantics? The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz
  45. 45. Why What How Backup Slides Observation-Driven Ontology Engineering The Why, What, and How of Geo-Information Observatories K. Janowicz

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