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  1. 1. Religion in Parenting: Effects of Parental Religion on the Decision to Parent and Parenting Practices for Pre-School and School Age Children Katherine J. Partridge Regent University
  2. 2. Religion and Parenting Overview • Literature Review – – – – Case Study Importance Constructs Theoretical Framework • Method – Participants – Measures – Procedures
  4. 4. Case Study
  5. 5. Importance • As of 2008 it is estimated that over 75% of the United States population reported a Christian affiliation (United States Census Bureau, 2012) • One study found 21% of parents would seek parenting advice from clergy and this number increased for parents who claim to be Christian and use corporal punishment (Taylor, Moeller, Havmas, & Rice, 2013). • Several calls have been made to research the relationship between religion and the family (Mahoney et al., 2001; Holden, 2001; Mahoney, 2010).
  6. 6. Constructs • Religious Variables • Religion • Spirituality (Zinnbauer & Pargament, 2005) • No distinction for this study (Pargament, 1999) • Measurement • Gorsuch (1990) BAV Model • Beliefs • Attitudes • Values • Parenting • Adaptive Parenting • Maladaptive Parenting • Abusive Parenting
  7. 7. Theoretical Framework • Relational Spirituality • Phases of family life • Formation • Maintenance • Transformation • Methods of religious influence • Relationship with the divine • Investment in spiritual properties • Relationship with spiritual communities
  8. 8. Formation • Relationship with the divine • Investment in spiritual properties • Relationship with religious communities
  9. 9. Hypothesis 1 a) The level of religiousness related with the decision to parent a child will be related to measured religious variables b) Religiousness related to the decision to parent a child will be higher as the method of becoming a parent is more involved.
  10. 10. Maintenance • Relationship with the divine • Investment in spiritual properties • Relationship with religious communities
  11. 11. Transformation • Relationship with the divine • Investment in spiritual properties • Relationship with religious communities
  12. 12. Hypothesis 2 1) Parental religiousness along with their view of God in the parenting role will be predictive of consistency, appropriateness, expectations, monitoring, harshness, and positive techniques in parenting which will be moderated by the level of conservatism. More specifically, it is expected that a) high parental religiousness and view of God in the parenting role will be predictive of more consistency, appropriateness, and monitoring as conservatism increases. b) By contrast, those who are high in religiousness and view of God in the parenting role will decrease on monitoring, expectations, and consistency as conservatism decreases, however, positive practices will increase.
  13. 13. METHOD
  14. 14. Participants • Target Population – 250 parents of children ages 2-12 • Recruitment – Parent-Training Clinical Trial Participants – Outreach Events • Compensation – Gift Card Drawing
  15. 15. Measures • Parental Religiousness – Global Religious Behavior • 5 global religious behaviors rated on a 5pt-likert scale – Religious Beliefs • Christian Conservativism Scale (Hill & Hood, 1999) • 7 items rated on a 5pt-likert scale – Religious Attitudes • Attitudes Toward Christianity Scale (Francis, 1992) • 7 items rated on a 5pt-likert scale – Religious Values • Sacred Qualities of Parenting Scale (Mahoney et al., 1999) • 10 items rated on a 7pt likert scale • Manifestation of God in Parenting Scale • 14 items rated on a 7pt-likert scale
  16. 16. Measures Cont’d. • Parenting – Decision to become a parent • Age of each child • Method of becoming a parent • How much religion influenced decision to parent each child rated on a 5pt-likert scale – Parenting Practices Inventory (WebsterStratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2001) • 72 items rated on a 7pt-likert scale • Seven subscales (Harsh Discipline, Harsh for Age, Inconsistent Discipline, Appropriate Discipline, Positive Parenting, Clear Expectations, and Monitoring)
  17. 17. Procedure • Religion and the decision to parent a child – Exploratory analysis – Correlations • Religion and Parenting Practices – Hierarchical Regression • Step 1: Demographic variables • Step 2: Religious variables (Behaviors, Conservativism, Attitudes) • Step 3: Religious values variables • Outcome Variables – Each of the 7 subscales will be used as the outcome variable resulting in 7 different regression models
  18. 18. Comments
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