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Full job analysis / description includes: Job name, job analysis methods, Job analysis, Selection system recommendation, References, Appendix 1: Job analysis methods 1 - Employee interview, Job …

Full job analysis / description includes: Job name, job analysis methods, Job analysis, Selection system recommendation, References, Appendix 1: Job analysis methods 1 - Employee interview, Job analysis methods 2 - SME questionnaire evaluation, , Appendix 2: Telephone reference check template.
Appendix 3: ADHI’s KSA testing syllabus for medical transcriptionists

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  • 2. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 2TABLE OF CONTENTS PageJob name 3Job analysis methods 3Job analysis 4Selection system recommendation 9References 15Appendix 1: Job analysis methods 1 - Employee interview 16 Job analysis methods 2 - SME questionnaire evaluation 21Appendix 2: Telephone reference check template 22Appendix 3: ADHI’s KSA testing syllabus for medical transcriptionists 23 175.737.- OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - ASSIGNMENT 2
  • 3. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 3JOB NAME: Medical transcriptionist (MT).JOB ANALYSIS METHODSTwo methods were selected for collecting job analysis data: A questionnaire in the form of astructured interview with the incumbent and a review of the interview with the SME (supervisor),both done via Skype video conference and available in Appendix 1 of this report.Peterson & Jeanneret (1997) argue that there are two main methods of job analysis: deductive andinductive. The deductive method uses standardised questionnaires that classify certain positions intooccupational taxonomies. The interviewee completes the questions and the psychologist evaluatesthe responses. Deductive methods are useful for classifying and comparing jobs. Inductive methodsdescribe position functions through the use of interviews, focus groups, questionnaires andobservations to do the analysis. One of the main advantages is that they provide specific informationof the positions analyzed. The inductive method is the gold standard in job analysis, and for thisreason it was chosen for the current MT job analysis.As for data collection the main techniques of evaluation are: direct observation, interviews, andquestionnaire. For logistical reasons, direct observation of a MT was not possible, and the chosenmethod was a structured interview which included a questionnaire to the MT and her supervisor.Whereas the structured interview is the cornerstone of recruitment, questionnaires provide aninvaluable amount of quantifiable data (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). During theinterview, the MT was asked what she does, how she does it, for what purpose, when and where shedoes it. This was followed by an interview with her SME, her supervisor, with the aim to corroborateor refute the information about the job given by the employee. The data collected from theinterview-questionnaire in Appendix 1 were used to do the job analysis on page 2.
  • 4. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 4JOB ANALYSIS (TMC, 2010; ADHI, 2012; US Department of Labor, 2010a, 2010b) Company Name: Telemedicine Clinic, Pty. Ltd.TMC Company Profile: Leading European provider of urgent and on-call teleradiology services during office hours in Australia.Job Title: MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTIONIST Department: OPERATIONSJob Description Summary:Home-based medical language specialist who transcribes and interprets reports dictated inEnglish by a multinational team of radiologists as per the American Association for HealthcareDocumentation Integrity [AHDI], using British English spelling. A medical transcriptionist (MT) atTMC types recorded radiologists dictations over secure virtual internet servers; edits clinicalreports, discharge summaries, history and physical examination reports, amendment reports,consultation reports, forensic reports, and referral letters; edits written company materials forgrammar and clarity; looks for inconsistencies and errors in reports and checks with theradiologist in order to correct them; uses voice recognition software which translates dictationinto written text and creates reports which must be edited for mistakes in spelling, translationand grammar; returns transcribed documents to the radiologist for review and signature. SeniorMTs train new and current MTs so that they meet the company’s quality standards (ISO9001)and those of the company’s customers.RESPONSIBILITIES  Transcription, proof reading, editing and interpretation of dictated radiology audio files.  Competent use of medical transcription and voice recognition hardware and software.  Communicating with internal (radiologists, managers, supervisors, peers, and subordinates) and external customers (hospitals, clinics, private practices).  Training of new and current medical transcription staff.Job Location – Home-based Company Healthcare servicesWork environment: Industry:Job Role: Administration Joining Date: 1 January 2013Employment Full time Employment EmployeeStatus: Type:Reports to: Language Quality Number of 1 2 3 4 Control Leader subordinates (circle):Monthly Salary: NZ$2,500Job interest code: CR (Conventional, Realistic)
  • 5. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 5COMPETENCIES 1. English language 5. Medicolegal issues awareness 2. Medical language 6. Medical transcription 3. Medical knowledge 7. Professional development 4. TechnologyKNOWLEDGE  Expert knowledge of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, disease processes, signs and symptoms, medications, and laboratory values related to a specialty or specialties.  Knowledge of medical transcription guidelines and best practices a per ADHI  Expert knowledge of British English spellingSKILLS  Must be a native English speaker  Excellent listening skills  Excellent written and oral communication skills  Competent use of medical transcription hardware and software.  Competent use of medical voice recognition systems  Excellent visual, auditory, and motor coordination skills.  Project leading skills  Business skills (scheduling work, purchasing, customer relations)  Computer and office instruments (photocopier, switchboard, fax machine) skills  Strong independent, critical and analytical thinking skills  Time management skills  Be able to work under pressure ABILITIES  Ability to operate word processing equipment, dictation and transcription equipment, and other equipment as specified, and to troubleshoot as necessary.  Ability to use a vast array of professional reference materials, often in innovative ways.  Ability to educate others online.  Finger dexterity: Ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects  Speech recognition: The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.  Ability to concentrate  Ability to remain seated for several hours.
  • 6. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 6OTHER REQUIREMENTS  Must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia or New Zealand  Have a dedicated area at home for the installation of additional workstation equipment and transcription instruments.  Have fast broadband connection.  Commitment to travel for continuing professional development and annual company meeting purposes.TOOLS & TECHNOLOGYTools:  2-screen workstation (the company provides the second one if needed).  Transcription equipment (dictation machines) property of the candidate.Technology:  Secure internet based environment  RIS/PACS  MS Outlook  Medical software: Electronic medical record (EMR) systems; MedQuist DocQment Enterprise Platform; Misys Healthcare Systems software; SpectraMedi EasyFlow  Voice recognition software: Dragon Naturally Speaking Medical, Crescendo Systems DigiScribe-XL; g-net solutions MTP; Nuance.  Word processing software: Microsoft Word; SpeedUp Trans, Sylvan Software ShortCut.REQUIRED CANDIDATE QUALITITIES  Attention to detail — Job requires being careful detail-focus and tasks completion thoroughness.  Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, dependable, and fulfilling obligations.  Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.  Independence — Job requires little or no supervision, depending on oneself to get things done.  Cooperation — Job requires pro-active nature with co-workers  Achievement/Effort — Job requires personally challenging goals and exerting effort toward tasks completion.  Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.  Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of contingencies.  Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.  Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • 7. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 7RISK DISCLOSUREJob requires:  Use of electronic equipment  Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls.  Repetitive motions tasks  Long hours seated  Long hours in front of a computer screen  Frequent time pressure to meet strict deadlines  Awareness of medicolegal aspects of transcription errors on co-workers and company  Long hours indoorsKEY INFORMATIONCareer Level: Staff Minimum 3 years of experience:Residence Worldwide Education:  College EducationLocation:  Relevant on-the- job trainingEquipment: Candidates must have their Specific  Registered own MT equipment. qualification: Medical Transcriptionist (RMT)  CMT (preferred)POSITION IN ORGANISATIONAL CHART CEO - CFO HR CMO COO Medical Head of Language Operations Director Radiology QC Leader Manager Medical Administration Radiologists Transcriptionist IT staff staff Trainee Medical Transcriptionist/s
  • 8. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 8CONTACT DETAILSName: Jane Doe Email: JD@samplesample.comAddress: 22 Garling St., Suite 101 Country: Australia Level 13 Grosvenor PlaceCity: Sydney Postal 2000 code:Phone: + Fax: + URL:
  • 9. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 9SELECTION SYSTEM RECOMMENDATIONA medical transcriptionist (MT) is a highly specialised stenographer and typist who transcribesrecorded medical dictation and edits medical reports for correctness (ADHI, 2012). Medicaltranscription is a skill acquired through training and education. The job description classifies theposition as Holland’s conventional and realistic personality types. Conventional occupations involvefollowing set authority lines, procedures and routines, and include working with concrete data anddetails more than with abstract ones. Realistic occupations involve work regarding practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with tools and machinery and do not involve workingclosely with others. This is a consideration for the selection process of MTs as individuals employedin an environment similar to their personality type are more likely to have better professional andpersonal outcomes (Landy & Conte, 2010; Kozlowski, 2012; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).Based on personnel selection theories and on recent research, a MT would be most productive andsatisfied with a skills-based, Taylorist, job design, which means that job selection should be based onskills testing. Elton Mayo and Group Theorists’ (Likert, Lewin, Lippit) job enrichment theories onlyapply to a home-based MT in terms of provision of quality equipment, as a home environmentcannot be controlled by the company. Carl Roger’s clinical model of personnel selection involvingquestionnaires and projective tests to detect desirable and undesirable candidates will also be used,as honesty and integrity are job requirements for confidentiality purposes. The integratedpsychosocial model of personnel selection which involves role theory, interaction, and negotiationfor maintenance and motivation of candidates and employees should be considered forexceptionally valuable candidates with the aim of ensuring bilateral satisfaction, and employeefidelity and permanence (Certo & Certo, 2006; Landi, 2010; Yang et al., 2011; Tsoukas & Knudsen,2012).The selection process of a MT will proceed in the following order: Company needs analysis, jobanalysis, recruitment process, application form and CV evaluation, preliminary interview, referenceand police record check, formal interview, selection tests, consultation with supervisor andmanagement, hiring process, feedback and follow-up (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).A company “needs analysis” should be done even when the management have decided they intendto hire a MT. A prospective evaluation of company growth, together with an evaluation of thebalance sheet, would indicate whether they will need to hire an ever increasing number of MTs and,if so, is this what they want or is there a more cost-effective solution for their needs, like acquiring a
  • 10. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 10state-of-the-art voice recognition system commonly used in most hospitals in the USA, Australia andNew Zealand, like NuanceTM or DragonTM, and training the Language QC leader and existingtranscriptionists to update the databases so that dictation accuracy improves on a daily basis until itreaches the company’s set safe accuracy level. Again, depending on the current and prospectivevolume of cases, hiring one or more MTs may be needed.Another suggestion before proceeding with external recruitment would be considering internalrecruitment in the form of promotion of personnel with similar skills, like administration personnelfrom a less busy or vital department for the company. Internal recruitment involves a transfer ofstaff and personnel development programs. It is beneficial for the company as it avoids advertisingcosts in terms of money, time and resources involved, cost of evaluation of candidates, andemployee integration costs (Certo & Certo, 2006; Kozlowski, 2012). It has the added strength ofbeing perceived by less qualified staff members as a career advancement, and it is, requiring a one-off payment of the MT course and examination fees, which as for May 2012 is of US$180 (onlineproctored [OLP] exam for non-members)(ADHI, 2012).Once a recruitment method has been agreed upon, a job analysis will be carried out. This isadvisable even if the company already has a MT job description in their database, because positionrequirements evolve over time and an updated analysis would increase the chances of finding themost suitable candidate for the position. The objective of the job analysis is to collect informationabout the tasks and functions performed in the position, in the context of the company. An onlineMT will have skills and abilities different from an on-site one, like time management skills and betterconcentration ability as the candidate may be interrupted at any moment. Additionally, a cleardescription of the job is crucial to make the worker aware of the position level of responsibility, theauthority line, the employees professional development, and it provides a reference point for anevaluation system and a fair wages policy (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Certo &Certo, 2006).Among the wide array of job analysis methods, those considered most appropriate, practical andless intrusive for the position at hand are interviews with integrated questionnaires with incumbentsand their supervisor. In the case of candidates being located abroad, telephone or video-conferenceinterviews, like via SkypeTM - which are free-, are strongly recommended for the selection process ofMTs, as this will be the way communication will take place with them.Popular and effective position vacant advertising involves placing an ad in websites like Seek™ orTrademe™ (this will attract local professionals), craigslist™ (to attract international candidates)
  • 11. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 11and/or specific healthcare jobs websites (allhealthcarejobs™, healthcareers™, healthcarejobsite™,etc.).Once the advertisement has been placed, the assessment of CVs will be made in parallel to thereception of applications and will consist of the analysis of the documentation submitted by theapplicants, this being the first filter to determine if an applicant will continue to participate in theselection process. A preliminary interview will be done with those candidates whose CVs match thejob requirements. Freelance MTs used to working online are particularly desirable as prospectiveemployees as they will be used to working independently and will already have the necessaryequipment.The interviewer should be prepared prior to commencing the preliminary inquiry. This preparationrequires the development of specific questions based on the MT job analysis. The answers to thesequestions will indicate the suitability of the candidate. During the preliminary interview, theinterviewer will detect the most obvious characteristics of candidates and their relationship to theMT job requirements, like evident physical impairments (hearing aids, tremor, stuttering), verbalexpression, emotional control, cultural level, reasoning capacity, poise, personality, etc. The interestof the candidate for the position, which is related to intended commitment, will be evaluated byasking if s/he has done any research about the company. A general and brief inquiry about thecandidate’s employment history (length of stay, reason to leave, salary changes, promotions,conflicts, etc.) will be done at this stage. The preliminary interview attempts to draw conclusionsabout the candidate’s overall experience, education, physical and psychological characteristics, andprofessional stability. That said, ethical, non-discriminatory, culturally-aware practices will beapplied at all times. During this step, clearly unsuitable candidates will be identified and notconsidered for further evaluation. Non-suitable candidates will be sent a letter thanking theirinterest in the position and politely communicate them that their application has not beensuccessful on this occasion. Additionally, the application and preliminary interview data can be usedto predict which candidates succeeded in the job and which not, and to predict dishonesty or abuseat work. This preliminary process, together with the formal interview, has the potential ofgenerating data with predictive validity (Marcotte & Grant, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012;Kozlowski, 2012).The next step in the selection process of a MT will be checking references. This procedure is one ofthe most effective means to verify the adequacy, diligence and ability of the employee. Whenchecking references, the employer may obtain important information about the personality and
  • 12. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 12character of an applicant. Most companies use email and phone to check references. It is usuallypreferable to telephone checks because they are more effective, save time and promote fairness .The most reliable information comes usually from supervisors, which are most likely to report on thehabits and performance of the applicant. A template for telephone reference checking is provided inAppendix 2. Checking police and legal records may reveal some inconveniences for hiring acandidate (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Kozlowski, 2012).The outcome of the preliminary interview will be a reduced number of candidates that will be asked,via Email or by phone, to attend a formal interview, either on-site or remotely via video-conference.It should be noted that all candidates must have access to this kind of facility as it is a requirementfor the job. In the course of the formal interview, the interviewer will try to create an atmosphere oftrust, i.e.: rapport. The candidate will be greeted and the interviewee will introduce him- or herself,s/he will invite the interviewee to take a seat, and if possible a coffee or some refreshment will beoffered. Some comment about topics like was it easy to find the place, or about the weather, willserve as ice-breakers. The interview will start with simple questions and it is recommended that theinterviewer has the application documents submitted by the candidate. Initial questions will allowthe interviewee to talk for some time uninterruptedly. Questions will be asked one by one in orderof relevance and complexity to ensure that all of them are answered. Formal interviews are valid andreliable selection instruments when they are structured and well organised (Landy & Conte, 2010;Kozlowski, 2012; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006).In every case, the interviewer will bear in mind that candidates must meet four basic requirements:Productivity (must produce results, contribute ideas, and be able to adapt), rotation (must be able tooccupy the same hierarchical level positions), potential for learning must be able to occupy positionshigher in the hierarchy, teamwork (understand themselves and the position as part of a larger entityand interact accordingly) (Certo & Certo, 2006).Candidates will be asked to perform a battery of assessment tests. KSA-based tests will be usedbecause the position requirements focus on visual, listening and motor skills, knowledge of medicalterminology and abilities. They include cognitive, job knowledge, personality, biographical data andintegrity tests (ADHI, 2012; Kozlowski, 2012). The ADHI-approved Meditec™ Medical TranscriptionSkills Test is a free online resource that covers the specific typing, listening and spelling skills and themedical knowledge a successful MT is required to have. They are designed so that they realisticallysimulate the context in which these skills are used. A medical transcription workstation is required totake this test. Freelance candidates, those sought by the employer, will provide their own, but thosewho do not have one will have to take the test in the company premises. This free test is divided into
  • 13. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 134 sections — the first three are “type, listen, and spell”, with 14 single words on each level. Levelsare graded according to difficulty with level 4 being the most difficult and consisting of an actualdoctor’s dictation played back at normal (as dictated) speed (ADHI, 2012). This free test is availableon ADHI webpage and the contents summary is provided in Appendix 3 of this document.Psychometric testing to allow evaluation of sensorimotor and psychological aspects relevant for theposition should be considered. Neuropsychological evaluation (NPE) is relevant in the currentselection process, because data about the candidate’s cognitive, motor, behavioral, linguistic, andexecutive functioning are relevant for optimal performance as MT. Additionally scores in these testshave predictive validity of perfomance at work and research has consistently shown the usefulnessof neuropsychological testing in adults’ vocational performance (Heaton & Pendleton, 1981). For thepurpose of MT personnel selection, complicated, time and resource-consuming tests like heHalstead-Reitan Neuropsychological battery, the Kaplan Baycrest Neurocognitive Assessment, andthe Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological battery are not advised. However, screening tests likeMicroCog (a computerized assessment measures with nine functional cognitive areas sensitive tobrain injury), the Quick Neurological Screening Test (a short test that identifies possible neurologicalabnormalities in motor, sensory, and perceptual areas) or the Stroop Test (a brief procedure thatevaluates attention, mental speed and control) may be considered for the selection process of a MTif there is concern about the neuropsychological state of the candidate (Marcotte & Grant, 2010;Groth-Marnat, 2009)The next step will be a medical examination. The main purpose of wanting to check the health of theprospective employee, is that certain medical conditions could influence elements such as qualityand quantity of production, absenteeism and punctuality among others. It will show if the candidatehas a communicable disease, uses alcohol or drugs, and whether the candidate has any conditionwhich may be a contraindication for the everyday activities required for the position of MT. Forexample a symptomatic disc hernia will hamper the candidate’s ability to sit for long hours.Functional assessment of sensory organs whose integrity is critical for the job includes visual acuity,hearing tests and cerebellar tests (to detect tremor and instability). The medical exam will alsoprovide information about how prone the individual is to suffering accidents which may translateinto repeated sick leaves (Certo & Certo, 2006; Golman & Shapiro, 2012; Marcotte & Grant, 2010).The following step is an interview with the immediate supervisor (the Language QC leader) and/orthe department manager (the COO). Often, the supervisor is the best person to evaluate someaspects, like particular skills and expertise. The personnel selection company cooperates with the
  • 14. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 14organization so that the latter gets the best available candidate, knowing that a company is definedby the quality of their human capital, but, in the end, it is the customer’s responsibility to make thefinal decision (Kozlowski, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).Once the decision to hire a given candidate has been made, the decision will be communicated tothe chosen candidate by phone or mail. The not successful candidates will be sent a formal letterpolitely communicating the company’s decision and asking them if they wish that the company keeptheir application in case there is another vacancy. The chosen candidate will be asked to attend arecruitment interview to sign the contract, to fill out new employee forms with personal data,provide verified copies of drivers license, academic and professional records, and to inform thecandidate about his/her starting date. The new employee file usually also contains all the documentsused in the recruitment and selection processes (Kozlowski, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006; Goldman &Shapiro, 2012).The end result of the selection process translates into the candidate being hired. A good employee isthe best proof that the selection process was carried out properly, and this is why post-selectionfeedback is important to inform further selection processes. This is particularly relevant in thecontext of medical transcription because of technological advancements and increasing restrictionson non-health professionals to access medical records. Finally, the selection process is part of acompanys image, and the methodology used reflects how much the company focuses on quality,and this alone may be perceived by candidates as a motivator to want to work for the company(Certo & Certo, 2006; Kozlowski, 2012). [Word count excluding cover page, table of contents, citations and references: 3691]
  • 15. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 15REFERENCESAssociation for Healthcare Documentation Integrity (AHDI) (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ahdionline.orgCerto, S. C. & Certo, S. T. (2006). Modern management. New Jersey, NY: Pearson Prentice-Hall.Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (2012) (Eds.). The psychology of negotiations in the 21st century workplace: New challenges and new solutions. London: Psychology Press.Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (10th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.Heaton, R. K., & Pendleton, M. G. (1981). Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients everyday functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49(6), 807- 821. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.49.6.807Kozlowski, W.J. (2012) (Ed.). The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology. London: Oxford Library of Psychology.Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2010). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing.Marcotte, T.D., & Grant, I. (2010)(Eds.). Neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Peterson, N. G., & Jeanneret, P. (1997). Job analysis: Overview and description of deductive methods. In D. L. Whetzel, G. R. Wheaton (Eds.), Applied measurement methods in industrial psychology (pp. 13-50). Palo Alto, CA US: Davies-Black Publishing.Telemedicine Clinic (2010). Retrieved from www.telemedicineclinic.comTsoukas, H., & Knudsen, C. (2003). Handbook of organization theory. London: Oxford University Press.U.S. Department of Labor (2010a). 2010-11 Edition occupational outlook handbook for medical transcriptionist. Retrieved from Department of Labor (2010b). Employment and training administration: O*NET Online: Medical transcriptionists. Retrieved from 9094.00Yan, M., Peng, K. Z., & Francesco, A. (2011). The differential effects of job design on knowledge workers and manual workers: A quasi-experimental field study in China. Human Resource Management, 50(3), 407-424. doi:10.1002/hrm.20428
  • 16. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 16APPENDIX 1: JOB ANALYSIS METHODS 1 - EMPLOYEE INTERVIEW(This 1 hour structured interview was done via Skype video conference after a previous chat todecide the day and time for it, and notes were taken in the same manner as if it had been a face-to-face interview).1. EMPLOYEE DATA:What’s your name?: Joanne Doe Department/Division/Area: OperationsWhat’s your job title?: Medical transcriptionistHow long have you been in your current position? 3 yearsWork contact details (address and phone number): Australian Telemedicine Clinic, 22 Garling St., Suite 11,Level 13 Grosvenor Place, Sydney, NSW 2000 (AUS), Tel: +’s your supervisors name?: Janet Dow What’s your supervisors title?: Language QC Leader2. GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE POSITIONVery briefly, can you tell me why this job is necessary for your company and the general purpose /responsibilities of the position?Telemedicine Clinic offers 24/7 urgent and on-call radiology services for hospitals in the UK, Scandinavia and Spain duringworking hours in Australia. TMC needs medical transcriptionists to type and interpret reports dictated in English by amultinational team of physicians and radiologists as per ADHI guidelines. Scandinavian and Spanish hospitals do not requiretranscriptionists as they accept computerized assisted transcriptions revised by the radiologists themselves.3. SUMMARY OF RESPONSIBILITIESCan you describe your main job responsibilities in order of importance and give a best estimate ofaverage percentage of time each responsibility takes?1. Perform typing duties including structured transcribed reports, edit clinical information, formatting documents. % of time 702. Update and maintain medical dictation files and software; ensure that all records are updated and amended. 103. Answer emails from internal customers (like urgent request and report amendments review). 54. Help select and train new transcriptionists (like specific customer requirements, software use, relevant database 15
  • 17. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 17search, confidentiality and error management protocols)TOTAL 1004. EDUCATION: What are the minimum training/education requirements of this job? (Not youreducation, but the requirements for the job).Minimum Requirement: Up to 8 years of education Some College/Associates Degree 9 to 11 years of education Bachelors Degree High School Diploma or GED Masters Degree X Vocational/Technical/Business School Doctorate Degree5. EXPERIENCEWhat type of experience is needed for your job?: For example, "training experience in a medicalcontext" vs. "training experience". Make sure that the experience is what is actually required by thejob, not what is preferred.TMC required successful experience as an onsite and online medical transcriptionist, editor or writer, with experience inpersonnel training and selection in a computer-based international environment. They also mentioned the possibility of doingoccasional multitasking abilities and to work under time and staff shortage pressure.What was the minimum amount of experience required to succeed in your position? (This is notabout your years of experience, but the requirements for the job.) less than 6 months between 3 and 5 years between 6 months and 1 year between 5 and 7 years X between 1 and 3 years more than 7 years
  • 18. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 186. KSAOs REQUIRED:Can you tell me the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities required (not preferred) by your employerto do this job?I don’t remember all of them by heart, but in the job ad on their webpage, TMC stated that the candidate should meet theAAMT, now ADHI, key requirements, independently of whether or not the candidate actually has a certificate of medicaltranscription. Basically, the requirements are knowledge of medical terminology like, anatomy, physiology andpharmacology, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and diagnostic tests, etc . Also important are knowledge of medicaltranscription guidelines and best confidentiality practices. Excellent British English written and oral communication skillswith the ability to understand different accents and dialects, varying dictation styles and hadwrittings. Ability to do onlinesearch for reference material and to use the necessary software. I can’t remember any more requirements but that’sbasically it, I think.7. SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIESWhat is the nature of the direct supervisory responsibility your job has? (I will read you thepossibilities and when you hear the one that matches your job, I will check the corresponding box). No supervisory responsibility. X Work leadership of 1 to 4 employees. Supervisor of >5 employees or over a section of the department. Assistant Manager over supervisors or a small department.How many positions report directly to you? None X 1 2-3 4-6 7 or moreList the title(s) of employee(s) whom you directly supervise: Title Grade/Level Number of Positions Trainee Medical Transcriptionist Entry 1Does your job require functional supervision of positions that do not report directly to you? X Yes No Specify: The Chief Medical Officer also informs transcriptionists work.
  • 19. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 19Do you think you can you draw your organization chart highlighting your position in it? (Hint: Itlooks like a family tree) CEO / CFO CMO COO Head of Language QC Operations Medical Director Leader Radiology Manager Medical Transcriptionist (ME) Trainee Medical Transcriptionist/s8. PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONSCan you tell me how often the following physical demands that I am going to read to you arerequired to perform your essential job responsibilities? Options are constantly, frequently,occasionally or rarely (I read her what each means):C=Constantly F=Frequently O=Occasionally R=Rarely(5-8 hrs/shift) (2-5 hrs/shift) (Up to 2 hrs/shift) (Not part of job) Physical Demands Environmental Conditions Standing R Extreme Cold R Walking R Extreme Heat R Sitting C Temperature Changes R Lifting R Wet R Carrying R Humid R Pushing R Noise O Pulling R Vibration O Climbing R Hazards R Balancing R Atmospheric Conditions R Stooping R Other? (define): Kneeling R Crouching R Crawling R Reaching R Physical Strength
  • 20. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 20 Handling R Little Physical Effort O Grasping R Light Work O Feeling C Medium Work R Talking O Heavy Work R Hearing C Very Heavy Work R Repetitive Motions C Eye/Hand/Foot Coordination C9. ADDITIONAL EMPLOYEE COMMENTS ABOUT THE JOBCan you think of any other information that would be important in understanding your job?Well, perhaps that this job is not just what the job description said but much more. In this environment the unexpected isthe norm and workflow varies so much from day to day that it can be quite disconcerting at times. Because there is only 3of us catering for a staff of 62 radiologists, if one of us calls in sick it can be very stressful around here. You see, thecustomers just want their reports back in time, and if they are not delivered within the time frame agreed in the contract,the company losses money. On the other hand, I like the possibility to work remotely, that is, from home, allows me to beat home with my daughter when I or she’s sick. And the pay could be better, I mean, think of the consequences of atranscription error. I also like the fact that the dressing code is pretty relaxed, casual and that they are flexible, likethey’re never looking at the watch if you’re delayed a few minutes or at what time you decide to take your tea and lunchbreaks. All in all, I think this is a fairly good job.10. Employees signature: (sent as PDF file via Date: 6 May 2012Email)
  • 21. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 21 JOB ANALYSIS METHODS 2: SME (SUPERVISOR) QUESTIONNAIRE EVALUATION(The above questionnaire was sent to the supervisor via Skype file together with the note below.Notes were taken during the 30 minutes available for the interview).Dear Janet,The attached questionnaire is intended to analyze the job as it is currently being done and not how itmight be done in the future. The employees level of performance in the job is not part of this reviewand is not to be considered.Based on your expertise and understanding of the job as it currently exists, please review Josresponses so that we can discuss your own comments about each section during our interview on 11May at 8pm your time.Section Remarks 1 to 5, 8, 10 No remarks. 6 The job description additionally specified required ability to cope with fluctuating workloads, demanding time constraints, and understaffing contingencies. 7 The maximum number of subordinates for this position is 4. Promotion to assistant Language QC Leader is considered in the context of non- temporary staffing requirements if >5 subordinates. 9 Wages are specified during the hiring process. Transcription error protocol procedures are part of the initial training requirements. Yearly rises apply as per Australian law.Additional comments: A productivity-based bonus system is being considered for year 2013Supervisors Name: Janet E. Dow Title: Language QC LeaderSupervisors Signature: Date: 11 May 2012
  • 22. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 22APPENDIX 2: TELEPHONE REFERENCE CHECK TEMPLATE TELEPHONE REFERENCE CHECK □ Personal reference □ Previous employerCompany Address Phone:Name of person contacted: Position:1.- (Polite introduction) I am calling to verify work details given by Mr/s X who has applied foremployment in our company. During what period of time was Mr/s X employed in yourcompany? From toWhat position did s/he occupy? Initially: and posteriorly:Did s/he do any supervising?What was his/her gross annual income?When did s/he leave your company?How did s/he relate with co-workers?Was s/he punctual?Did s/he get involved in any conflict?Why did s/he leave your company?What were his/her strengths?What were his/her weaknesses?Would you hire him/her again?Comments:This reference check was done by (full name): on (date):Signature:
  • 23. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 23APPENDIX 3 – ADHI’s KSA TESTING SYLLABUS FOR MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTIONISTSThe AHDI Model Curriculum was pending revision at the time of this publication. Thecurriculum will be revised to reflect the need for increased programmatic focus on computersand industry-related technology terms and concepts. Anticipated release – Spring 2011 (ADHI,2011)RMT Exam Blue PrintAll items written by the AHDI Credentialing Development item-writers are written to fulfill thefollowing objectives outlined on the RMT Exam Blue Print. These objectives were determined byJob Task Analysis (industry and employer survey) to be the most critical to job readiness for theMT program graduate or specialty MT seeking entry-level credentialing.Clinical medicine questions will be limited to the following clinical specialties:Alternative Medicine, Cardiovascular, Chiropractic, Dermatology, Endocrinology,Gastroenterology, Hepatology, General Surgery, Hematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases,Neurology, OB/Gyn, Orthopedics, Otorhinolaryngology, Pediatrics, Physical/Rehab Medicine,Psychiatry/Psychology, Pulmonary Medicine, Urology, Ophthalmology. © 2010 Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity | Credentialing Candidate Guide The RMT Blue Print MEDICAL, LEGAL, & ENGLISH Section 1 KNOWLEDGE TESTS 1.1 Given sample report content or a subheading, identify the report type (autopsy, consultation, correspondence, discharge summary, history and physical examination, operative report, pathology report, or SOAP note) that the information would be transcribed under. 1.2 Given sample report content, identify the correctly expressed report headings or subheadings. 1.3 Identify the role/purpose of time and date stamping in transcription. 1.4 Given dictated sentences, identify the one that would require editing on the part of the transcriptionist. 1.5 Given dictated sentences, identify the one that contains an incorrectly used term, transposed
  • 24. WESTERBERG, V. ASS2 24 terms or values, slang term or back formation.1.6 Given an audio excerpt containing a slang term, back formation, incorrectly used term, or transposed terms or values, fill in the blank(s) representing omitted information.1.7 Given a scenario of encountering a contextual inconsistency or irreconcilable word or phrase, identify the proper procedure for correction and/or notification.1.8 Given abbreviations related to health record privacy, identify the correct expanded form.1.9 Identify appropriate examples of PHI and/or disclosure of PHI under the HIPAA privacy rule.1.10 Identify the individuals and/or organizations that are defined as accountable parties or business associates under the HIPAA rule.1.11 Identify appropriate security measures for protecting PHI.1.12 Identify the recommended encryption standard of healthcare records under the HIPAA security rule.1.13 Identify documentation authentication practices considered dangerous by both the Joint Commission and DHHS.1.14 Given sentences with usage errors (subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, who vs. whom, etc), identify the one containing correct usage.1.15 Given sentences containing English words commonly confused for other words, identify the correct sentence.1.16 Given an audio excerpt containing an incorrectly used English term, fill in the blank(s) representing omitted information.1.17 Given sentences or phrases, select the one that represents correct use of punctuation.