Production 2


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Production 2

  1. 1. Planning & control UNIT 2
  2. 2. Objective of planning & control <ul><li>Effectiveness : Ensure the production of right kind of goods to fulfill the needs of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing Output :- ensure maxim output at minimum input </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control :- ensure the quality of goods that should meet with the set standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimising throughput time:- reducing the processing time of conversion of raw material into output (product) by reducing idle time, waiting time etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives of planning & control <ul><li>Capacity utilisation :- Ensure that the capacity of manpower & machine is fully utilised. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimising cost :- ensure the cost of production is minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining inventory level :- maintain the optimum level of inventory. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives of planning & control <ul><li>Flexibility :- maintain flexibility during the production operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Better coordination :- ensure better coordination between man and machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity planning : Ensure that proper planning for the future requirements of the plant capacity is made. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives of planning & control <ul><li>Reducing bottlenecks : - remove all the bottlenecks from all the stages of production. It enables you to solve the problems related to the production at early stage of productin. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing profit :- ensure the achievement of maximum profit at minimum cost </li></ul>
  6. 6. Level of production planning <ul><li>Factory planning : At this level, the sequence of work tasks planned in term of building, machine and equipments required. </li></ul><ul><li>Process planning : In this planning, the sequence of various operations in the production process is determined </li></ul>
  7. 7. Level of production planning <ul><li>Operation planning: it is concerned with planning the details of the methods required to perform each operation such as selection of work centres, designing of tools required for various operations. </li></ul><ul><li>a sequence of work required for each operation need to be planned. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Importance of production planning <ul><li>In rapid development and changeable environment, production planning plays a vital role </li></ul><ul><li>Through it most appropriate objectives can determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective alternatives can be take into consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Better utilization of resources </li></ul>
  9. 9. Importance of production planning <ul><li>Reduced inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced manufacturing cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Faster delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Better customer services </li></ul><ul><li>Lower production cost </li></ul><ul><li>Lower capital investment </li></ul><ul><li>Improve market share </li></ul>
  10. 10. Importance of production planning <ul><li>Improve profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Lower prices </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantages for the firm due to balanced inventory levels and higher quality </li></ul>
  11. 11. Limitations of production planning and control <ul><li>It is based on certain assumptions such as demand, availability of materials, power etc. if these assumptions go wrong, production planning and control becomes ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees may resist changes in production levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Production planning and control becomes extremely difficult due to rapid changes in technology, consumer taste and government policy etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Porocedure of production planning <ul><li>The main objective of production planning is maximum utilisation of plant capacity, selection of right materials, equipments, machines and economic order of quantity etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words it is concerned with decision making and procurement of all types of inputs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Porocedure of production planning <ul><li>Some information necessary for efficient production planning, </li></ul><ul><li>Information regarding product design & nature of production process </li></ul><ul><li>Details about quality & quantity of raw materials </li></ul>
  14. 14. Porocedure of production planning <ul><li>3. Specifications of required tools, machines and other equipments </li></ul><ul><li>4. Average and maximum plant capacity under different circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>5. Information about work analysis and performance rating of workers. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Rate of Interest on capital invested. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Porocedure of production planning <ul><li>7. Information about new technological development. </li></ul><ul><li>8.Price of materials, wages of labour & overhead expenses. </li></ul><ul><li>9.Hourly, daily, monthly output rate </li></ul><ul><li>10.Training requirement of workers </li></ul><ul><li>11.Specific policies of organisation regarding personnel & production aspects </li></ul>
  16. 16. Production planning categories <ul><li>1. Routing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>3. Loading </li></ul>
  17. 17. Part C Find A Job Do you know the following career words? Accountant Architect Agent Ambassador Announcer Attendant Butcher Carpenter Coach Conductor Correspondent Critic
  18. 18. Minister Operator Physician Politician Priest Senator Spokesman Statesman surgeon Editor Fireman Gardener Housewife Interpreter Maid Mechanic Miner
  19. 19. Do you know the organization of a company? Board of directors Chief director Manager Share-holders Manager assistant Production department Sales department Personnel department Public relations department
  20. 20. Pair work : 1.In what ways can you get informed of available job vacancies? Read newspapers Visit a careers office Contact friends, relatives Surf the internet
  21. 21. 2. What qualifications may give you advantages in your seek of a career? Good academic records Wide interests Certificates of CET Certificates of computer tests Prizes and rewards won at university
  22. 22. 3. How can you enhance your opportunities of success at job interview ? Dress yourself suitably Show confidence Exhibit competence Highlight your potential Demonstrate a pleasant personality
  23. 23. 4. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction ? How important is each factor for you? Number them in order of importance, starting with 1 = the most important. A high salary Good promotion prospects An pleasant, friendly working atmosphere A secure job A long holiday Individual freedom (self-employed) Lots of perks e.g. a company car, travel expenses
  24. 24. <ul><li>While Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the six questions in Page 130 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Close your book and work in groups of three or four to write a summary of the passage within 150 words. The following words and expressions may give you some suggestion. Some groups will have to read their summary in the class later. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Find a Job In the past—companies—compete—recruit—at present—graduate—strong competition—career experts—highlight—stages—secure a career—recognize—academic qualification—abilities and skills—opportunities available—presentation—balance—succeed
  26. 26. Part A “New Century” Careers
  27. 27. <ul><li>Warm-up </li></ul><ul><li>Students work in pairs to ask and answer the following questions.Make some comments about each member’s answers </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your idea of a good job? Give your reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Would you prefer to work in an office or outdoors? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you prefer to work for someone else or be self-employed? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Would you rather have a secure job with a lower salary or a job with less security but a higher salary? Give your reasons. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>While Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Read Para.1-10 and complete the following outline with information you get from the passage. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1.Features of the “New Century” careers 1) There is no ______ employment, instead, there are temporary, contract and consultant jobs. 2) ______ no longer guarantees a high- paying job. 3) ______ are in greater demand than generalists.
  30. 30. 4) Employment opportunities in the new, private, ______ sector are created. 5) ______ are the trend of the business.
  31. 31. <ul><li>2. The qualifications today’s teenagers need to adjust to the constantly changing work environment </li></ul><ul><li>They need ______ vision and ______ skills. </li></ul><ul><li>2) They need optimism, spontaneity and an understanding of ______ </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>II. Read Para.11-12 carefully and then discuss the following questions in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Why has the trend for “new century” careers been towards small business? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the two factors that lead to American businesses’ specialized trend? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why are people willing to work with nonprofit organizations? </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Answers for reference </li></ul><ul><li>Because small businesses favor innovation and enjoy more flexibility and higher speed. </li></ul><ul><li>2. One is the increased use of computers and machines and the other is the possibility to produce goods more cheaply in foreign countries. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Because they can realize their value of life there/they can create their own livelihood. </li></ul>
  34. 34. III. Word Study Students will work in groups of three or four to write down the words they have learnt from the text according to the definition given below. The first group to finish the work is the winner.
  35. 35. To show, suggest, demonstrate Effect , influence To continue to do something, though it is difficult To promise that something will happen Feeling safe, confident, certain about a situation able to be found or got Continuously moving or changing Indicate Impact Persist Guarantee Secure Available Dynamic
  36. 36. Being the only one of its kind Continuing to exist all the time Intended to be used for only a limited period of time To succeed, achieve Not to notice, to ignore A general tendency in the way a situation is changing Of the mind Unique Permanent Temporary Accomplish Overlook Trend Mental
  37. 37. available  adj. <ul><li>1. able or ready to be obtained, used or bought e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>  More information becomes available through the use of the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>I'm sorry, those overcoats are not available in your color and size . </li></ul><ul><li>2. (of people) free to be seen, talked to </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. The lawyer is not available now. </li></ul><ul><li>availability n. </li></ul>
  38. 38. secure adj. <ul><li>1. not likely to be lost or to fail, certain; protected, safe </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Computers can be made far more secure than any bank vault. </li></ul><ul><li>2. firmly fixed, not likely to fall; reliable </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Is that door secure ? </li></ul><ul><li>syn. safe, sure, solid </li></ul><ul><li>  security  n. </li></ul>
  39. 39. secure v. <ul><li>1. to make something safe, protected </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Our missiles and bombers secure us from attack. </li></ul><ul><li>2. to fix something firmly, to fasten </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Secure all the doors and windows before leaving. </li></ul><ul><li>       A plastic box was secured to the wall by screws. </li></ul>
  40. 40. guarantee n. <ul><li>1. something that assures a particular outcome or condition </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Blue skies are not a guarantee of continuing fine weather. </li></ul><ul><li>   2. a statement by the maker of something that it will work well and a promise to repair it if it goes wrong within a certain period of time </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. We have a one-year guarantee on our new car. </li></ul><ul><li>       Fortunately it's still covered by the manufacturer's guarantee . </li></ul>
  41. 41. guarantee v. <ul><li>1. to make certain; to state that something is true, definite </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Equality does not guarantee happiness in love. </li></ul><ul><li>       The students are not guaranteed jobs when they graduate. </li></ul><ul><li>   2. to assume responsibility for the quality or performance of </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. This company guarantees its clocks for six months. </li></ul><ul><li>       </li></ul>
  42. 42. impact n. & v. <ul><li>the effect or impression of one thing on another; force with which one object hits another </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Her speech made a tremendous impact on everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>      He collapsed under the full impact of the blow. </li></ul><ul><li>v. to have an effect or impact on; to strike forcefully </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. How will this program impact on the local community? </li></ul><ul><li>      The ball impacted against the bat with a loud noise. </li></ul>
  43. 43. result in <ul><li>to have as a result; to end in a particular way  </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Acting before thinking always results in failure. </li></ul><ul><li>     The talks resulted in reducing the number of missile reduction. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>in (great) demand --- much wanted; popular </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Good secretaries are always in demand . </li></ul><ul><li>in addition (to) --- also; as well (as) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. In addition , there was a crop failure in many provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>     We saw a Mickey Mouse cartoon in addition to the cowboy movie. </li></ul>
  45. 45. rather than <ul><li>prep. instead of; in preference to (sb / sth) </li></ul><ul><li>  e.g. Rather than risk breaking up his marriage he told his wife everything. </li></ul><ul><li>       It's management that's at fault rather than the work-force. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Writing Skills: Expression of consequences 1.Forty-hour-a-week jobs are being replaced by temporary, contract or consultant position---- so working as a temporary employee is now the best route to a full-time job. 2. Activities once done by departments within a company or are being accomplished using high-tech alternatives— creating lots of opportunities for business and services in specialty fields.
  47. 47. 3.Specialists are more in demand than generalists--- so good technical skills are increasingly valuable with or without a four-year college degree . 4. Traditional government social service agencies are becoming smaller--- resulting in important employment opportunities in the new, private, nonprofit social sector.
  48. 48. 5. Companies become lean and mean, combing tasks so that one person could now do the work of several. 6. The increased use of computers and machines, and the ability to produce goods more cheaply in foreign countries, led to layoffs of entire classes of workers who had previously worked in mass production. 7. The result was that tasks requiring low skill levels were rarely done in America.
  49. 49. Other ways to express consequences : Therefore, So, As a result, As a consequence, The demand has increased. Accordingly , the prices are higher Consequently, Because of this, Thus, Hence, For this reason,
  50. 50. causes An increase in demand often results in higher prices leads to produces
  51. 51. <ul><li>Translate the following sentences into Chinese: </li></ul><ul><li>Heat causes iron to expand. </li></ul><ul><li>2. There is acid in that battle; therefore, it must be handled very carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The effect of the fluctuation in temperature was to kill the laboratory specimen. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bad labor relations caused the strike. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Delayed treatment often results in prolonged illness. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Role Play <ul><li>Suppose A is the personnel manager in a big company to recruit a secretary/computer programmer/sales manager/a technician while B wants to get one of these jobs. Act out dialogues with the help of questions below. Then switch roles. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Questions <ul><li>Can you tell me something about yourself (life/background/education)? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your work experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you want this job? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your strengths and weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>How are your English and computer skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you work with people of either gender? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Functional Expressions 1 <ul><li>Career description </li></ul><ul><li>My first job was … </li></ul><ul><li>Before I got my present job I … </li></ul><ul><li>After I left school I … </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve been with … for … years. </li></ul><ul><li>I took a course in … </li></ul><ul><li>My ambition is to … </li></ul>
  55. 55. Functional Expressions 2 <ul><li>General inquiries about careers </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been with …? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you taken any courses in …? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you worked in …? </li></ul><ul><li>What positions have you held? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you got any diploma or certificates? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Functional Expressions 3 <ul><li>Questions about ambitions </li></ul><ul><li>How do you see your career developing? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you see your future now? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you see yourself doing in the future? </li></ul>
  57. 57. Assignment <ul><li>Select one passage from Unit 3 Biography , then read it. After you finish reading, reflect on what you’ve learned from this famous person and discuss your own careers plans. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Follow-up activities </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Practice </li></ul><ul><li>1. Your career experience will be different from that of your parents. What do you think will be the most important differences? </li></ul>
  59. 59. 2. In consideration of the features possessed by new century careers, what do you think you should do to prepare yourself for your future work?
  60. 60. Writing Write a composition entitled My Ideal Job . In your writing, you should answer the following three questions: 1.What is your ideal job? 2.Why do you like it? 3.How can you do it well in the future?