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  • 1. Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices
  • 2. Learning Objectives
      • Describe how to select and organize computer hardware components to support information system (IS) objectives and business needs
      • Describe the power, speed, and capacity of central processing and memory devices
      • Describe the access methods, capacity, and portability of secondary storage devices
      • Discuss the speed, functionality, and importance of input and output devices
      • Identify popular classes of computer systems and discuss the role of each
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 3. Why Learn About Hardware?
    • Can improve productivity, increase revenue, reduce costs, and provide better service
    • Managers are expected to know about hardware
      • To help define business needs
      • To ask questions and evaluate options when buying equipment
  • 4. Introduction
    • Hardware: any machinery (most of which use digital circuits) that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system
    • When making hardware decisions, businesses must consider how the hardware can support:
      • Objectives of the information system
      • Goals of the organization
  • 5. Hardware Devices Analogy: A Paper-Based Office Secondary Storage Register Storage Output Primary Storage Input
  • 6. Hardware Components Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 7. Hardware Components in Action
    • Execution of machine-level instruction
      • Phase 1 : Instruction Phase – Fetch and Decode
      • Phase 2 : Execution Phase – Execute and Store
    • I-time: the time taken to perform phase 1
    • E-time: the time taken to perform phase 2
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 8. Hardware Components in Action Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Figure 3.2: Execution of an Instruction
  • 9. Processing and Memory Devices: Power, Speed, and Capacity
    • System unit
      • Houses the components responsible for processing (the CPU and memory)
    • All other computer system devices are linked either directly or indirectly into the system unit housing
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 10. Processing Characteristics and Functions
    • Computer execute an instruction during a machine cycle
    • Completing the instruction and execution phase – make up one machine cycle
    • Machine cycle time is measured in:
      • Nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second)
      • Picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second)
      • MIPS (millions of instructions per second)
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 11. Processing Characteristics and Functions (continued)
    • Clock speed: series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time
      • Often measured in:
        • Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second
        • Gigahertz (GHz): billions of cycles per second
    • Microcode: predefined, elementary circuits and logical operations that the processor performs when it executes an instruction
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 12. Physical Characteristics of the CPU
    • Collection of digital circuits on chips
    • Electrical current flows through silicon – to turn the digital circuit on or off
    • Gordon Moore – former Intel’s chairman hypothesised that progress in chip manufacturing : transistor density of chips will double every 18 months ( Moore’s Law)
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 13. Physical Characteristics of the CPU (continued) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Figure 3.3: Moore’s Law
  • 14. Memory Characteristics and Functions
    • Main memory
      • Located physically close to the CPU, but not on the CPU chip itself
      • Rapidly provides data and instructions to the CPU
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 15. Storage Capacity Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Table 3.1: Computer Storage Units
  • 16. Types of Memory Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Figure 3.4: Basic Types of Memory Chips
  • 17. Types of Memory (Cash Memory) Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Figure 3.5: Cache Memory
  • 18. Multiprocessing
    • Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time
    • Multiprocessing using coprocessors
      • Coprocessor: speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 19. Parallel Computing
    • Parallel computing: simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster
    • Massively parallel processing:
      • Speeds processing by linking hundreds or thousands of processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel
      • Each processor has its own bus, memory, disks, copy of the operating system, and applications
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 20. Parallel Computing (continued)
    • 2 different approaches to achieving parallel computing
      • Single instruction/multiple data (SIMD) parallel processors
      • Multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) parallel processors
    • Grid computing: use of a collection of computers, often owned by multiple individuals or organizations, to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 21. Secondary Storage
    • Permanent storage
    • Compared with memory, offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy
    • Selection of secondary storage : access methods, storage capacities, and portability required - determined by the information system’s objectives
    • Example: credit card company
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 22. Access Methods
    • Two types of access methods
    • Sequential access: records must be retrieved in order in which it’s stored
      • Devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASDs)
    • Direct access: records can be retrieved in any order
      • Devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs)
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 23. Devices
    • Magnetic tapes
    • Magnetic disks
    • Optical disks
    • Digital video disk (DVD)
    • Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD)
    • Memory cards
    • Flash memory
    • RAID
    • Virtual tape
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 24. Magnetic Tapes Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • Sequential secondary storage medium
    • Primarily for storing backups
    • Tapes similar to audio and videocassettes
    • Portion of tapes are magnetized to represent bits
  • 25. Magnetic Disks Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • Direct access storage medium
    • e.g. diskette, hard disks
    • Allows fast data retrieval
  • 26. Optical Disc Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • Data is recorded by special lasers that physically burn pits in the disk.
    • Data accessed – optical disc device (compact disk player)
    • e.g. CD-ROM – 740MB, CD-RW
  • 27. DVD and HVD Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • DVD (Digital Video Disc)
      • Looks like a CD but more storage capacity ~ 135min of digital video.
      • Software, video games, movies
    • HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc)
      • Advanced optical disk – ongoing research
      • Hold 200GB of data
      • Write data 10 times faster than DVD
  • 28. Memory cards Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • Functions as a hard disk drive
    • Portable, relatively easy to use
    • Need to use memory card reader/writer
  • 29. Flash Memory Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
    • A silicon computer chip
    • Keeps its memory when the power is shut off
    • “ Flash” – the memory cell is erased or reprogrammed in a single action or flash
    • e.g. – Migo – keychain device, comes with software that captures files and settings from e-mail, word processing, web browser, presentation programs.
  • 30. RAID and Virtual Tape
    • Storage technologies
    • RAID –
      • Redundant array of independent /inexpensive disks
      • duplicate existing data on drives, provides exact copy, store on different physical disk drives
    • Virtual Tape
      • manages less frequently needed data
      • Move data to less costly storage media
      • Software – virtual tape server
      • Vendor – IBM and Storage Technology
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 31. Enterprise Storage Options
    • Needs to store massive amount of data
    • 3 forms:
      • Attached storage
        • tape, hard disks, optical devices
        • Simple, cost effective - single users and small groups
        • Not allowed share storage
      • Network-attached storage (NAS)
        • Storage devices attach to a network
        • Users can share and access same information
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 32. Enterprise Storage Options (continued)
    • Storage area network (SAN)
      • Special purpose, high speed network
      • Provides direct connections between data-storage devices and computer
      • Integrates different types of storage subsystems
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition Figure 3.9: Storage Area Network (SAN)
  • 33. Input and Output Devices: The Gateway to Computer Systems
    • Through input and output devices, people provide data and instructions to the computer and receive results from it
    • Selection of input and output devices depends on organizational goals and IS objectives
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 34. Characteristics and Functionality
    • Nature of data- data can be human-readable or machine-readable
    • Data entry: converts human-readable data into machine-readable form
    • Data input: transfers machine-readable data into system
    • Source data automation: capturing and editing data where the data is initially created and in a form that can be directly input to a computer
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 35. Input Devices
    • Personal computer input devices
      • Keyboard
      • Mouse
    • Speech-recognition technology
      • Input devices that recognize human speech
      • e.g. automate account identification process
    • Digital cameras
    • Terminals
      • Input and display devices that perform data entry and input at same time
      • Office, warehouse, factory
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 36. Input Devices (continued)
    • Scanning devices
    • Optical data readers
      • Special scanner
      • OMR – standardized tests
      • OCR – convert handwritten to typed doc into digital data
    • Magnetic stripe card
      • Swipe card
    • Point-of-sale (POS) devices
      • Used in retail operations to enter sales
      • information
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 37.
    • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices
      • A system for reading banking data quickly
      • Use special ink readable by people and computers
      • e.g. bank check
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 38. Input Devices (continued)
    • Automated teller machine (ATM) devices
    • Pen input devices
    • Touch-sensitive screens
    • Bar-code scanners
    • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 39. Output Devices
    • Display monitors
    • Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
    • Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)
    • Printers and plotters
    • Digital audio player
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 40. Special-Purpose Input and Output Devices
    • Computer-based navigation systems
      • GPSs (Global positioning system), satellite based radio navigating system
      • Guide to specific destination
    • Multiple function printers
      • Print, copy, fax,scan
    • Eyebud screens
      • Portable media devices
      • Display video in front of one eye
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 41. Computer System Types, Selection, and Upgrading
    • Computer classification:
    • Special-purpose computers: used for limited applications by military and scientific research groups
    • General-purpose computers:
      • used for a wide variety of applications
      • Single user at a time, multiple concurrent users
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 42. Computer System Types
    • Handheld computers – single user, small size, portable
    • Portable computers
    • – laptops, notebooks, tablet
    • Thin client
      • Low-cost, no extra drives, limited capabilities
    • Desktop computers
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 43. Computer System Types (continued)
    • Workstations – more powerful than personal computer, similar size to desktop, heavy mathematical computing, CAD.
    • Servers – to perform special tasks, e.g. running network or Internet application.
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 44. Computer System Types (continued)
    • Mainframe computers – large, powerful computer, shared by hundreds of concurrent users, connected via terminals
    • Supercomputers
      • most powerful computers, fastest processing speed, highest performance.
      • Special purpose machines – weather forecast, military application, simulation of golf club designs.
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 45. Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems
    • Dispose of old equipment properly
    • Consider factors such as speed, cost, and performance when upgrading
      • Hard drive
      • Main memory
      • Printer
      • DVD burners
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 46. Summary
    • Hardware: machinery that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system
    • Hardware components: central processing unit (CPU), input and output devices, communications devices, primary storage devices, and secondary storage devices
    • Random access memory (RAM): temporary and volatile
    • ROM (read-only memory): nonvolatile
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 47. Summary (continued)
    • Multiprocessing: simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time
    • Sequential access: records must be retrieved in order
    • Direct access: records can be retrieved in any order
    • Examples of secondary storage devices: magnetic tapes and disks, DVDs, memory cards, etc.
    • Enterprise storage options: attached storage, network-attached storage (NAS), and storage area network (SAN)
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  • 48. Summary (continued)
    • Examples of input devices: keyboards, mice, voice-recognition devices, terminals, scanning devices, and touch-sensitive screens
    • Examples of output devices: display monitors, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), printers, and plotters
    • Computers can be classified as either special-purpose or general-purpose
    • Computer system types: handheld computers, portable computers, desktop computers, workstations, servers, etc.
    Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition