Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY
Exploratory Research • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem. • Management may have discovered general problems, but research is needed to gain better understanding of the dimensions of the problems • Subsequent research is expected.
Exploratory Research 1. Secondary data (historical data) 2. Experience survey 3. Pilot study 4. Case study
Secondary ( historical ) Data Exploratory Research Pilot Study Experience Survey Case Study
Descriptive Research • Research designed to describe characteristics of a population or a phenomenon; • Descriptive research seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions.
I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are --Rudyard Kipling what, and why, and when, and how, and where and who.”
Causal Research • Research conducted to identify cause-and-effect relationships among variables where the research problem has already been narrowly defined. • The main goal of causal research is identification of cause-and-effect relationships between variables; • In causal studies it is typical to have an expectation of the relationship to be explained, such as predicting the influence the price, packaging, advertising, and the like, on sales.
Degree of Problem Definition Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “ Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “ Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?” possible situation
Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data Study Laboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
The Business Research Process Problem Discovery Exploratory Research Selection of the Basic Research Method Selection of Sample Design Collection of the Data
The Research Process (cont.) Editing and Coding Data Processing Interpretation of the Findings Report