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Brm ch04-business-resrarch-process (3)

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  • 1. Business Research Methods The Business Research Process
  • 2. What you will learn in this chapter
    • To classify business research as either; exploratory research, descriptive research or causal research;
    • To list stages in the business research process;
    • To identify and briefly discuss the various decision alternatives available to the researcher during each stage of the research process.
  • 3. Decision Making
    • Decision making is the process of resolving a problem or choosing among alternative opportunities;
    • The key to decision making is to recognize the nature of the problem/opportunity, to identify how much information is available, and to recognize what information is needed.
  • 4.
    • Continuum of Decision Making
    • Complete certainty Uncertainty Absolute ambiguity
  • 5. Types of Business Research
    • Exploratory
    • Descriptive
    • Causal
  • 6. Uncertainty Influences The Type Of Research COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY
  • 7. Exploratory Research • Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem. • Management may have discovered general problems, but research is needed to gain better understanding of the dimensions of the problems • Subsequent research is expected.
  • 8. Exploratory Research 1. Secondary data (historical data) 2. Experience survey 3. Pilot study 4. Case study
  • 9. Secondary ( historical ) Data Exploratory Research Pilot Study Experience Survey Case Study
  • 10. Exploratory Research Techniques: Two Examples
    • Secondary data (historical data)
      • Previously collected
      • Census of population
      • Literature survey
    • Pilot study
      • A number of diverse techniques
  • 11. Descriptive Research • Research designed to describe characteristics of a population or a phenomenon; • Descriptive research seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions.
  • 12. I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are --Rudyard Kipling what, and why, and when, and how, and where and who.”
  • 13. Causal Research • Research conducted to identify cause-and-effect relationships among variables where the research problem has already been narrowly defined. • The main goal of causal research is identification of cause-and-effect relationships between variables; • In causal studies it is typical to have an expectation of the relationship to be explained, such as predicting the influence the price, packaging, advertising, and the like, on sales.
  • 14. Degree of Problem Definition Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “ Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “ Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?” possible situation
  • 15. Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
  • 16. Research Stages
    • Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas
    • Stages can overlap chronologically
    • Stages are functionally interrelated
      • Forward linkages
      • Backward linkages
  • 17. Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data Study Laboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
  • 18. The Business Research Process Problem Discovery Exploratory Research Selection of the Basic Research Method Selection of Sample Design Collection of the Data
  • 19. The Research Process (cont.) Editing and Coding Data Processing Interpretation of the Findings Report
  • 20. Stages In The Research Process
    • Problem Discovery and Problem Definition
    • Research Design
    • Sampling
    • Data Gathering
    • Data Processing and Analysis
    • Conclusions And Report
  • 21. Problem Discovery And Definition
    • First step
    • Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations
    • Discovery before definition
    • Problem means management problem
  • 22. “ The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution” Albert Einstein
  • 23. Hypothesis
    • A statement
    • that can be refuted
    • by empirical data
  • 24. If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there .
  • 25. Research Design
    • Master plan
    • Framework for action
    • Specifies methods and procedures
  • 26. Basic Research Methods
    • Surveys
    • Experiments
    • Secondary data
    • Observation
  • 27. Selecting a Sample POPULATION SAMPLE Sample: subset of a larger population .
  • 28. Sampling
    • Who is to be sampled?
    • How large a sample?
    • How will sample units be selected?
  • 29. Data Gathering Stage
  • 30. Data Processing and Analysis
  • 31. Conclusions and Report Writing
    • Effective communication of the research findings
  • 32. Research Proposal
    • A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study.
    • Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology.
  • 33.