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Estimating Annual Cadmium Load

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Estimating Annual Cadmium Load via Surface Runoff into Songkhla Lake, Thailand

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  1. 1. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Estimating Annual Cadmium Loadvia Surface Runoffinto Songkhla Lake, ThailandKitipan Kitbamroong, Ph. DG.Padmanabhan, Ph. DPenjai Sompongchaiyakul, Ph. D
  2. 2. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Problem Increasing agricultural activities in thecatchments of Songkhla Lake have thepotential to increase cadmium accumulationin the lake. Cadmium was found in the lake sediments Cadmium is common in phosphate rocks Surface runoff and associated sediment floware the major mechanisms of transport ofnon-point source pollutants
  3. 3. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Research Objectives To develop a database for non-point sourcecadmium transport modeling of the LakeBasin from the surrounding drainage area. To carry out a scenarios analysis of thecadmium transport to the lake from thesurrounding drainage areas to assistenvironmental decision makers.
  4. 4. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Methodology A spatially distributed cell-based model isproposed. Data to be assembled from local sources onlanduse, soils, fertilizers, and practices. Meaningful scenarios will be constructed For each scenario, the model runs will beanalyzed. Results will be presented to the decisionmakers.
  5. 5. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Non-Point Source Models Available models: MIKE SHE SWAT BASINS TREX AnnAGNPS Criteria Predominant land use: agricultural Data input requirements: local Integration with GIS: Arcview Metals transport
  6. 6. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Model and Scenarios Used Non point source pollution modeling ofcadmium TREX (Two-dimenstional Runoff, Erosion, andeXport model) ScenariosThree scenarios were tested: Significant increase and decrease of fertilizerusage. Change in types of fertilizer applied. Change in the application rate of fertilizer forcertain crops.
  7. 7. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013TREX Two-dimensional Runoff, Erosion, and Exportmodel is a generalized rainfall-runoff watershedmodel with a framework for modeling sedimentand contaminant transport. Based on the CASC2D watershed model withchemical transport and fate processes from theUSEPA WASP and IPX series of stream waterquality models Three main components 1) hydrology2)sediment transport, and 3 chemical transportand fate
  8. 8. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013TREX
  9. 9. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Research Activities Flow DiagramModelSourceMgt ToolsSFAPre-ProcessingPost-ProcessingGIS
  10. 10. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013GIS The acquired information was compiled in aGeographical Information System (GIS) –ArcView. The TREX model was run and the resultpresented within ArcView. Pre-processing of data and post processingof the model results were done in the GISplatform.
  11. 11. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Watershed DelineationFigure 3-7 Steps performed during watershed delineation
  12. 12. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 20138 Watersheds
  13. 13. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Model calibration The model parameters subject to thecalibration were hydraulic conductivity soil erodibility flow resistance crop management factor chemical distribution coefficients.
  14. 14. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Model calibrationChemical distribution coefficients – dependingon metal of interest
  15. 15. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Model calibration Parameters of the model are perturbed untilan acceptable difference between measuredand model-generated output is obtained.
  16. 16. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Model validation The model is run here with the calibratedparameters to compare the performance ofthe model with measured data (Suviboon,2006; Leekpai, 2006).
  17. 17. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Calibration 20 Stations Precipitation runoff Sedimentation Loss Cd content in sediment Relative error between5-20%
  18. 18. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Verification 220 samplingpoints Precipitation runoff Sedimentation Loss Cd content insediment Relative errorbetween 10-30%
  19. 19. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013 hydraulic conductivity
  20. 20. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013 soil erodibility
  21. 21. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013 flow resistance
  22. 22. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013 crop managementfactor
  23. 23. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Cadmium Model Performance Calibration pts Validation pts
  24. 24. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (1.1) Increase Fertilizerusage by 10%
  25. 25. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (1.2) Increase Fertilizerusage by 50%
  26. 26. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (1.3) Decrease usage by10%
  27. 27. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (1.4) Decrease usage by50%
  28. 28. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (2) changing types offertilizer 7.19 mg/kg cadmium  7.27 mg/kg cadmium
  29. 29. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (2) changing types offertilizer
  30. 30. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Scenario Analysis (3) change of crops grownin the area
  31. 31. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Conclusion Substance Flux Analysis 41,745 tons/year of phosphorus, and 273kg/year of cadmium from phosphate fertilizerwere induced into SLB. The stock calculation for phosphorus andcadmium were found to be 248.7 tons/yearand 62.8 tons/year respectively.
  32. 32. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Conclusion TREX Modeling U-Tapao watershed had the highest potential ofphosphorous and cadmium transportation in thesediment runoff. Factors promoting includes; run off – high runoff elevation – steep slope soil erodibility – high erosion organic matter – high pH –acidity crop management – horticultural crops clay – high percentage total metal – high
  33. 33. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Conclusion Scenario Analysis A total of three scenarios were demonstratedand tested in U-Tapao sub watershed. Alone by changing the fertilizer formula, from highto low contaminated cadmium lead towards asignificant decrease of cadmium contribution tothe watershed.
  34. 34. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Acknowledgements Asst. Prof. Dr. Chatchai Ratanachai (PSU) Dr. Manaskorn Rachakornkij (CU) Lecturers and staffs of NRC-EHWM
  35. 35. International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013International Conference on Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management: Towards a Green Economy, Bangkok, Thailand.May 21-23, 2013Q&A
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