III. Quantum Model  of the Atom (p. 98 - 104) Ch. 4 - Electrons in Atoms
A. Electrons as Waves <ul><li>Louis de Broglie  (1924) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied wave-particle theory to e - </li></ul...
A. Electrons as Waves QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS
A. Electrons as Waves EVIDENCE: DIFFRACTION PATTERNS ELECTRONS VISIBLE LIGHT
B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to know both the velocity a...
B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Schrödinger   Wave Equation  (1926) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finite # of solutions    quantized...
B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Orbital  (“electron cloud”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region in space where there is 90% probabil...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Four Quantum Numbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the “address” of each electron in an atom <...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>1. Principal Quantum Number  (  n  ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>2. Angular Momentum Quantum #  (  l  ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy sublevel </li></ul></ul><ul...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>n = # of sublevels per level </li></ul><ul><li>n 2 = # of orbitals per level </li></ul><ul><li>...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>3. Magnetic Quantum Number  (  m l   ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation of orbital </li></ul><...
C. Quantum Numbers p x p y p z
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Orbitals combine to form a spherical shape. </li></ul>2s 2p z 2p y 2p x
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>4. Spin Quantum Number  (  m s   ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron spin    +½ or -½ </li></ul><...
C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Pauli Exclusion Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two electrons in an atom can have the same 4...
Feeling overwhelmed? Read Section 4-2!
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Quantum Pres

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Quantum Pres

  1. 1. III. Quantum Model of the Atom (p. 98 - 104) Ch. 4 - Electrons in Atoms
  2. 2. A. Electrons as Waves <ul><li>Louis de Broglie (1924) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied wave-particle theory to e - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e - exhibit wave properties </li></ul></ul>QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS
  3. 3. A. Electrons as Waves QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS
  4. 4. A. Electrons as Waves EVIDENCE: DIFFRACTION PATTERNS ELECTRONS VISIBLE LIGHT
  5. 5. B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Schrödinger Wave Equation (1926) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finite # of solutions  quantized energy levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defines probability of finding an e - </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. B. Quantum Mechanics <ul><li>Orbital (“electron cloud”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region in space where there is 90% probability of finding an e - </li></ul></ul>Radial Distribution Curve Orbital
  8. 8. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Four Quantum Numbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the “address” of each electron in an atom </li></ul></ul>UPPER LEVEL
  9. 9. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>1. Principal Quantum Number ( n ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the orbital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>n 2 = # of orbitals in the energy level </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>2. Angular Momentum Quantum # ( l ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy sublevel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of the orbital </li></ul></ul>s p d f
  11. 11. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>n = # of sublevels per level </li></ul><ul><li>n 2 = # of orbitals per level </li></ul><ul><li>Sublevel sets: 1 s, 3 p, 5 d, 7 f </li></ul>
  12. 12. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>3. Magnetic Quantum Number ( m l ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation of orbital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies the exact orbital within each sublevel </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. C. Quantum Numbers p x p y p z
  14. 14. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Orbitals combine to form a spherical shape. </li></ul>2s 2p z 2p y 2p x
  15. 15. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>4. Spin Quantum Number ( m s ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron spin  +½ or -½ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An orbital can hold 2 electrons that spin in opposite directions. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. C. Quantum Numbers <ul><li>Pauli Exclusion Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each e - has a unique “address”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Principal #  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Ang. Mom. #  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Magnetic #  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Spin #  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sublevel (s,p,d,f) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>orbital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electron </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Feeling overwhelmed? Read Section 4-2!
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