Agriculture TodayGenetically EngineeredAgricultural Practices Jennifer Kitchen HW220-01 May 24, 2011
Agriculture as We Know It• The production of crops, livestock, or poultry.• The cultivating of land and rearing of crops and livestock.• Farming!
What is Biotechnology?• The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. – Applications include production of; • Pharmaceuticals • Synthetic hormones • Foodstuffs • Fibers • Animal feeds
What is Genetic Engineering?• The science of altering genes to produce a new trait in an organism or to make a biological substance, such as a protein or hormone.• Involves the creation of recombinant DNA, which is then inserted into the genetic material of a cell.• A desired trait from one plant or animal species is isolated and then inserted into another plant or animal species.• Genetically engineered organisms are also known as genetically modified or transgenic.
Pros of GMOs• Sustainability.• Food security.• Increased production yields.• Drought resistant crops.• Crops that use soil nutrients more efficiently.• Crops with higher nutritional content.• Plants that produce pharmaceuticals.• Herbicide tolerant crops.• Pest resistant crops.• Reduced erosion. (Biotechnology Industry Organization, 2010)
Cons of GMOs• Allergic reaction.• Antibiotic resistance.• Loss of nutrition.• Damage to environment.• Gene mutation.• Gene pollution.• Cross-pollination (super-weeds). (Sustainable Table, n.d.)
Who Makes these Foods? Corporations• Monsanto- the makers of Roundup and other herbicides.• DuPont- the makers of a variety of insecticides and herbicides• Dow Chemical Corporation- the makers of chemicals, plastics, oil and gas, and many other modern products. (Monsanto, DuPont, Dow Chemical corporation)
• 4 countries grow 99% of the world’s GM crops…• US (68%)• Argentina (22%)• Canada (6%)• China (3%) (Sustainable Table, 2011). The 3 most common GM foods;o Soybeanso Rapeseedo Sweet corn (Bionet, 2011).
Who Regulates these New Foods?• Food & Drug Administration (FDA).• US Department of Agriculture (USDA).• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (Schlenker & Roth, 2011)
Do You Know What You Are Eating?You may not know if you are eating a product that contains ingredients from a GM source.GM food sources do not require labeling unless the modification; increased the allergenicity reduced the nutrient content (Schlenker & Roth, 2011).
Look for this label…Ingredients change in products all the time.If you do not see the Non-GMO Project label the best thingyou can do is check the ingredients list of the products youbuy.Keep a look out for:• Corn: corn oil, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, corn starch, corn meal• Soy: soy protein, soy lecithin, soy oil, soy sauce, soy isolates• Canola: canola oil• Cotton: cottonseed oil (Center for Food Safety, n.d.)
What Can You Do?• Vote with your fork!• Buy organic!• Demand labeling!• Petition for a GMO-free World!• Look for foods that are labeled GMO free!• Visit – sustanabletable.org – truefoodnow.org – responsibletechnology.org
References• Bionet, (2002). Future Food. Retrieved from http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_cont1.htm .• Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), (2010). Food & Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.bio.org/foodag/ .• Butcher, M. (2009). Genetically Modified Food - GM Foods List and Information. Retrieved from http://www.disabled-world.com/fitness/gm-foods.php .• Center for Food Safety, (n.d.). The True Food Shoppers’ Guide to Avoiding GMOs. Retrieved from http://truefoodnow.org/shoppers-guide/• Dow Chemical Corporation, (2011). Dow website. Retrieved from http://www.dow.com/ .• DuPont, (2011). DuPont website. Retrieved from http://www2.dupont.com/DuPont_Home/en_US/index.html .• Institute for Responsible Technology, (2010). Non-GMO Shopping Guide: How to avoid foods made with genetically modified organisms. Retrieved from http://nongmoshoppingguide.com/Non-GMO-Shopping- Guide.pdf .• Monsanto, (2011). Monsanto website. Retrieved from http://www.monsanto.com/Pages/default.aspx .• Schlenker, E. and Roth, S., (2011). Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Missouri; Elsevier Mosby.• Sustainable Table, (n.d.). The Issues: Genetic Engineering. Retrieved from http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/ge/ .• Pictures from Microsoft Office Program Clipart.• Definitions from http://dictionary.reference.com/ .