Nunan (2010)Listening is the CindereLLa skillin second language learning.It has been overlooked by its eldersister- speaking.
How can these people be good speakerswithout being good listeners?
Richards & Renandya (2010)• Listening skills did not receive priority inlanguage teaching since teaching methodsemphasized “productive skills”.• Some applied linguists argue that“ listening comprehension is at the coreof 2ndlanguage acquisition and demands amuch greater prominence in languageteaching.”
( Rost, 1994; Nunan, 1997)• Listening is the skill that provide input forlearners in language learning and acquisition.• Without understanding the input at the rightlevel, any learning cannot begin.• It’s the fundamental skill to speaking.
Types of Listening1. Listening for the gist:focuses on overall understanding orthe main idea such as an important message2. Listening for specific information:focuses on details such as time, place, name3. Listening for inferences or listening betweenthe lines:focuses on the implied meaning which is notdirectly stated such as the feeling of the speaker,
Language Learning Strategies (Oxford, 2010)- are specific actions, behaviors, steps, ortechniques that students use to improvetheir progress in developing L2 skills- can facilitate the internalization, storage,retrieval or use of the new language.- are tools for the self-directed involvementnecessary for developing communicativeability
Nunan (2010): Listening StrategiesListening strategies are divided into 2 views:1. Bottom-Up Strategy2. Top-down Strategy
Bottom-up Strategy or text based∆ reling on language aspects (sounds,vocab, grammar) or text baseda process of decoding the sounds wehear (from the smallest units tocomplete texts)e.g. listening for specific details,recognizing cognates,recognizing word order patterns
Top-down Strategy: or learner based- focusing on the listener and thinking process- a process of constructing the original meaningof the speaker by…….using incoming sounds as cluesusing background knowledge of the context &situation to interprete.g. listening for main idea, predicting,drawing inferences, summarizing, intentions
Top-down or bottom-up?More effective learners tended to usea more “top-down strategies” in understandingthe message.Less effective learners tended to usea more “bottom up strategies” .(O Malley et al, 1989)
Top-down and bottom-up• It is also called “Interactive Strategy”focusing on both language and thelistener.• Both Top-down and bottom-up strategiesare necessary in developing courses,materials and lessons.Ex. The students not only discriminate thedifferent sounds but also use whatthey already know to understand whatthey hear.
Language Learning Strategy(Oxford 1990)A strategy system contains 6 sets of L2 learningbehavior based on the theory that the learner is “awhole person” using - intellectual resources- social- emotional- physicalnot merely “a cognitive/ metacognitive informationprocessing” machine
6 strategies groups (Oxford,1990):1. Affective Strategy2. Social Strategy3. Metacognitive Strategy4. Memory-related Strategy5. General cognitive Strategy6. Compensatory Strategy
3. Metacognitivee.g. Paying attention, consciouslysearching for practice opportunities,planning for lg. tasks, self-evaluatingprogress, and monitoring errors4. Memory-related Strategye.g. Grouping, imagery, rhyming, movingphysically, structured reviewing
5. General Cognitive Strategye.g. Reasoning, analyzing, summarizing, practicing6. Compensatory Strategye.g. guessing meaning from the context, usinggestures and synonyms to convey meaning
Steps in teaching listening skills• Pre-listeningactivate listener’s background knowledgeand experience• While-listeninglisten for the gist, specific information andinferences• Post-listeningdo activities which are related to thelistening text such as expressing opinionsdoing group discussions, doing role-play
The formats of listening lesson(Field, 2012)• Prelistening• Extensive listening• Preset questions or task• Intensive listening• Language of the recording• Final play
Pre-listening :a brief introductory phaseGoals: to……..set the scenemotivate the learners to listenturn learners’ thinking toward the topicpropose 4 or 5 necessary words
Extensive Listening• first playing of the recording followed by thegeneral questionsGoals: to adjust to the speakers’ voices differenttypes of informationPreset questions or task• check if the learners know ……what tasks they will do• what questions they have to answer
Intensive listeningA second playing of the recording to- obtain answers- Check the accuracy of the answers- Replay the relevant passages where thecomprehension levels are low
Language of the recordingFollow-up activity:■ first playing- replay the sentences containing the unknown words- infer their meanings from the context■ ■ second playing- find the functional language
Final playDone with learners following the tapescript &enable the learners to- deconstruct any sections that the learnersfound difficult to match to work- Provide a long-term reminder
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