The decorated pottery of that time shows the typical cross plan of the Persian gardens.
This style is best seen in Cyrus the Great's garden which was built-in around 500 BCE.
During the reign of Sassanids and under the influence of Zoroastrianism, water was considered an important factor in the art of garden. The greater emphasis was given on ponds and fountains in the garden. During the Arab occupation, gardens were built by taking into consideration aesthetic rules. The best example of this is 'Chahar bagh', with four rivers and four quadrants representing the world. After 18th century, European Garden design began to influence Persia, especially those of France, Russia and United Kingdom. 2 3 1 4 RIVERS
The important Persian garden elements are sunlight, shade, water, buildings.
These elements provide relaxation in different manners such as spiritual, leisurely (e.g. meetings with friends) etc. which is the primary aim of Persian garden which is considered as a paradise on earth.
The Persian gardens often connect internal yard gardens with the surrounding outward gardens.
The most important factor of Persian gardens is to build shade type structures wherever necessary in the garden. This helps to cope with hot climates and keep the atmosphere cool.
These gardens are closed and walled and have very little association with the area outside these walls.
The Persian gardens necessarily have a central water feature or ponds as water is the soul of these gardens. Fountains tend to be more of modern Persian garden design. It is a best way save water and maintain with the original design consisting of a water structure.
The gardens have crisp colours and clean alignments. Intricate mosaic tiles are occasionally used in these gardens.
The garden can be conservative, refined, formal or relaxed and casual. The different garden designs serve different purposes.
Arches play an important role in Persian garden designs. It shows typical Persian architectural theme. These arches are made from stonework or sometimes wooden support which can be made appear as original.
Symmetry is very important in these designs. The matching or mirroring elements can give enjoyment and pleasure.