Medieval latin manuscripts least distance of distinct vision
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Medieval latin manuscripts least distance of distinct vision

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For the participants of the Dartmouth meeting

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Medieval latin manuscripts least distance of distinct vision Medieval latin manuscripts least distance of distinct vision Presentation Transcript

  • Least Distance of Distinct Vision:Medieval Latin Manuscript Transmission in a Digital Environment Lucie Dolezalova, Farkas Kiss, Eyal Poleg, Rafał Wójcik
  • Digital Editions and the Visualization of Multilayered Information•  The Least Distance of Distinct Vision is the closest someone with normal vision can comfortably look at something•  Traditional critical editions distort reality by their artificial selectivity, simplification and distance from the material sources•  Coming too close to the sources, variants and iconographic details might weaken our perception of the subject
  • Key Concepts for the Distinct Vision of Multilayer Information in a Text•  Graspability / transparency•  Adjustable focus•  Reader participation / flexibility•  An interoperable environment
  • „Behold this image!(Nota hanc figuram…)
  • Nota hanc figuram… treatise•  21 manuscripts, mostly from Central Europe, mostly monastic, 4 different versions of the image•  Written around 1425-1450, on the basis of an idea described in an art of memory
  • Challenges: - multiple versions of texts and images- multilayered information- let the reader choose between a version of the image & text in onesingle manuscript, and a virtual canvas containing only the notions, andlinked to the surviving 4 images Anime peccantis Death Corporis - Media enim vita in morte - Quotidie morimur. -  Praecisa est velut a texe ordirer, succidit me. - Tela texentis citius mea v - Memento mei deus, quia Biblical reference: Jb 7, 7: Mem et non revertetur oculus meus presciencie In vtroque
  • Using a virtual canvas to navigate between the images and textual variants Iudicium Paradisus•  Mors Infernus
  • Michael de Massa (*ca 1298, †1337) Historia Passionis Jesu ChristiSurviving manuscripts:•  Wrocław (Breslau), StB and UB, cod. I F 589•  Wrocław (Breslau), StB and UB, cod. I F 609•  Wrocław (Breslau), StB and UB, cod. I Q 100•  Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, cod. 215 (as De vita Christi, from Elbing; see: James 1912, 466, Nr. 512) (in Parker on the Web)•  Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, cod. 294b (as Concordia de passione domini, from Elbing; see: James 1912, 450, Nr. 499) (in the Parker on the Web)•  Elbląg (Elbing), StB, cod. Q 75 (ca 1451), ff. 164r-193r, as Passio Christi […] secundum Jacobum de Uitriaco, doctorem in theologia, episcopum et cardinalem, qui composuit ea propter audienciam deuocionem•  Fribourg, UB, L 16 (1466; from Zisterziensabtei Hauterive bei Fribourg), ff. 3r-14r (as Sermo bonus) (here also Angeli pacis by Michael de Massa, ff. 54r-73r•  Gent, UB, cod. 267•  Graz, UB, Ms. 1141 (1474), ff. 200-222•  München, BSB, Clm 6106•  Wien, ÖNB, cod. 1512 (14th century, as an attachment to Expositio super evang. Matth.)• •  This treatise is known also as a part of Expositio super evang. Matth. in following manuscripts:•  Philadelphia, Univ. of Phil., Lat 48•  Prague, UB, cod. X.D.8. (Y.I.4.n.120)
  • Sources, parallel texts and influence•  Michael de Massa: Angeli pacis (ca 1325) Extendit manum suam et arripuit gladium (ca 1330) Historia vitae Jesu Christi (ca 1337)•  Pseudo-Bonaventura: Meditationes vitae Christi (ca 1300)•  Ludolph of Saxony, Vita Christi - 1374•  Ulrich Pinder, Speculum passionis - 1507, 1519 (Nürnberg),•  Baltazar Opec, Żywot Pana Jezu Krysta – 1522 (Wietor), 1522 (Haller and Ungler), 1538 (Wietor) – many editions up to 20th century
  • What is a text?•  Blurred dividing lines between the individual copies (independent, appropriated, rewritten, abbreviated, adjusted) in a complex tradition•  The aim is not to find the dividing lines, but to create an environment in which these blurred interconnections between the surviving versions of the texts can be graphically represented•  Portions of the text move between the versions, later rewritings may contaminate manuscript copies of the earlier texts
  • The social contextualization of a text in a digital environment•  The Parker Library of the Corpus Christi College, Cambridge contains 40 mss. coming the former Brigittine monastery of Elbing (Poland)•  The Parker on the Web allows us to contextualize the place and function of the Passion of Christ in this collection•  Reconstructing a medieval library (intellectual scope, social role, traveling of texts, etc.)
  • TheInterpretations of Hebrew Names (Aaz) •  Biblical Glossary •  Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek words •  Affixed to the vast majoriry of Late Medieval Bibles
  • Primary Secondary hover / hover (over The click primary) / Entry Aaz: Apprehendens vel Neh 11:13 click apprehensio  Et fratres ejus principes  patrum : ducenti quadraginta  duo. Et Amassai filius Azreel,  filius Ahazi, filius  Mosollamoth, filius Emmer, Third hover (over secondary) / click
  • Skeletal Edition     
  • Skeletal Edition Βηθφαγὴ ‫ בית פגי‬Mt 21:1 Lk 19:29      Hovering over an entry reveals Hebrew/Greek/ Aramaic and biblical references (as hyperlink)
  • Hypertext to   online Vulgate / Biblical  image  references  Lk 19:29 Et factum est, cum appropinquasset ad Bethphage et Bethaniam, ad montem qui vocatur Oliveti, misit duos discipulos suos Mt 21:1 Et cum appropinquassent Jerosolymis, et venissent Bethphage ad montem Oliveti; tunc Jesus misit duos discipulos The Entry
  • Biblical References Lk 19:29 Et factum est, cum appropinquasset ad Bethphage et Bethaniam, ad montem qui vocatur Oliveti, misit duos discipulos suos  Mt 21:1 Et cum appropinquassent Jerosolymis, et venissent Bethphage ad  montem Oliveti; tunc Jesus misit duos discipulos    Liber interpretationis [de evangelio Matthaei] Bethfage domus oris vallium vel domus buccae. Syrum est non Hebreum. Quidam putant domum maxillarum vocari. Hypertext to bibliography / Aaron Bethfage domus oris vel domus bucce seu domus vallium aut domus editions maxillarum. Mt 21. Renderings of the Glossary
  •      SERMON John Waldeby (OSA): “..& venissent bethfage” qui interpretatur  domus bucce SERMON Middle English Revision of Odo of Cheriton: And so he came by Betphage, þat is to seye an hous of teerus, SERMON Odo of Cheriton: Betphage interpretatur domus bucce, vel maxillarum Reception of the entry
  • Clicking on a square will open up the full  reference     SERMON Middle English Revision of Odo: And so he came by Betphage, þat is to seye an hous of teerus, from betphanie, þat is buxumnesse, techinge us what weye we schulen wende to þe citee of hevenly pees. First by buxumnesse to do þe wille of God and to kepe hise heestus... And so, fro buxumnesse þat us meke knowlechynge of synne, armen schulden weende by Bethphage, þat is teerus and wepynge, wiþ Criste to þe mounte of Olyvete. [Spencer, Sermon, pp. 640-1]
  • Summarium  Biblicum  (Biblical  Summary)  anonymous  (ascribed  to  Alexander  de  Villa  Dei)  Bible  in  212  verses  most  o;en  called  Biblia  pauperum  in  the  mss.  over  350  mss.  from  14th-­‐15th  centuries  throughout  Europe    Sex  prohibet  peccant  abel  enoch  archa  fit  intrant  egreditur  dormit  variantur  turris  et  abram    loth  reges  credit  fuga  circumcisio  risus    sulphur  rex  ierare  parit  offert  sarra  rebeca    post  geminos  putei  benedicit  scala  sorores    virgas  abscedit  luctatur  gra:a  dina    benon  gens  esau  vendunt  thamar  impia  tres  tres    preficitur  veniunt  redeunt  post  tris:a  noscunt    omne  genus  quintam  languet  benedic:o  ioseph.    
  • Ms. München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek clm. 23799 (XV), f. 74v-75r
  • Ms.  Kremsmünster, •   Stiftsbibliothek, 167(XV), f. 1r
  • Ms. Melk, Stiftsbibliothek, 1793 (XV), f. 235v-236r
  • •     Ms. Mainz, Stadtbibliothek, I 570(XV), f. 3r
  • Prague, Strahov monastery, DB III 13, Old Testament, Bohemia, 2/3 15th c., f. 9v-10r
  • Ms. SanktGallen,Stiftsbibliothek 972b (XV),p. 3
  • •     Ms.  Wien,  Österreichische  NaLonalbibliothek,  Pal.  4535  ,  (from  1402),    f.  186r  
  • Ms. Oxford, Bodleian Library,Marshall 86 (1/2 XV), f. 100r
  • Prague, National Library,XVIII B 18Bohemia 1441f. 1r
  • Prague,  NaLonal  Library,  I  A  41,    (1468-­‐77),  fol.  169r        two  sets  of  glosses  for  many  keywords  
  • Prague, National Library,XI A 14,Bible from Bohemia1417-1436f. 8rBook of Ester,originally only 1 line,2 lines added below
  • Challenges    • Page  composiLon:  main  text  –  order  -­‐  gloss  –  biblical  reference  –  addiLons  &  correcLons  (contemporary  and  later)  –  combinaLon  with  other  tools  –  layout  –  verse  • Contents:  biblical  reference,  correcLon  and  corrupLon,  number  and  order  of  chapters  • Manuscript  context:  links  to  other  texts  (such  as  the  Bible)  it  is  transmi[ed  with;  other  mnemonic  tools  –  how  do  the  text  interrelate?  • Social  and  historical  context:    place  and  Lme  of  composiLon,  scribes,  environment  (monastery,  university),  use  –  if  recoverable      
  • Reality  =  conLnuum  with  arLficial  cuts  for  the  sake  of  communicaLon    Too  far        =  too  much  simplificaLon    Too  near  =  no  pa[erns  discerned,  no  conclusions  possible    Variety  of  Distances  of  Dis/nct  Vision    –  flexible,  mulLple,  adjustable    –  no  allusion  of  the  one  correct    Use  the  new  digital  tools  to  go  beyond  the  criLcal  ediLon    Yet,  encoding  already  includes  interpretaLon  in  the  way  presentaLon  imposes  a  perspecLve  on  the  reader/viewer    Thus,  all  these  remain  selecLve  and  random  glimpses  of  “reality”  
  • Least Distance of Distinct Vision  Too  far        =  too  much  simplificaLon  Too  near  =  no  pa[erns  discerned,  no  conclusions  possible  Reality  =  conLnuum  with  arLficial  cuts  for  the  sake  of  communicaLon    Variety  of  Distances  of  Dis/nct  Vision    –  flexible,  mulLple,  adjustable    –  no  illusion  of  the  one  correct  view    Encoding  already  includes  interpretaLon  in  the  way  presentaLon  imposes  a  perspecLve  on  the  reader/viewer    Use  the  new  digital  tools  to  go  beyond  the  criLcal  ediLon