Traking And positioning of mobile in telecomunication network
TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF
MOBILE SYSTEM IN
Ms. Krishna Ghanva
Prof. Bhumika Bhatt
Department of Computer Engineering
SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF
T ABL E I: D etai l s of th e P r og r ess T ec h ni c al
Topics Covered, broadly
Need of mobile tracking
Mobile positioning Techniques
Location tracking curve method
Advantages & Disadvantages of mobile tracking
Blocking of mobile tracking
D ecl ar ati on
I hereby declare that the work being presented in this
Seminar Report entitled “Tracking And Positioning Of Mobile
System In Telecomunication Network ” by GHANVA KRISHNA
Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology, Surat; is an
authentic record of my own work carried out during the period of
5th semester 2013-2014 under the supervision of Bhumika Bhatt.
Neither the source code there in, nor the content of the
seminar report have been copied or downloaded from any other
source. I understand that my result grades would be revoked if
later it is found to be so.
I also declare that I have read all the instructions given
The Table-I above, must show the details of all of your work through out the semester.
Please take out two hard copies of this report: One - Department, Two - Your own, unless
otherwise stated by the Guide.
Please ensure that the signatures of the members of the entire evaluation committee are
taken without fail, after your seminar presentation.
IT IS ABSOLUTELY MANDATORY THAT THE HARD COPY OF THIS REPORT IS
HANDED OVER TO THE CONCERNED PERSONS IN THE DEPARTMENT AT LEAST
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Do not delete these instructions – let them be as it is in the final seminar report, too.
D e p a r t m e n t o f C om p u t e r E n g i n e e r i n g
SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND
T E C HN O L O G Y , S U R A T
T h i s i s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e S e m i n a r R e p o r t e n t i t l e d Tracking And
submitted by Ms. Ghanva Krishna Dineshkumar (Enrollment No:
110420107023) is approved.
Prof. Bhumika Bhatt
H e a d , D e p a r t m e n t o f C om p u t e r E n g i n e e r i n g
Prof. Keyur Rana
Date:16 th September,2013
Here I would like to extend my heartfull thanks to the following
persons to their sincere help and co-operation during the
seminar presentation without whose help this report would
never been compoleted.
Much credit and heart full thanks are owned to Prof.
Bhumika Bhatt and HOD of computer engineering department
for encouraging and allowing me to present the topic
SYSTEMS IN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS” at
the seminar held at our department premises for the partial
fulfillment of the requirement leading to the award of bachelor
degree in engineering. Also would like to express my deep
sense of gratitude and thanks to all the faculty members of
Computer engineering, Department of SCET for their kind
Last but not least I would like to extend a special word
to thanks to all well wishes for giving me a helping hand
whenever needed and for making the seminar a grand success.
Tracking and positioning of mobile in telecomunication has
become an important area of research, for emergency as well
as for commercial services. Mobile positioning in cellular
networks will provide several services such as, locating stolen
mobiles, emergency calls, different billing tariffs depending on
where the call is originated, and methods to predict the user
movement inside a region. The evolution to location-dependent
services and applications in wireless systems continues to
require the development of more accurate and reliable mobile
positioning technologies. The major challenge to accurate
location estimation is in creating techniques that yield
acceptable performance when the direct path from the
transmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the
Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) problem, and it is known to be a
major source of error since it systematically causes mobile to
appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually
is, thereby increasing the positioning error.
In this paper, we present a simple method for mobile telephone
tracking and positioning with high accuracy. Through this we
will discuss some technology used for mobile positioning and
Table of Contents
1.1 Mobile Tracking
1.2 Mobile Postioning
1.3 Introduction To Mobile Technology
2.0 Need For Mobile Tracking…………………..
3.1 Mobile (Hadset)Based Postioning
Global Postioning System(GPS)
3.2 Direction Based Postioning
Angel Of Arrival Method (AOA)
3.3 Distance Based Positioning
Time Of Arrival Method (TOA)
Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA)
4.3 Determination of location tracking curve
4.4 Refrence circle selection
5.1 How to block cell phone tracking
Advantages & Disadvantages of Mobile
7.0 Future Work And
List of Figures
Configuration of a typical mobile telecommunication network.
Global Postioning System (GPS)
Angle Of Arrival (AOA)
Illustrates a typical TOA method for locating a MT
Illustrates the TDOA method of locating a mobile telephone.
Illustrates a proposed method for mobile telephone location.
Illustrates the determination of location tracking curve.
Illustrates the positioning of mobile by the proposed method.
Mobile phone trcking refers to the attaining of the
current position of a mobile phone, stationary or moving.
Localization may ocuur either via multilateration of radio
signals between (several) radio towers of the network and
the phone, or simply via GPS. To locate the phone using
multilateration of radio signals,ti must emit at least the
roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower, but
the process does not require an active call.
Mobile positioning refers to technology used by
telecommunication companies to approximate the location
of a mobile phone.
1.3 Introduction To Mobile Technology
Fig 1.1 Configuration of a typical mobile telecommunication
As shown in Fig 1.1, the mobile telecommunication
network includes a several base stations (BSs) T 1 to T N for
providing mobile telecommunication service to a mobile
subscriber through a mobile telephone M1, a base station
controller (BSC) for controlling the BSs T 1 to T N, and a
mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) for connecting the
BSC to another BTS or a PSTN (Public Switched Telephone
In a cellular mobile telecommunication network, the
whole service area is divided into a several coverage areas
having respective base stations (BS). Each BS coverage area is
called a "cell." Each BS is provided with a frequency of a range
between 450 to900 MHz. More than one cells can use same
frequency. Only condition is that two adjacent cells must have
different frequencies. An MTSO controls these BSs so that a
subscriber can continue his call without interruption while
moving between different cells. The MTSO can reduce the time
required for calling a subscriber by locating the cell of the
subscriber. In case of an emergency like a fire, or a patient
needing first aid treatment, the mobile subscriber should be
“Tracking the location of a mobile subscriber within the
boundary of a cell in a mobile telecommunication network is
known as "location based services.”
Mobile technology includes mainly two functions. They
are call fixing and hands-off process. All the BSs are sending a
signal of power 25 to 30w to the mobile unit. When a user
switches ON his mobile, it will search for the strongest signal
and got connected to that BS. Then the mobile unit sends an
identification signal to the BS. When he fixes a call, the BS
accepts the request and sends the request to the BSC and
MTSO. Then the MTSO will searches where the subscriber is
and connects the call.
When a user moves to another cell the MTSO will change the
frequency allotted to it and allots the frequency of the new
BS.For both these processes GEOLOCATION (Postioning) of
the mobile unit is essential.
2. Need For Mobile Tracking
Recent demands from new applications require
positioning capabilities of mobile telephones or other devices.
The ability to obtain the geo-location of the Mobile Telephone
(MT) in the cellular system allows the network operators to
facilitate new services to the mobile users. The most immediate
motivation for the cellular system to provide Mobile Telephone
position is enhanced in accident emergency services. The
positioning of the mobile user could provide services like
Emergency service for subscriber safety.
Tracking criminal and stolen mobile
Location based services
Location sensitive billing.
Cellular Fraud detection.
Intelligent transport system services.
Efficient and effective network performance and
3. Postioning Techniques
Postioning technique Classified based on where the data is
Mobile (Handset) based postioning
Direction based postioning
Distance based postioning
3.1 Mobile based postioning :
There is two types of mobile based postioning :
1. Global postioning system (GPS)
2. Cell identity
3.1.1 Global Postioning System (GPS)
A mobile telephone can be located by a mobile
telephone itself or through a mobile telecommunication
network. To locate the mobile telephone by itself, the mobile
telephone is provided with a GPS receiver to calculate its
location in latitude and longitude coordinates based on the
location information received from a satellite through the GPS
A method called Trilateration is used to find the exact location
of a mobile.
Trilateration takes the known distances from three
different object and finds out where you are w.r.t objects.
Intersection of three circles gives the exact position of the
mobile as show in the subsequent fig
Fig 3.1 Trilateration
Fig.3.2 Global positioning system
Disadvantage of GPS based postioning:
Increases the price and the size of the mobile
The load on the mobile telephone is increased.
Power consumption is high.
3.1.2 Cell identity
Most simplistic and cost-effective way to provide
position information. Simply determines which cell of wireless
network the device is using.Since BS for each cell is fixed, ell
identity can easily translated into the location of a mobile user.
Gives the general location of where the user is but not the exact
The ways to improve the accuracy of cell identity is by
dividing the cell into sectors (either 120 degree or 60 degree),
there by reducing the total area of a possible location.
Fig. 3.3 Cell Identity
3.2 Direction Based Positioning
3.2.1 Angle Of Arrival (AOA)
This method calculates the angle of arrival of signal
receiving at the BS. When a mobile user switches the system
ON it receives the signal from different base stations, may be 3
or 4 or more. The angle of arrival method two or more base
station for the determination. It measures the direction of signal
falling on the base station and measures the angle of incidence
with respect to a normal and determines the position of the
Fig 3.4 Angle Of Arrival
Angle of arrival method is not an accurate method used for the
mobile positioning because of its some disadvantages such as:
• The determination of the system will be in error if
the angle of incidence is
changed due to any
obstacle like atmospheric particles or due to scattering etc.
• The accurate location cannot be determined if the
mobile user is in between the BSs, that is in a straight
• It cannot be used for the indoor environments.
The accuracy of the method can be increased by increasing the
number of the base stations used for determination. The
direction based mobile positioning is not used commonly now a
day. It is replaced by the distance based mobile positioning
3.3. Distance Based Mobile Positioning
In the case that the mobile telephone network locates the
mobile telephone, at least three base stations (BSs) receive a
signal from the mobile telephone; calculate the distances
between the Base Stations and the mobile telephone, using the
arrival time of the signals at the BSs, then determine the
location of the mobile telephone using the trigonometry.
This location service is provided generally by a location
data processor included in a base station controller (BSC). Upon
a request for service about the location of a specific mobile
subscriber, the BSC selects the three adjacent BSs surrounding
the mobile telephone for use in the location service, and these
selected BSs are ready for communication with the mobile
3.3.1. Time Of Arrival (TOA)
The TOA method calculates the distance of a mobile
telephone and a BS based on the Time Of Arrival of a signal
transmitted from the mobile telephone at the BS. It is assumed that
the mobile telephone is located at the intersection point of three
circles having the radius of the distances between the BSs and the
The distance is calculated by the following equation :
Ri = C τi = sqrt ( (xi – X ) 2 + (yi – Y) 2 )
Where,C – Propagation speed of
τi – propagation of time
from the MT to ith BS,
Xi, yi -- location of ith base
X, Y – mobile position.
Fig. 3.5 illustrates a typical TOA method for locating a MT
As shown in Fig 3.5, three circles C1, C2, and C3, whose
radii are the distance between the mobile telephone M1 and at least
three BSs T1, T2, and T3, are overlapped across an area. The
mobile telephone M1 is located in the overlap area.
One approach to locating the mobile telephone M1 in the
overlap area 1 is to use a common chord, as shown in Fig 3.5
When at least three circles C1, C2, and C3 are overlapped over an
area without meeting at one point, the mobile telephone M1 is
considered to exist at the intersection point of three common
chords L1, L2, and L3. The TOA method using the common chord
is not very accurate in locating the mobile telephone except in the
case where the mobile telephone is at an approximate equal
distance from the selected BSs and in a similar propagation
environment to each respective BS.
3.2.2. Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA)
The TDOA method assumes that the TDOAs of a signal
transmitted from the mobile telephone at the three BSs define a
set of points on a hyperbola, and the mobile telephone is located
at the intersection point of at least three hyperbolas.
The implementation requires accurate synchronization
of each BS.
The signal of the mobile telephone often travels a
longer path to a BS due to the multi-path fading
characteristic and the Non- Line Of Sight (NLOS)
In this method, three circles or hyperbolas do not
meet at one point but overlap each other over an area.
Fig 3.6, illustrates the TDOA method of locating a mobile
In the case that a first mobile telephone M1 is nearer to
the first BS T1, as shown in Fig 3.6, the procedure will be
described by a way of example.
In Fig 3.6, two circles C11 and C21 are drawn based on
the TOAs of a signal transmitted from the first mobile telephone
M1 at the first and the second BSs T1 and T2. A first common
chord L1 is defined by the intersection between the circles C11
and C21. But if the path between the first mobile telephone M1
and the second BS T2 is in an NLOS condition and the path
between the first mobile telephone M1 and the first BS T1 is in
a line-of-sight (LOS) condition, the common chord L1 is
positioned far left from the actual location of the mobile
The effect is the same in the opposite case.If the path
between the first mobile telephone M1 and the second BS T2 is
in the LOS condition and the path between the first mobile
telephone M1 and the first BS T1 is in the NLOS condition, the
common chord L1 is also far right from the actual location of
the mobile telephone M1. In this method using a common chord
involves a huge location error unless the paths between the
mobile telephone and each BS have the same propagation
4. Location Tracking Curve Method
The method proposed by us for tracking the location of a
mobile telephone using curves connecting the points where
circles intersect one another, the circles radii being the distances
between BSs and the mobile telephone. The steps involved are:
Fig 4.1 Flowchart showing the steps involved in locating a
a. Each base station nearer to a mobile telephone receives a
predetermined signal from the mobile telephone and
calculates the distance between the mobile telephone
and the base station and the variances of time arrival of
the signal at the base station;
A circle is drawn to have a radius being the distance
and the coordinates of the base station being the center
of the circle;
A pair of the first and the second base stations is
selected among the base stations. A several location
tracking curves connecting two intersection points
between the selected circles corresponding to the first
and the second base stations are drawn. One of the
location tracking curves is selected using the variances
of the first and the second base stations;
The steps c. and d. are repeated for the other pairs of the
e. The intersection points are obtained among the location
tracking curves selected in step d. and e. and,
f. The location of the mobile telephone is determined
using the coordinates of the intersection points obtained
in step e.
When a location service is requested about a specific
mobile telephone by a user or a network, the location data
processor draws two circles C1 and C2 with their respective
centers set at BSs T1 and T2 based on the TOAs of a signal
transmitted from the corresponding mobile telephone M1 or M2
to the two BSs T1 and T2 located near the mobile telephone M1
or M2. The two circles C1 and C2 define a common chord L1.
Fig 4.2 illustrates a proposed method for mobile telephone
However, if each mobile telephone M1 or M2 is placed
in a different propagation environment with respect to the BSs
T1 and T2, the location of the mobile telephone M1 or M2 can
not be determined by the common chord L1. Therefore, we use
location tracking curves TR1 and TR2 connecting the same two
intersection points P1 and P2 of the two circles C1 and C2,
instead of the common chord L1.
The two curves TR1 and TR2 have their middle points
intersecting the line ST, which connects the positions of the two
BSs T1 and T2 and the parts of two circles C1 and C2 drawn to
connect the two intersection points P1 and P2. Instead of the
common chord L1, the location data processor uses the curve
TR1 for the mobile telephone M1 and the curve TR2 for the
mobile telephone M2. It prevents the location error caused by
the multi-path fading or the NLOS path characteristics.
4.3 Determination of the location tracking curve
The BS with smaller variances should be selected to
draw reference circles based on the variances.
Fig 4.3 illustrates the determination of location
From Fig 4.3, assuming that the first and the second
BSs T1 and T2 selected for use in the location tracking are
present at positions (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), respectively, in the
second-dimensional coordinates, the location data processor
draws the two circles C1 and C2 with the coordinates (x1, y1)
and (x2, y2) of the two BSs T1 and T2 at their centers The
curve connects the two points P1 and P2 at which the two
circles C1 and C2 intersect each other. The coordinates of the
intersection points P1 and P2 are (xA, yA) and (xB, yB),
Since the mobile telephone is near the first BS T1 with respect
to the common chord L1, the variances of the TOAs of a signal
transmitted from the mobile telephone at the first BS T1 will be
larger than those of the signal at the second BS. Therefore,
reference circles TR1 to TR4 are drawn with respect to the
second BS T2 with smaller variances, as shown in Figure 4.3.
The coordinates of the reference circle can be obtained (using
minimum variance) which has its center on the line ST passing
through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) and passes through (xA, yA) and
(xB, yB). Selecting the center of the reference circle is
significant as the mobile telephone is located on the reference
circle. The location data processor selects the desired curves
(reference circles) with respect to the several BSs selected for
location tracking. In Figure 6, as the real location of the mobile
telephone deviates farther from the circle C2 with the second
BS T2 at its center, the center of a reference circle is farther
from the location of the second BS T2. That is, the center of a
desired reference circle is farther from the second BS T2 in the
case of a third mobile telephone M3 (curve C3) than in the case
of a fourth mobile telephone M4.
4.4 Reference circle selection
The variances of the TOAs of a signal which arrives at
the two BSs T1 and T2 from different paths are used to find the
curve on which the actual location of the mobile telephone is
determined. If the TOAs of the signal at the first BS T1 from N
propagation paths are t1, t2, . . . , tN, the first BS T1 calculates
the variances σ of t1, t2, . . . , tN. The location data processor
compares the variances calculated by the first BS T1 with the
variances calculated by the second BS T2 and considers that the
mobile telephone is near to that BS with the larger variances
(the first BS T2 in Fig 4.3). Hence, the reference circle has its
center near to the BS with the smaller variances (the second BS
T2 in Fig 4.3) on the line ST.With the larger variances, the
center of a reference circle gets farther to the right from the
center of the second BS T2. In order to select the desired curve,
the location data processor initializes the reference circles with
predetermined radii and the variances of TOAs of a signal
transmitted from the mobile telephone located on the reference
circles, and compare the preset variances with real variance
The location data processor sets a several reference
circles based on the distances between the mobile telephone and
the BS with the smaller variances(the second BS T2) In Fig 4.3,
as an example, the first to the fourth reference circles TR1 to
TR4 have radii twice, three times, four times, and five times,
respectively, of that of BS T2, where all these points of
reference circles TR1 and TR4 are located along the line ST
The variances of the second BS T2 smaller than those of the
first BS T1 are used as a criterion for selecting an optimal
Therefore, the location data processor predetermines the
reference variances for the first to the fourth reference circles
TR1 to TR4 to be compared with respect to the second BS T1.
It is assumed in the following description that σ 1, σ 2, and σ 3
are reference variances and σ 1< σ 2< σ 3
The location data processor compares the variances
calculated by the two BSs T1 and T2 and selects the base
station with smaller variances as a reference point to draw the
reference circle. If the selected variances (those of the second
BS T2) are σ, the location data processor compares the selected
variances σ, with the preset reference variances σ 1, σ 2, and σ
If σ <= σ 1, the curve of the first reference
circles TR1 is selected.
If σ 1 < σ <= σ 2, the curve of the TR2 is
If σ 2 < σ <= σ 3, the curve of the TR3 is
If σ 3 < σ, the curve of the fourth reference
circles TR4 is selected.
As we have seen, the location data processor selects the optimal
curve (reference circle) for the two BSs among the several BSs,
and selects another optimal circle for another BS pair, and so
When curves are selected for all selected BS pairs, the location
data processor obtains the intersection points among the
selected curves as shown in Figure 4.4. However, as the
selected curves do not intersect at one point due to the multipath fading or the NLOS effects, the midpoint of these
intersection points is determined as the location of the mobile
Fig 4.4 illustrates the positioning of mobile by the proposed
As the three intersection points M1 (xA, yA), M2 (xB,
yB), and M3 (xC, yC) are defined by the three curves TR1 to
TR3, the location data processor considers the mobile telephone
to be located at (x, y). While the three BSs are selected for the
location service using the TOAs of a signal arrived at each BS
from a mobile telephone has been described in the embodiment
of the present invention, more BSs can be used to increase the
accuracy in locating the exact position of the mobile station. If
Nth intersection points are defined by location tracking curves
obtained according to the present invention and an i th
intersection point is at (xi, yi), coordinates (x, y) indicate the
location of the mobile telephone.
After the location of the mobile telephone, that is, the
intersection points among the curves are obtained, the location
data processor represents the intersection points in the latitude
and the longitude coordinates and transmits the position
coordinates to the network (BS/BSC/MSC) and the mobile
5.Blocking Of Cell Phone Tracking
5.1 How To Block Cell Phone Tracking
Many cell phone users don’t know that their phones are
inherently traceable due to advances in GPS and cellular
technology.To many this is a welcome safety feature for
emergencies, but there is also a growing concern among those
who value privacy in everyday life. Your best bet is to be
educated about how you can be traced and to be very familiar
with the capabilities and features of your phone.
Choose “E911″ in the “location” menu on your phone.
On some phones you may need to enable privacy mode
instead. These settings will allow GPS tracking only in
response to a 911 call, which is required by law. Menus
are different on all phones so you may need to consult
the owner’s manual if you cannot find location settings.
Check for physical GPS tracking devices that may be
attached to your phone. Look under the battery, in the
battery compartment, and on the outside of the phone.
Remove anything that did not come in the original
sealed box or that you did not attach yourself.
Remove any tracking software that is installed on your
handset. If anyone has ever had your phone for even a
few minutes, he may have installed a third-party
application that allows your phone to be tracked.
Research any programs that you cannot identify.
Contact your cellular phone company and inquire about
any tracking or monitoring features that have been
enabled on your account. Remove those features if there
are any and set a new password to prevent unauthorized
Remove the battery from your phone. This is the only
way to guarantee the phone is untraceable. Cell phone
towers can still triangulate your position to some degree
when the phone is on, and “roving bug” software can
make your phone a surveillance device even when the
power is off.
6. advantages and disadvantages of mobile
With modern technology it’s now possible to do many
things on mobile phones and smart phones. Apart from the
obvious convenience of being able to call colleagues and friends
whilst on the move, smartphones can also be vital tools for use
in business and commerce. But did you know that your
smartphone’s built-in GPS receiver can also help you stay safe,
avoid getting lost and find your way to that crucial meeting on
By using a combination of GPS data and mobile mast
triangulation, your current location can be established wherever
your phone is capable of receiving a signal. Mobile-tracking
technology increases the chances of finding someone quickly.
Most cell phones contain GPS technology, which can establish
a person's whereabouts by calculating the location, speed and
time of his cell-phone signal. Children with cell phones that
include GPS technology and location services can thus be
located quickly. Concealed GPS devices can assist with locating
runaway teens. They also provide a more reliable service due to
their concealed nature. While a teenager aware of his cell
phone's GPS device can turn the service off, with a concealed
location device, the teen is unaware the device is present.
when a business issues mobile phones to its
employees, it can use the tracking information from
the phones to see where its workers spend time while
out on the job. Phone-tracking services for businesses
can also offer additional features, like the ability to
display a warning when an employee drives faster
than the legal speed limit; a feature that has proved of
value to transportation and delivery companies.
By using information gathered from a phone’s
GPS receiver and by working with the phone provider
to determine the device’s position relative to nearby
mobile mast, it is possible for the police force and fire
and ambulance services to be able to find lost and
missing persons even when you don’t know where
you are or have been injured.
Colleague and friend tracking:
some mobile phones have tracking features
that may enhance both your business and social life.
“Find My Friends” – a downloadable application for
the iPhone, is an example of such a service that
displays on a map dots that represent your friend’s or
colleague’s location, allowing you to find each other
even in crowded places.
mobile phone-tracking makes it possible for
parents to know where their children are at all times.
Some vendors sell phones with embedded software
that periodically sends data on the phone’s current
location to a central server via the mobile network. By
logging in to the service online parents can view their
child’s current location and track where they have
been previously. This might be especially important if
you can track that they have been to potentially
This is the principle drawback or disadvantage
of mobile phone-tracking. It has been argued that
using geo-location information is an invasion of
privacy. Mobile phone companies have the ability to
exploit the information and get an extraordinary
insight into the private lives of their mobile
customers. But is phone-tracking really an invasion of
personal privacy? Well, every mobile user has the
ability to disable casual location-tracking applications
like ‘Find my Friends’ so that is not an issue:
however, this tracking information remains available
to phone providers and emergency services.
7. Future Work And Conclusion
In the future its thought that as technology progresses so will
the ability to track cell phones, trace people and spy on people
even more. The saying 'big brother is watching you' has never
been so true.
March 13, 2013 - Biometrics Research Group, Inc.
expects that technologies that track eye and gesture movements
will play a large role in future mobile applications and devices.
According to a recent New York Times report, the newest
smartphone from Samsung will have an eye-tracking feature
that will allow its users to scroll down a page without having to
touch the screen.
The Future: New Formats, New Features
the search engines and device manufacturers are testing a
variety of new approaches to mobile search, each of which has
advantages and drawbacks for marketers when compared to
traditional search marketing strengths.
While this solution keeps the strength of real-time
intent, the results the user receives after her search are
problematic. Many voice search tools simply deliver the
user to a mobile search results page
Google Now uses your account data, location
history, and past searches to predict what you'd like to know
- weather, traffic on your route home, good restaurants when
you're traveling - and then proactively provides this
information. While these results are well-targeted, their
usefulness as marketing tools is more limited than
traditional search, as they remove the key expressed need
(via a search query) and "moment of truth" intent that makes
search marketing so effective.
New secondary signals:
The new Moto X phone's "Moto Assist" feature is a
great example of this approach, which uses constantly
tracked secondary signals to infer what the user is doing and
The classic format of typing a query and reviewing a
SERP(Society For Elimination Of Rural Poverty) is going to
seem very quaint within the next few years. Smart advertisers
won't just build a mobile search strategy for today's formats they'll pay close attention to how their customers are searching
and interacting with their mobile devices to ensure they're
present for every opportunity to respond to their customer's
Our proposal is advantageous in that the location of a
mobile telephone can be accurately tracked even in the multipath fading and the NLOS environment, by using more accurate
tracking curves connecting the intersection points among circles
with the radii being the distances between corresponding BSs
and the mobile telephone in a cellular mobile communication
system. We have described about accurate positioning of mobile
telephones, which can be used for several applications. The
important considerations to be undertaken while selecting a
implementation cost, reliability, increasing functionality
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