Integrated Service Digital Network

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Integrated Service Digital Network

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. WAN Connection Types There are three types of Wan Connectivity : • Dedicated Lines • Circuit Switching • Packet Switching 2
  3. 3. Dedicated Lines • Used for shorter to medium distances and for longer connectivity. • Private line • Bandwidth is fixed • Line is 24hrs up • Whether used or not billing is done • eg: Leased Lines 3
  4. 4. Circuit Switching • Used for medium to longer distances and for shorter connectivity. • Bandwidth is fixed • Billing Depends upon the Usage • eg: ISDN , PSTN (Dial Up connections) 4
  5. 5. Packet Switching • Used for medium to longer distances and for longer connectivity. • Bandwidth is shared • eg: Frame-Relay 5
  6. 6. Encapsulation PPP • Point to Point Protocol • Open Standard HDLC • High level Data link Control • Vendor proprietary Protocol (works with Protocol (works with same and different same company Router company Routers i.e. only, i.e. Cisco-Cisco, Cisco–Nortel, Cisco– Nortel-Nortel, etc.) Multicom. • Supports Authentication • Supports Compression • No Support for Authentication • No Support for Compression 6
  7. 7. PPP Authentication In PPP two types of Authentication : • PAP - Password Authentication Protocol • 2 Way Handshaking protocol • Username and password are sent in clear text • No Security • CHAP- Challenge Handshake Authentication protocol • 3 Way Handshaking protocol • Username is sent in clear text and Password in encrypted form • Secure 7
  8. 8. Public Switched Telephone Network • Analog Signal • Maximum Speed of 33 to 40 Kbps • Call Establishment is Slower (minimum 1 minute) • Terminated at the PSTN Switch at the Exchange • Supports Single service at a time. 8
  9. 9. Integrated Services Digital Network • Digital Signal • Minimum Speed for 128 Kbps • Call Establishment is faster (within 2 sec) • Terminated at the ISDN Switch at the Exchange • Supports Multiple services at a time. 9
  10. 10. ISDN Types • BRI – Basic Rate Interface - (2B + 1D) channels - Each channel 64 kbps - B channel used for data transmission - D Channel used for signaling(16kbps) - (2* 64) + (1 * 16) = 144kbps - B stands for Bearer - D stands for Delta 10
  11. 11. ISDN Types • PRI – Primary Rate Interface 2 Standards : European Standard (E1) - 30B + 1D channels - (30*64) + (1*64) = 2.048Mbps US Standard (T1) - 23B + 1D channels - (23*64) + ( 1*64) = 1.544Mbps 11
  12. 12. ISDN Connectivity for Home PC INTERNET 2 wires(Copper) RJ-45 Connector NT1 TELCO ISDN SWITCH Analog Fax S/T Cable U-Line PC TA RJ-11 Connector 12 Analog Phone
  13. 13. ISDN Connectivity for Office INTERNET 2 wires(Copper) RJ-45 Connector BRI0 NT1 TELCO U-Line E0 192.168.20.150 S/T Cable ISDN SWITCH ISDN Compatible Phone (Digital) LAN - 192.168.20.0/24 13
  14. 14. Network Address Translation • Translates Private addresses to Public and Public addresses to Private. • Allows Communication from the private world to the public world and not vice versa. • Used for internet sharing 14
  15. 15. Dial on Demand Routing • Connection is Automated. • Established whenever a request comes to the router and disconnected based on the Idle-Timeout • Default idle-timeout is 120sec • All these configurations are to be made on the router’s bri interface. • Interesting Traffic is identified using Dialer List 15
  16. 16. ISDN for Internet Configuration 1. BRI interface configurations 2. Authentication 3. Dialer commands 4. ISDN Switch Type 5. NAT 6. Access-List 7. Routing 8. Miscellaneous Commands 9. Troubleshooting commands 16
  17. 17. ISDN for Internet Configuration INTERNET 2 wires(Copper) RJ-45 Connector BRI0 NT1 TELCO U-Line E0 192.168.20.150 S/T Cable ISDN SWITCH LAN - 192.168.20.0/24 17
  18. 18. ISDN for Site to Site Configuration 1. BRI interface configurations 2. Dialer commands 3. ISDN Switch Type 4. Access-List 5. Routing 18
  19. 19. ISDN for Site to Site Configuration HYDERABAD OFFICE Tel: 777777 Tel: 555555 NT1 NT1 BRI0 10.0.0.1 E0 192.168.1.150 CHENNAI OFFICE BRI0 10.0.0.2 E0 192.168.2.150 TELCO LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.20.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to ISDN Router 1. Configuring BRI interface 1. Configuring BRI interface ================================ Router(config)#interface bri <no> Router(config)#interface bri <no> User Access Verification Router(config-if)#ip address negotiated Router(config-if)#ip address negotiated password : **** Router(config-if)#no shutdown 2. Authentication Configuration 2. Authentication Configuration Router(config-if)#no shutdown ISDN> enable Router(config-if)#ppp authentication{ppp|hdlc} Router(config-if)#encapsulation pap chap callin Router(config-if)#ppp authentication{ppp|hdlc} pap chap callin password : **** Router(config-if)#encapsulation Router(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username <username> Router(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username <username> ISDN# configure terminal password <password> password <password> Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config-if)#ppp chap hostname <username> Router(config-if)#ppp chap hostname <username> ISDN(config)# interface bri 0 Router(config-if)#ppp chap password <password> Router(config-if)#ppp chap ISDN(config-if)# ip address negotiated password <password> ISDN(config-if)# no shut ISDN(config-if)# encapsulation ppp ISDN(config-if)# ppp authentication pap chap callin ISDN(config-if)# ppp pap sent-username hyd_zoomhyd password zoom123 ISDN(config-if)# ppp chap hostname hyd_zoomhyd ISDN(config-if)# ppp chap password zoom123 21
  22. 22. ISDN(config-if)# dialer string 172225 ISDN(config-if)# dialer idle-timeout 90 ISDN(config-if)# dialer-group 5 ISDN(config-if)# exitDialer Commands Configuration 3. Dialer Commands Configuration 3. ISDN(config)# isdn switch-type basic-net3 Router(config-if)#dialer string <telephone no. of isp> Router(config-if)#dialer 0 ISDN(config)# interface ethernet string <telephone no. of isp> Router(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout <seconds> Router(config-if)#dialer ISDN(config-if)# ip nat inside idle-timeout <seconds> Router(config-if)#dialer-group <group no.> ISDN(config-if)# exitISDN Switch type Configuration 4. ISDN Switch type <group no.> Router(config-if)#dialer-groupConfiguration 4. ISDN(config)# interfaceNATCommands configuration 5. NAT Commands configuration Router(config-if)#exit 5. bri 0 switch-type <switch name> Router(config)#isdn switch-type <switch name> Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#isdn ISDN(config-if)# ip nat outside ethernet <no> Router(config)#interface ethernet <no> Router(config)#interface ISDN(config-if)# exit Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#ip nat list for Germany basic-1tr6 1TR6 switch type for Germany ISDN(config)# ip nat inside source inside10 interface bri 0 overload basic-1tr6 1TR6 switch type Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#exit basic-5ess AT&T 5ESS switch type ISDN(config)# access-list 10 5ESS switch type for the U.S. basic-5ess AT&T permit 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)#interface BRI <no> for the U.S. Router(config)#interface BRI <no> basic-dms100 Northern DMS-100 switch type ISDN(config)# dialer-list 5 protocol ip permit type basic-dms100 Northern DMS-100 switch Router(config-if)#ipswitch type for UK, Europe and Asia Router(config-if)#ipswitch type for UK, Europe and Asia basic-net3 NET3 nat outside ISDN(config)# ip routing basic-net3 Access-list Commands configuration NET3 nat outside 6. Access-listISDN switch configuration Router(config-if)#exit Commands basic-ni National Router(config-if)#exit ISDN switch 0 ISDN(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 bri type basic-ni 6. National type Router(config)#access-list <acl no.>Australia Router(config)#ip nat inside source list <no> Router(config)#access-list <acl no.>Australia basic-ts013 TS013 switch type for <permit/deny> Router(config)#ip nat inside source <permit/deny> ISDN(config)# ip domain-lookupswitch type for list <no> basic-ts013 TS013 <source address> <source wc mask> interface BRI <no> overload Ntt ip name-serverCommands forJapan NTT switchaddress>Japan <source BRI <no> overload interface type Ntt NTT switchtype for <source wc mask> ISDN(config)# 7. Routing Commandsconfiguration 7. Routing 61.0.0.5 configuration ip permit Router(config)#dialer-list <dialer no.> protocol vn3 VN3 and VN4 switch types for France Router(config)#dialer-list switch types for France vn3 VN3 and VN4 ISDN(config)# Router(config)#ip routing <dialer no.> protocol ip permit Router(config)#ip routing Router(config)#ip route <Destination Network ID> Router(config)#ip route <Destination Network ID> 7. Miscellaneous Commands (Default) 7. Miscellaneous Commands (Default) <Destination Subnet address> <Destination Subnet address> Router(config)#ip name-server <ipMask> Router(config)#ip name-server <ipMask> <Exit interface type><interface no> <Exit interface type><interface no> 22
  23. 23. ISDN# show isdn status Global ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 ISDN BRI0 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE Layer 2 Status: TEI = 83, Ces = 1, SAPI = 0, State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 Status: 1 Active Layer 3 Call(s) Activated dsl 0 CCBs = 1 CCB:callid=8001, sapi=0, ces=1, B-chan=1, calltype=DATA The Free Channel Mask: 0x80000002 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 1 ISDN# Layer 1 = ACTIVE Layer 1 = ACTIVE Layer 2 = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 2 = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 = 1 Active Calls Layer 3 = 1 -- Active Calls Implies, all configurations and the connectivity are fine. Implies, all configurations and the connectivity are fine. 23
  24. 24. ISDN# show isdn status Global ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 ISDN BRI0 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 Layer 1 Status: DEACTIVATED Layer 2 Status: TEI = 83, Ces = 1, SAPI = 0, State = TEI_ASSIGNED Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s) Activated dsl 0 CCBs = 0 The Free Channel Mask: 0x80000003 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 0 ISDN# Layer 1 = DEACTIVATED Layer 1 = DEACTIVATED Layer 2 = TEI_ASSIGNED Layer 2 = TEI_ASSIGNED Layer 3 = 0 Active Calls Layer 3 = 0 -- Active Calls Implies, Layer 1 problem Check Physical Connectivity Implies, Layer 1 problem :: Check Physical Connectivity 24
  25. 25. ISDN# show isdn status Global ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 ISDN BRI0 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = basic-net3 Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE Layer 2 Status: Layer 2 NOT Activated Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s) Activated dsl 0 CCBs = 0 The Free Channel Mask: 0x80000003 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 0 ISDN# Layer 1 = ACTIVE Layer 1 = ACTIVE Layer 2 = NOT Activated Layer 2 = NOT Activated Layer 3 = 0 Active Calls Layer 3 = 0 -- Active Calls Implies, Layer 2 problem Check Encapsulation Implies, Layer 2 problem :: Check Encapsulation 25
  26. 26. ISDN# show isdn active ------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN ACTIVE CALLS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Call Type Calling Number Called Number Remote Name Seconds Seconds Seconds Charges Used Left Idle Units ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN# 26
  27. 27. http://www.zoomgroup.com 27
  28. 28. ISDN# show isdn active ------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN ACTIVE CALLS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Call Type Calling Number Called Number Remote Name Seconds Seconds Seconds Charges Used Left Idle Units ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Out 172225 31 59 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN# show isdn history ------------------------------------------------------------------------ISDN CALL HISTORY ------------------------------------------------------------------------History table has a maximum of 100 entries for disconnected calls. History table data is retained for a max of 15 Min for disconnected calls. ------------------------------------------------------------------------Call Calling Called Remote Seconds Seconds Seconds Charges Type Number Number Name Used Left Idle Units ------------------------------------------------------------------------Out 172225 19 0 0 0 Out 23394150 40 0 0 0 Out 27802461 120 0 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ISDN# 28
  29. 29. ISDN# show int bri 0 BRI0 is up, line protocol is up (spoofing) Hardware is BRI Internet address is 61.1.177.179/32 MTU 1500 bytes,BW 64 Kbit,DLY 20000 usec,rely 255/255,load 1/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:15:27 Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: Queueing strategy: weighted fair Output queue: 0/1000/64/0 (size/max total/threshold/drops) Conversations 0/1/16 (active/max active/max total) Reserved Conversations 0/0 (allocated/max allocated) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 303 packets input, 1614 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort 113 packets output, 702 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 12 interface resets 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out 13 carrier transitions 29
  30. 30. ISDN# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is 0.0.0.0 to network 0.0.0.0 C C 192.168.20.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 192.168.7.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 61.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 2 subnets C 61.1.177.182 is directly connected, BRI0 C 61.1.160.82 is directly connected, BRI0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 is directly connected, BRI0 ISDN# ping www.yahoo.com Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms ISDN# 30
  31. 31. ISDN# show ip nat translation Pro Inside global Inside local Outside global Outside local ------------------------------------------------------------------------------udp 61.1.177.179:1041 192.168.20.3:1041 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1043 192.168.20.3:1043 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1044 192.168.20.3:1044 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1048 192.168.20.3:1048 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1052 192.168.20.3:1052 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1054 192.168.20.3:1054 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 udp 61.1.177.179:1057 192.168.20.3:1057 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 tcp 61.1.177.179:1050 192.168.20.3:1050 64.37.246.16:80 64.37.246.16:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1051 192.168.20.3:1051 64.37.246.16:80 64.37.246.16:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1039 192.168.20.3:1039 212.165.130.39:80 212.165.130.39:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1046 192.168.20.3:1046 212.165.130.40:80 212.165.130.40:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1047 192.168.20.3:1047 212.165.130.40:80 212.165.130.40:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1042 192.168.20.3:1042 202.54.124.171:80 202.54.124.171:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1045 192.168.20.3:1045 64.15.251.221:80 64.15.251.221:80 tcp 61.1.177.179:1049 192.168.20.3:1049 64.15.251.221:80 64.15.251.221:80 udp 61.1.177.179:1037 192.168.20.3:1037 61.1.128.5:53 61.1.128.5:53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- ISDN# 31
  32. 32. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.1.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to Hyderabad Router Configuring BRI interface 1. Configuring BRI interface 1. ================================ Router(config)#interface bri <no> Router(config)#interface bri <no> User Access Verification Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> 3. ISDN Switch type Configuration 3. ISDN Switch type Configuration password : **** Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#isdn switch-type <switch name> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#isdn switch-type <switch name> 2. Dialer Commands Configuration Hyderabad> enable 2. Dialer Commands Configuration Router(config-if)#encapsulation {ppp|hdlc} Router(config-if)#encapsulation {ppp|hdlc} password : **** Router(config-if)#dialer string <remote tel no.> Router(config-if)#dialer string <remote tel no.> basic-1tr6 1TR6 switch type for Germany basic-1tr6 1TR6 switch type for Germany Hyderabad# configure terminal Router(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout for the U.S. basic-5ess AT&T 5ESSidle-timeout<seconds> Router(config-if)#dialer switch type for the U.S. basic-5ess AT&T 5ESS line. type <seconds> Enter configuration commands, one perswitch switchwith CNTL/Z. End type basic-dms100 Northern DMS-100 switchno.> Router(config-if)#dialer-group <group no.> basic-dms100 Northern DMS-100 type Router(config-if)#dialer-group 0 Hyderabad(config)# interface briswitch type <groupEurope and Asia basic-net3 NET3 switch typefor UK, Europe and Asia basic-net3 NET3 for UK, Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#exit Hyderabad(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 basic-ni National ISDN switch type basic-ni National ISDN switch type Hyderabad(config-if)# no shut basic-ts013 TS013 switch type for Australia basic-ts013 TS013 switch type for Australia Hyderabad(config-if)# encapsulation hdlc for Japan Ntt NTT switch type for Japan Ntt NTT switch type vn3 VN3 and VN4 switch types for France Hyderabad(config-if)# dialer stringVN4 switch types for France vn3 VN3 and 555555 Hyderabad(config-if)# dialer-group 5 Hyderabad(config-if)# exit Hyderabad(config)# isdn switch-type basic-net3 32
  33. 33. Hyderabad(config)# dialer-list 5 protocol ip permit Hyderabad(config)# ip routing Hyderabad(config)#4. Access-list Commands configuration10.0.0.2 ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 ^ Hyderabad(config)#4. Access-list Commands configuration permit Z Router(config)#dialer-list <dialer no.> protocol ip permit Router(config)#dialer-list <dialer no.> protocol ip Hyderabad# show ip route Codes: C - connected, 5. Routing CommandsRconfiguration S - static, I - IGRP, - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP 5. Routing Commands configuration D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 Router(config)#ip routing N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 - OSPF NSSA external routing Router(config)#ip type 1, E1 Router(config)#ip route <Destination Network ID> EGP - OSPF external type route <Destination Network ID> Router(config)#ip 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default <Destination Subnet Mask> <Destination U - per-user static route, o - ODR Subnet Mask> <Next-hop IP address > <Next-hop IP address > Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0 Hyderabad# 33
  34. 34. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.2.150 Connecting ..... ================================ Welcome to Chennai Router1. Configuring BRI interface 1. Configuring BRI interface ================================ Router(config)#interface bri <no> Router(config)#interface bri <no> User Access Verification Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> 3. ISDN Switch type Configuration 3. ISDN Switch type Configuration password : **** Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#isdn switch-type <switch name> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config)#isdn switch-type <switch name> 2. Dialer Commands Configuration Chennai> enable Router(config-if)#encapsulation {ppp|hdlc} 2. Dialer Commands Configuration Router(config-if)#encapsulation {ppp|hdlc} password : **** Router(config-if)#dialer string <remote tel no.> Router(config-if)#dialer string <remote tel no.> basic-1tr6 1TR6 switch type for Germany basic-1tr6 Chennai# configure terminal 1TR6 switch type for Germany Router(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout for the U.S. basic-5ess AT&T 5ESS switch type for the U.S. Router(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout<seconds> basic-5ess AT&T 5ESS line. type <seconds> Enter configuration commands, one perswitch switchwith CNTL/Z. End type basic-dms100 Northern DMS-100 switchno.> Router(config-if)#dialer-group <group no.> basic-dms100 bri 0 Northern DMS-100 type Router(config-if)#dialer-group Chennai(config)# interface NET3 switch type <groupEurope and Asia basic-net3 for UK, Europe and Asia basic-net3 NET3 switch type for UK, Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#exit Chennai(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 basic-ni National ISDN switch type basic-ni National ISDN switch type Chennai(config-if)# no shutTS013 switch type for Australia basic-ts013 basic-ts013 TS013 switch type for Australia Chennai(config-if)# encapsulation hdlc Ntt NTT switch type for Japan Ntt NTT switch type for Japan vn3 Chennai(config-if)# dialer VN3 and777777 string VN4 switch types for France vn3 VN3 and VN4 switch types for France Chennai(config-if)# dialer-group 5 Chennai(config-if)# exit Chennai(config)# isdn switch-type basic-net3 34
  35. 35. Chennai(config)# dialer-list 5 protocol ip permit Chennai(config)# ip routing Chennai(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1 4. Access-list Commands configuration ^ 4. Access-list Commands configuration Chennai(config)# Z Router(config)#dialer-list <dialer no.> protocol ip permit Chennai# Router(config)#dialer-list <dialer no.> protocol ip permit show ip route Codes: C - connected, 5. Routing CommandsRconfiguration S - static, I - IGRP, - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP 5. Routing Commands configuration D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 Router(config)#ip routing N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 - OSPF NSSA external routing Router(config)#ip type 1, E1 Router(config)#ip route <Destination Network ID> EGP - OSPF external type route <Destination Network ID> Router(config)#ip 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default <Destination Subnet Mask> <Destination U - per-user static route, o - ODR Subnet Mask> <Exit interface/next hop ip address> <Exit interface/next hop ip address> Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.1 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0 Chennai# 35
  36. 36. Hyderabad(config)# dialer-list 5 protocol ip permit Hyderabad(config)# ip routing Hyderabad(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Hyderabad(config)# ^Z Hyderabad# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0 Hyderabad# ping 192.168.2.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Hyderabad# 36
  37. 37. Chennai(config)# dialer-list 5 protocol ip permit Chennai(config)# ip routing Chennai(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1 Chennai(config)# ^Z Chennai# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 S 192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.1 C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, BRI0 Chennai# ping 192.168.1.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Chennai# 37

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