1
E0
192.168.1.150

E0
192.168.3.150

LAN - 192.168.1.0/24

LAN - 192.168.3.0/24

HYDERABAD OFFICE

BANGLORE OFFICE
E0
192.1...
Frame Relay
• Frame Relay is a data link layer
packet-switching protocol that uses digital circuits.
• It is used for medi...
Advantages of Frame Relay

• VCs overcome the scalability problems of
leased lines by providing multiple logical circuits
...
Frame Relay Terminology
• Sub-interfaces
• Uses Shared bandwidth
• Local Management interface(LMI):
– used between the Fra...
Frame Relay Terminology
• Data Link Connection Identifier(DLCI) :
– used to identify each VC on a physical interface
(i.e....
Frame Relay Terminology
• Virtual circuits are of two types:
– Permanent Virtual Circuits – PVCs
– Switched Virtual Circui...
Frame Relay Terminology
• Committed Information Rate(CIR) :
– Average data rate measured over a fixed period
of time that ...
Frame Relay Terminology
• FECN and BECN :
– Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
– Backward Explicit Congestion Notifi...
Frame-Relay - Network Diagram
FRAME-RELAY
SWICH
10.0.0.1/8
S0

HYD

11.0.0.1/8
S0

S1
10.0.0.2/8

E0
192.168.1.150/24

DLC...
Frame-Relay - Network Diagram
FRAME-RELAY
SWICH
10.0.0.1/8
S0

HYD

CHE

E0
192.168.1.150/24
DLCI NO : 100

LAN - 192.168....
12
Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195]
(C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp.
C:> telnet 192.168.1.150
Connecting ......
Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195]
(C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp.
C:> telnet 192.168.3.150
Connecting ......
Configuring Frame-relay Switch
Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] Switch
Configuring Frame-relay
(C) Copyright 198...
Chennai(config)# interface serial 0
Chennai(config-if)# no ip address
Chennai(config-if)# no shut
Chennai(config-if)# enca...
Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE)
DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC...
Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE)
DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL,PVC ...
Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE)
DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL,PVC ...
Banglore# show frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial1 (Frame Relay DTE)
DLCI = 200, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC ...
Chennai# show frame-relay pvc
PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DCE)
DLCI = 200, DLCI USAGE = SWITCHED,PVC...
Hyderabad# show frame-relay map
Serial0 (up): ip 10.0.0.2, dlci 100(0x64,0x1840), dynamic,
broadcast, status defined, acti...
Banglore# show frame-relay map
Serial1 (up): ip 10.0.0.1, dlci 200(0xC8,0x3080), dynamic,
broadcast, status defined, activ...
Chennai# show
Input Intf
Serial0
Serial1
Chennai#

frame-relay
Input Dlci
200
100

route
Output Intf
Serial1
Serial0

Outp...
Hyderabad(config)# no ip routing
Hyderabad(config)# ip routing
Hyderabad(config)# router rip
Hyderabad(config-router)# net...
Banglore(config)# no ip routing
Banglore(config)# ip routing
Banglore(config)# router rip
Banglore(config-router)# network...
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Frame Relay

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This study guide is intended to provide those pursuing the CCNA certification with a framework of what concepts need to be studied. This is not a comprehensive document containing all the secrets of the CCNA, nor is it a “braindump” of questions and answers.

I sincerely hope that this document provides some assistance and clarity in your studies.

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Frame Relay

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. E0 192.168.1.150 E0 192.168.3.150 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 LAN - 192.168.3.0/24 HYDERABAD OFFICE BANGLORE OFFICE E0 192.168.2.150 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24 CHENNAI OFFICE 2
  3. 3. Frame Relay • Frame Relay is a data link layer packet-switching protocol that uses digital circuits. • It is used for medium to longer distances and for longer connectivity. • Leased lines also provide longer connectivity but a physical circuit is used to make connection between 2 sites and the same circuit path is used always. • Frame Relay connections use logical circuits to make connections between 2 sites. These logical circuits are referred to as Virtual Circuits(VCs). • Multiple VCs can exist on the same physical connection. • VCs are Full duplex. 3
  4. 4. Advantages of Frame Relay • VCs overcome the scalability problems of leased lines by providing multiple logical circuits over the same physical connection. • Only one serial interface of a router is needed to handle the VC connections to multiple sites Whereas using leased lines multiple serial interfaces are needed to connect to multiple sites. • VCs provide full connectivity at a much lower price compared to leased lines. 4
  5. 5. Frame Relay Terminology • Sub-interfaces • Uses Shared bandwidth • Local Management interface(LMI): – used between the Frame relay DTE(eg.Router) and the Frame Relay DCE(eg. Frame Relay switch) – Defines how the DTE interacts with the DCE – Locally significant – Provides VCs status information(a keep-alive mechanism) – LMI standards : Cisco, ANSI, Q933a The DTE and DCE must have the same LMI signaling type 5
  6. 6. Frame Relay Terminology • Data Link Connection Identifier(DLCI) : – used to identify each VC on a physical interface (i.e.) Each VC has a unique local address called a DLCI number. – switch will map to the destination depending on the DLCI number – Inverse ARP is used to map DLCIs to next hop addresses. – Mapping can also be done manually. – Its Locally significant. – These numbers are given by the Frame relay service providers, Service providers assign DLCIs in the range of 16 to 1007. 6
  7. 7. Frame Relay Terminology • Virtual circuits are of two types: – Permanent Virtual Circuits – PVCs – Switched Virtual Circuits –SVCs • Permanent Virtual Circuit : – similar to a dedicated leased line , permanent connection. – used when constant data is being generated. • Switched Virtual Circuit : – also called as Semi-permanent virtual circuit – similar to a circuit switched connection where the VC is dynamically built and then torn down once the data has been sent. – used when data has to be sent in small amounts 7 and at periodic intervals.
  8. 8. Frame Relay Terminology • Committed Information Rate(CIR) : – Average data rate measured over a fixed period of time that the carrier guarantees for a VC. – committed bandwidth • Burst Rate(BR) : – Average data rate provider guarantees for a VC. – Excess bandwidth 8
  9. 9. Frame Relay Terminology • FECN and BECN : – Forward Explicit Congestion Notification – Backward Explicit Congestion Notification • When congestion occurs switch marks the FECN and BECN bits in the frame header. • FECN is sent to the destination • BECN is sent to the source • Thereby notifying both source and destination about the congestion. • FECN = 0 and BECN =0 implies no congestion. 9
  10. 10. Frame-Relay - Network Diagram FRAME-RELAY SWICH 10.0.0.1/8 S0 HYD 11.0.0.1/8 S0 S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.1.150/24 DLCI NO : 100 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 CHE S1 11.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 BAN E0 192.168.3.150/2 DLCI NO : 200 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24 LAN - 192.168.3.0/24 10
  11. 11. Frame-Relay - Network Diagram FRAME-RELAY SWICH 10.0.0.1/8 S0 HYD CHE E0 192.168.1.150/24 DLCI NO : 100 LAN - 192.168.1.0/24 S1 10.0.0.2/8 E0 192.168.2.150/24 BAN E0 192.168.3.150/2 DLCI NO : 200 LAN - 192.168.2.0/24 LAN - 192.168.3.0/24 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.1.150 Connecting ..... Configuring Serial interface Configuring Serial interface ================================ Router(config)#interface serial <no> Router(config)#interface serial <no> Welcome to Hyderabad Router Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#ip ================================ address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#no shutdown User Access Verification Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay password : **** Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Hyderabad> enable Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci no> password : **** Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci no> Hyderabad# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Hyderabad(config)# interface serial 0 Hyderabad(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Hyderabad(config-if)# no shut Hyderabad(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Hyderabad(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type cisco Hyderabad(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 100 Hyderabad(config-if)# exit Hyderabad(config)# 13
  14. 14. Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.3.150 Connecting ..... Configuring Serial interface Configuring Serial interface ================================ Router(config)#interface serial <no> Router(config)#interface serial <no> Welcome to Banglore Router Router(config-if)#ip address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#ip ================================ address <address> <mask> Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#no shutdown User Access Verification Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay password : **** Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Banglore> enable Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci no> password : **** Router(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci <dlci no> Banglore# configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Banglore(config)# interface serial 1 Banglore(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 Banglore(config-if)# no shut Banglore(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Banglore(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type cisco Banglore(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 200 Banglore(config-if)# exit Banglore(config)# 14
  15. 15. Configuring Frame-relay Switch Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195] Switch Configuring Frame-relay (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoftserial <no> Router(config)#interface serial <no> Router(config)#interface Corp. C:> telnet 192.168.2.150 Router(config-if)#no ip address Router(config-if)#no ip address Connecting ..... Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#no shutdown ================================ Router(config-if)#clockrate <clock rate> Router(config-if)#clockrate <clock rate> Welcome to Chennai Router Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ================================ Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> User Access Verification Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> password Router(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce Switch : **** Converting Router to intf-type dce Router(config-if)#frame-relay Frame-relay Switch Converting Router to Frame-relay Chennai> enable Router(config-if)#frame-relay switching Router(config)#frame-relay switching Router(config-if)#frame-relayroute <Source dlci no> Router(config)#frame-relay route <Source dlci no> password : **** interface <int type> <int. no> interface <int type> <int. no> Chennai# configure terminal <Destination dlci no> <Destination dlci Enter configuration commands, one per line.no> with CNTL/Z. End Chennai(config)# frame-relay switching Chennai(config)# interface serial 1 Chennai(config-if)# no ip address Chennai(config-if)# no shut Chennai(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay Chennai(config-if)# clockrate 64000 Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type cisco Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type dce Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay route 100 interface serial 0 200 15
  16. 16. Chennai(config)# interface serial 0 Chennai(config-if)# no ip address Chennai(config-if)# no shut Chennai(config-if)# encapsulation Frame-relaySwitch Configuring Frame-relay Switch Configuring frame-relay Chennai(config-if)# clockrate 64000 Router(config)#interface serial <no> Router(config)#interface serial <no> Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay address cisco lmi-type Router(config-if)#no ip address Router(config-if)#no ip intf-type dce Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#no shutdown Chennai(config-if)# frame-relay route 200 interface serial 1 100 Router(config-if)#clockrate <clock rate> Router(config-if)#clockrate <clock rate> Chennai(config-if)# Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Router(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type <lmi type> Router(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce Router(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce Router(config-if)#frame-relay route <Source dlci no> Router(config-if)#frame-relay route <Source dlci no> interface <int type> <int. no> interface <int type> <int. no> <Destination dlci no> <Destination dlci no> 16
  17. 17. Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial0 input pkts 0 output pkts 2 in bytes 0 out bytes 60 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 2 out bcast bytes 60 pvc create time 00:12:03, last time pvc status changed 00:00:20 Hyderabad# PVC STATUS = ACTIVE PVC STATUS = ACTIVE Implies, all configurations and the connectivity are Implies, all configurations and the connectivity are fine. fine. 17
  18. 18. Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL,PVC STATUS = INACTIVE,INTERFACE = Serial0 input pkts 0 output pkts 2 in bytes 0 out bytes 60 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 2 out bcast bytes 60 pvc create time 00:12:03, last time pvc status changed 00:00:20 Hyderabad# PVC STATUS = INACTIVE PVC STATUS = INACTIVE Implies, Configuration or Connectivity Problem with Implies, Configuration or Connectivity Problem with Remote LMI Remote LMI 18
  19. 19. Hyderabad# show frame-relay pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL,PVC STATUS = DELETED,INTERFACE = Serial0 input pkts 0 output pkts 2 in bytes 0 out bytes 60 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 2 out bcast bytes 60 pvc create time 00:12:03, last time pvc status changed 00:00:20 Hyderabad# PVC STATUS = DELETED PVC STATUS = DELETED Implies, Configuration or Connectivity Problem with Implies, Configuration or Connectivity Problem with Local LMI Local LMI 19
  20. 20. Banglore# show frame-relay pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial1 (Frame Relay DTE) DLCI = 200, DLCI USAGE = LOCAL, PVC STATUS = ACTIVE, INTERFACE = Serial1 input pkts 8 output pkts 7 in bytes 570 out bytes 586 dropped pkts 2 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 7 out bcast bytes 586 pvc create time 00:12:26, last time pvc status changed 00:02:06 Banglore# 20
  21. 21. Chennai# show frame-relay pvc PVC Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DCE) DLCI = 200, DLCI USAGE = SWITCHED,PVC STATUS = ACTIVE,INTERFACE = Serial0 input pkts 0 output pkts 0 in bytes 0 out bytes 0 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 pvc create time 00:02:07, last time pvc status changed 00:00:56 Num Pkts Switched 0 PVC Statistics for interface Serial1 (Frame Relay DCE) DLCI = 100, DLCI USAGE = SWITCHED,PVC STATUS = ACTIVE,INTERFACE = Serial1 input pkts 4 output pkts 3 in bytes 186 out bytes 202 dropped pkts 0 in FECN pkts 0 in BECN pkts 0 out FECN pkts 0 out BECN pkts 0 in DE pkts 0 out DE pkts 0 out bcast pkts 0 out bcast bytes 0 pvc create time 00:02:21, last time pvc status changed 00:01:04 Num Pkts Switched 4 Chennai# 21
  22. 22. Hyderabad# show frame-relay map Serial0 (up): ip 10.0.0.2, dlci 100(0x64,0x1840), dynamic, broadcast, status defined, active Hyderabad# 22
  23. 23. Banglore# show frame-relay map Serial1 (up): ip 10.0.0.1, dlci 200(0xC8,0x3080), dynamic, broadcast, status defined, active Banglore# 23
  24. 24. Chennai# show Input Intf Serial0 Serial1 Chennai# frame-relay Input Dlci 200 100 route Output Intf Serial1 Serial0 Output Dlci 100 200 24 Status active active
  25. 25. Hyderabad(config)# no ip routing Hyderabad(config)# ip routing Hyderabad(config)# router rip Hyderabad(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 Hyderabad(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 Hyderabad(config-router)# ^Z Configuring RIP Hyderabad# show ip route Configuring RIP Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP Router(config)# router rip Router(config)# router rip D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, <Network ID> area Router(config-router)# network IA - OSPF inter Router(config-router)# network <Network ID> N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0 C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/1] via 10.0.0.2, 00:00:25, Serial0 Hyderabad# ping 192.168.3.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.3.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Hyderabad# 25
  26. 26. Banglore(config)# no ip routing Banglore(config)# ip routing Banglore(config)# router rip Banglore(config-router)# network 192.168.3.0 Banglore(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 Banglore(config-router)# ^Z Configuring RIP Banglore# show ip route Configuring RIP Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP Router(config)# router rip Router(config)# router rip D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, <Network ID> area Router(config-router)# network IA - OSPF inter Router(config-router)# network <Network ID> N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i- IS-IS, L1-IS-IS level-1, L2-IS-IS level-2,*- candidate default U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial1 R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 10.0.0.1, 00:00:04, Serial1 C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 Banglore# ping 192.168.1.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 40/43/44 ms Banglore# 26
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