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Websphereinterview 100725022705-phpapp02
 

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    Websphereinterview 100725022705-phpapp02 Websphereinterview 100725022705-phpapp02 Document Transcript

    • What is WASà Provides the infrastructure for running applications that run your business.à Common environment and programming model for your applications.àPlatform for developing and Deploying web services and SOA based appsà Secure, Scalable, reliable transaction engine for ERPà IBM WebSphere is architected to enable you to build business-critical applicationsfor the Webà WebSphere includes a wide range of products that help you develop and serveWeb applications.à They are designed to make it easier for clients to build, deploy, and managedynamic Web sites more productivelyà WAS implements J2EE specificationWebSphere Application Server provides the environment to run your Web-enabled e-business applications. An application server functions as Web middleware or a middletier in a three-tier e-business environment. The first tier is the HTTP server thathandles requests from the browser client. The third tier is the business database (forexample, DB2 UDB for iSeries) and the business logic (for example, traditionalbusiness applications, such as order processing). The middle tier is WebSphereApplication Server, which provides a framework for a consistent and architected linkbetween the HTTP requests and the business data and logic.
    • With the Base and Express packages, you are limited to single application serverenvironments. The Network Deployment package allows you to extend thisenvironment to include multiple application servers that are administered from asingle point of control and can be clustered to provide scalability and high availabilityenvironments.The typical application flow is as follows:1. A Web client requests a URL in the browser (input page).2. The request is routed to the Web server over the Internet.3. The Web server immediately passes the request to the Web server plug-in.All requests go to the Web server plug-in first.4. The Web server plug-in examines the URL, verifies the list of host namealiases from which it will accept traffic based on the virtual host information,and chooses a server to handle the request.5. A stream is created. A stream is a connection to the Web container. It ispossible to maintain a connection (stream) over a number of requests. TheWeb container receives the request and, based on the URL, dispatches it tothe proper servlet.6. If the servlet class is not loaded, the dynamic class loader loads the servlet(servlet init(), then doGet() or doPost()).7. JNDI is used for lookup of either datasources or EJBs required by the servlet.8. Depending upon whether a datasource is specified or an EJB is requested,the JNDI directs the servlet:– To the corresponding database and gets a connection from its connection
    • pool in the case of a data source.– To the corresponding EJB container, which then instantiates the EJB whenan EJB is requested.9. If the EJB request involves an SQL transaction, it goes back to the JNDI tolook up the datasource.10.The SQL statement is executed and the retrieved data is sent back either tothe servlet or to the EJB.11.Data beans are created and handed off to JSPs in the case of EJBs.12.The servlet sends data to JSPs.13.The JSP generates the HTML that is sent back through the plug-in to the Webserver.14.The Web server sends the output page (output HTML) to the browser. Functionality of WAS WebSphere Application Server supports asynchronous messaging through the use of a JMS provider and its related messaging system.(JMS 1.1 Messaging Provider) WebSphere Application Server provides authentication and authorization capabilities to secure administrative functions and applications, using LDAP WebSphere Application Server works with a Web server (such as the IBM HTTP Server) to route requests from browsers to the applications that run in WebSphere Application Server. Web server plug-ins are provided for installation with supported Web browsers. The plug-ins direct requests to the appropriate application server and perform workload balancing among servers in a cluster. Web services enable businesses to connect applications to other business applications, deliver business functions to a broader set of clients and partners, interact with marketplaces more efficiently, and create new business models dynamically. Delivers a high performance and extremely scalable transaction engine for dynamic e-business applications PackagingWebSphere Application Server is available in multiple packaging options.WebSphere Application Server - Express V6.0à Single Server environment.(No Clustering or multi server management)à J2EE 1.4 supportàMedium-sized business
    • àContains Rational Web Developer application toolà Doesn’t handle EJB and JCAà Limited to 2 CPU’sWebSphere Application Server V6.1 (Base)àSlightly differs in packaging and licensingà Contains Application Server toolkità Includes a trial version of Rational Application DeveloperàUnlimited CPU’sWebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V6àExtends Base versionàClustering capabilitiesàEdge Components which provide high performance and availability (Caching Proxyand Load Balancer)àHA for distributed configurationsàLarge Enterprise applicationsàScalability, Availability and PerformanceàWeb Server plug-in supports weighted WLMàAll V6 application servers have the same core and base functionalityàWebSphere Application Server - Express V6 node can be upgraded to a WebSphereApplication Server V6 node(.Can be done without any software upgrades .Only apaper license upgrade is required)àWebSphere Application Server- Express V6 and WebSphere Application Server V6node can be federated into a WebSphere Application Server - Network DeploymentV6 cell (Can be done without any software upgrades .Only a paper license upgrade isrequired)Differences b/n WAS VersionWAS 5: J2EE 1.2/1.3 support JDK 1.3 support Web Services based on Apache engineWAS 6.0: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support JDK 1.4 support (JDK 1.4.2) Web Services based on J2EE 1.4 High Availability Manager Java Based Messaging Engine
    • EJB 2.1, JMS 1.1, JCA 1.5, Servlet 2.4, and JSP 2.0 Supports Java Server Faces (JSF) Creates Archive of the existing WAS configurations and the archive canbe used to create new configurations. Profiles and all profiles use same WebSphere binaries(Less storage) Node groups Service integration functionality provides both message-oriented andservice Oriented applicationsWAS 6.1: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support JDK 5.0 support JSF-a framework for Web applications Integrated Console Security changes Secure and Scalable runtimeEdge ComponentsUsing Edge components can reduce Web server congestion, increase contentavailability, and improve Web server performance. As the name indicates, Edgecomponents usually run on machines that are close (in a network configurationsense) to the boundary between an enterprise’s intranet and the Internet.Web containeràA Web container, which processes HTTP requests, servlets, and JavaServer Pages(JSPs)à Web container transport chains:Requests are directed to the Web container using the Web container inboundtransport chain. The chain consists of a TCP inbound channel that provides theconnection to the network, an HTTP inbound channel that serves HTTP 1.0 and 1.1requests, and a Web container channel over which requests for servlets and JSPs aresent to the Web container for processingà Servlet processingWhen handling servlets, the Web container creates a request object and a responseobject, then invokes the servlet service method. The Web container invokes theservlet’s destroy method when appropriate and unloads the servlet, after which theJVM performs garbage collection.à HTML and other static content processingRequests for HTML and other static content that are directed to the Web containerare served by the Web container inbound chain. However, in most cases, using anexternal Web server and Web server plug-in as a front-end to a Web container ismore appropriate for a production environment.
    • _àSession managementSupport is provided for the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession interface as described inthe Servlet application program interface (API) specification._à Web services engineWeb services are provided as a set of APIs in cooperation with the J2EE applications.Web services engines are provided to support Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).EJB ContaineràThe Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container provides all the runtime services that areneeded to deploy and manage enterprise beans. It is a server process that handlesrequests for both session and entity beans.àThe enterprise beans, packaged in EJB modules, installed in an application serverdo not communicate directly with the server. Instead, the EJB container provides aninterface between the enterprise beans and the server. Together, the container andthe server provide the enterprise bean runtime environment.àThe container provides many low-level services, including threading andtransaction support. From an administrative viewpoint, the container manages datastorage and retrieval for the contained enterprise beans. A single container can hostmore than one EJB Java archive (JAR) file.WAS Services J2EE Connector Architecture services Transaction service Dynamic cache service Message listener service Object Request Broker service Administrative service (Java Management Extensions) Diagnostic trace service Debugging service Name service (Java Naming Directory Interface) Performance Monitoring Interface service Security service (JAAS and Java 2 security) Service Integration Bus serviceThe Web server:A Web server handles the HTTP protocol. When the Web server receives an HTTPrequest, it responds with an HTTP response, such as sending back an HTML page. Toprocess a request, a Web server may respond with a static HTML page or image,send a redirect, or delegate the dynamic response generation to some other programsuch as CGI scripts, JSPs (JavaServer Pages), servlets, ASPs (Active Server Pages),server-side JavaScripts, or some other server-side technology. Whatever their
    • purpose, such server-side programs generate a response, most often in HTML, forviewing in a Web browser.Understand that a Web servers delegation model is fairly simple. When a requestcomes into the Web server, the Web server simply passes the request to theprogram best able to handle it. The Web server doesnt provide any functionalitybeyond simply providing an environment in which the server-side program canexecute and pass back the generated responses. The server-side program usuallyprovides for itself such functions as transaction processing, database connectivity,and messaging.While a Web server may not itself support transactions or database connectionpooling, it may employ various strategies for fault tolerance and scalability such asload balancing, caching, and clustering—features oftentimes erroneously assigned asfeatures reserved only for application servers.Eg: Apache HTTP Server, Sun ONE Web Server, iPlanet Web ServerThe application server:As for the application server, according to our definition, an application serverexposes business logic to client applications through various protocols, possiblyincluding HTTP. While a Web server mainly deals with sending HTML for display in aWeb browser, an application server provides access to business logic for use by clientapplication programs. The application program can use this logic just as it would calla method on an object (or a function in the procedural world).Such application server clients can include GUIs (graphical user interface) running ona PC, a Web server, or even other application servers. The information traveling backand forth between an application server and its client is not restricted to simpledisplay markup. Instead, the information is program logic. Since the logic takes theform of data and method calls and not static HTML, the client can employ theexposed business logic however it wants.In most cases, the server exposes this business logic through a component API, suchas the EJB (Enterprise JavaBean) component model found on J2EE (Java 2 Platform,Enterprise Edition) application servers. Moreover, the application server manages itsown resources. Such gate-keeping duties include security, transaction processing,resource pooling, and messaging.Like a Web server, an application server may also employ various scalability andfault-tolerance techniques.Difference between AppServer and a Web server :(1) Webserver serves pages for viewing in web browser, application server providesexposes businness logic for client applications through various protocols
    • (2) Webserver exclusively handles http requests.application server serves bussinesslogic to application programs through any number of protocols.(3) Webserver delegation model is fairly simple,when the request comes into thewebserver,it simply passes the request to the program best able to handle it(Serverside program). It may not support transactions and database connection pooling.(4) Application server is more capable of dynamic behaviour than webserver. We canalso configure application server to work as a webserver.Simply applic! ation serveris a superset of webserver. modules are packaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based onIn J2EE applicationtheir functionality .These files are simply zipped files using java jar tool. Thesefiles are created for different purposes..jar files:JAR files (Java ARchive) allows aggregating many files into one, it is usually used tohold Java classes in a library. i.e. Math.jar These files are with the .jar extension.The .jar files contain the libraries, resources and accessories files like property files..war files:WAR files (Web Application aRchive) stores XML, java classes, and JavaServer pagesfor Web Application purposes. These files are with the .war extension. The war filecontains the web application that can be deployed on the any servlet/jsp container.The .war file contains jsp, html, javascript and other files for necessary for thedevelopment of web applications..ear files:EAR files (Enterprise ARchive) combines JAR and WAR files to make a combinedarchive for Enterprise Applications. The .ear file contains the EJB modules of theapplications
    • 1. Roles & Responsibilities2. Explain your work in your previous environment (Your script)3. What is wsadmin / jacl scripting WSADMIN is a scripting interface (or command-line interface) intoWebSphere Application Server that permits the automation of many different tasksthat we can do using a (web interface) or graphical user admin console. JACL scripting is the scripting language that is supported by theWebSphere Application Server to administer or write any custom-based task. What are the different wsadmin objects. AdminConfig AdminControl AdminApp AdminTask Help How do you invoke wsadmin command Go to the appropriate <profile_home> and type wsdmin. How do you execute a jacl script >wsadmin -f myScript.jacl What did you use wsadmin / jacl scripting for.4. Explain Session affinity: Most servers use the term "Session Affinity" to indicate that within acluster of servers, requests from the same client always get routed back to the sameserver. (or) In a clustered environment, any HTTP requests associated with an HTTPsession must be routed to the same Web application in the same JVM. Session Persistance: You use session persistence to permanently store data from an HTTPsession object to enable failover and load balancing across a cluster of WebSphereApplicaiton Servers. Sessiontracking: Session tracking enables you to track a users progress over multipleservlets or HTML pages, which, by nature, are stateless.How do you set session time out :
    • You can specify an interval of time after which HTTP sessions expire. click Servers > Application servers > server_name > Web containersettings > Session management > Session Timeout What are the different levels at which session timeout can be set application level, web module level, server level5. How do you upgrade WASGUI UpgradeSilent UpgradeLogs files and their paths for both6. Back UpsHow do you take back ups in WAS backupConfig.sh [filename] -nostopWhat is the out put file WebSphereConfig_yyyy-mm-dd.zipHow do you restore back ups restoreConfig.sh <filename.zip> -nostopWhat is the Backup policy in your previous company Incremental Backups every week.7. Explain profiles and what is the equivalent command in WAS 5.x In WAS 5.x ----> wsInstance.sh -name instanceName -pathinstanceLoacation -host hostName -create | delete8. What are the different kinds of sync operations 1. Automatic synchronization. 2. Manual synchronization. 3. Startup synchronization.How do you disable auto sync System Administration > nodeagent > file synchronization service >Uncheck automatic synchronization.What is the default interval for auto sync 60 seconds.9. What are the different UserRoles in WAS 1. Monitor 2. Operator 3. Configurator 4. Administrator
    • 10. Explain JNDI in WAS Each application server hosts a name service that provides a JavaNaming and Directory Interface (JNDI) name space. The service is used to registerresources hosted by the application server. The JNDI implementation in WebSphereApplication Server is built on top of a Common Object Request Broker Architecture(CORBA) naming service (CosNaming). JNDI provides the client-side access to naming and presents theprogramming model that application developers use. CosNaming provides the server-side implementation and is where the name space is actually stored. JNDI essentiallyprovides a client-side wrapper of the name space stored in CosNaming and interactswith the CosNaming server on behalf of the client. Simple Simple name The simple name binding is guaranteed to succeed if lookup is withinthe same server or when connected directly to the name space of the servercontaining the target of the lookup. It can be used in a servlet or EJB, if it is certainthat the object is located on the same application server. Here is an example of asimple name: ejb/webbank/Account Corba Corbaname The corbaname binding is always guaranteed to work. However, itrequires that you know the correct path to the object at deployment time. Here is anexample of a corbaname:corbaname::myhost1:9812/NameServiceServerRoot#ejb/webbank/Account Complex names Compound name/remote/complex Applications that do not run in the same server cannot use simplename lookup because the simple name is not local to the application. Instead, anapplication of this type must look the object up directly from the name server. Eachapplication server contains a name server. System artifacts such as EJB homes arebound relative to the server root context in that name server. The fully qualified(compound name) JNDI name is always guaranteed to work. Here is an example of a compound name: cell/nodes/node1/servers/server1/ejb/webbank/Account When do you use dumpNameSpace.sh Run the dumpNameSpace command against any bootstrap port toget a listing of the names bound with that provider URL.
    • 11. Explain JDBC Connection Pooling Each JDBC data source has a pool of JDBC connections that arecreated when the data source is deployed or at server startup. Applications use aconnection from the pool then return it when finished using the connection.Connection pooling enhances performance by eliminating the costly task of creatingdatabase connections for the application. Each data source that you configure contains a pool of databaseconnections that are created when the data source instance is created-when it isdeployed or targeted, or at server startup. Connection Timeout This value indicates the number of seconds a request for a connectionwaits when there are no connections available in the free pool and no newconnections can be created. Max Connections Specifies the maximum number of physical connections that you can create inthis pool. Min Connections Specifies the minimum number of physical connections that you can create inthis pool. Reap Time Specifies the interval in seconds between runs of pool maintenance thread. Unused Timeout Specifies the interval in seconds after which an idle or unused connection isdiscarded. Aged Timeout Specifies the interval in seconds before a physical connection is discarded. Which one should be the highest and which one should be the lowest in the reap/unused/aged timeouts. Aged timeout should be the highest and Reap timeout should belowest. Purge Policy Specifies how to purge connections when a stale connections or fatalconnection error is detected. What are stale connection exceptions When an application receives a stale connection exception on adatabase operation, it indicates that the connection currently held is no longer valid. (or) Whenever a troubled connection is encountered, astaleConnectionException is raised. (A troubled connection is an inconsitentconnection object in a connection pool)12. Explain the Deployment steps of a J2EE application to WAS
    • 13. How would you go about when a new application comes into urenvironment (resources, settings, heaps etc)14. What is rollover update It is used to rollover the updates to all the cluster members in acluster whenever any changes are made to even one of the cluster member.15. What is ripple start RippleStart combines stopping and starting operations. It first stopsand then restarts each member of the cluster.16. Explain 2 Troubleshooting scenarios17. How would you set up introscope profiles/probes Wilys Introscope is an enterprise application performance monitoringtool. It provides an overview of application and server health and statistics.18. VerboseGC VerboseGC is the logging mechanism implemented by the JVMto diagnose memory/storage problems. Here Garbage collection identifies and freespreviously allocated storage that is no longer in use. An understanding of the waythat the Garbage Collector works will help you to diagnose problems. Verbose logging is intended as the first tool to be used whenattempting to diagnose garbage collector problems; more detailed analysis can beperformed by invoking one or more (trace garbage collector) traces. How do set it up In Admin Console goto Servers > Application Servers > Javaand Process Management > Process Definition > Java Virtual Machine > CheckVerbose Garbage Colletion option. What files have verbosegc information That particular servers (<profile_home>/logs/servername/)native_stderr.log What tool did you use to analyse verbosegc logs GCAnalyzer19. What is process definition. A process definition specifies the run-time characteristics of anapplication server process. A process definition can include characteristics such asJVM settings, standard in, error and output paths, and the user ID and passwordunder which a server runs.
    • What is the effect of changing max heap and min heap size of a jvm Max Heap Size: When you have established the maximumheap size that you need, you might want to set the minimum heap size to the samevalue; Using the same values is not usually a good idea, because it delays the startof garbage collection until the heap is full. The first time that the Garbage Collectorruns, therefore, becomes a very expensive operation. Also, the heap is more likely tobe fragmented and require a heap compaction. Again this is a very expensiveoperation. Min Heap Size: The recommendation is to start yourapplication with the minimum heap size that it needs. When it starts up, theGarbage Collector will run often and, because the heap is small, it runs efficiently. Whats the max heap allowed by AIX Minimum heap size allowed AIX: 4 MB LINUX: 4 MB WINDOWS: 4 MB Maximum heap size allowed AIX: Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and a maximum of512 MB LINUX: Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and amaximum of 512 MB WINDOWS: Half the real (physical or RAM) memory with a minimum of 16 MBand a maximum of 2 GB What are the effects of large initial heap/max heap The time between garbage collections will increase, but the garbagecollection will take longer, which indirectly effects the turn-around-time of theapplicaiton performance. (or) Because it delays the start of garbage collection until the heapis full. The first time that the Garbage Collector runs, therefore, becomes a veryexpensive operation. Also, the heap is more likely to be fragmented and require aheap compaction. Again this is a very expensive operation.20. Heap Dumps/ Core dumps What is a heap dump Heapdump is a JVM facility that generates a dump of all liveobjects that are on the Java heap at a certain point in time; that is, those that are used by the Java application. When the java heap is exhaustedthe JVM will generate a heap dump by default. By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You donot get heapdumps in crashes or through a signal to the JVM. It shows the objects that are using large amounts of memory on the
    • Java heap, and what is preventing them from being collected by the GarbageCollector. What is a core dump/thread dump Java thread dumps provide detailed information about all activeJava threads. It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers. How to generate Heap dump both WAS 5/6 By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You donot get heapdumps in crashes or through a signal to the JVM. In order to manuallygenerate a heapdump, you must first enable signal-based heapdumps by setting theIBM_HEAPDUMP=TRUE and IBM_NOSIGHANDLER=TRUE environmental variablesand through wsadmin follow the below process:>set myheap_dm [$AdminControl queryNames type=JVM,process=server1,*]>$AdminControl invoke $myheap_dm generateHeapDump How to generate core dump/thread dump both WAS 5/6Through wsadmin>set mythread_dm [$AdminControl completeObjectNametype=JVM,process=server1,*]>$AdminControl invoke $mythread_dm dumpThreads Whats the difference between kill -3 command executed on WAS5 JVMs and WAS 6 JVMS kill -3 command generate core dumps. What tools did you use to analyse core dump/thread dump IBM ThreadAnalyzer What tools did you use to analyse heap dumps IBM HeapAnalyzer In what scenarios is a core dump/thread dump useful It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers or hungthread situations or thread deadlock situations. In what scenarios is a heap dump useful It is useful in situations, most notable for memory leakproblems or memory allocation problems for exaple OutOfMemoryExceptions. What are the respective extensions (jdk 1.3 and 1.4) jdk 1.4 heap dump format generates a .phd format21. How do you make a jvm run as a service in windows and why. WASService.exe. The reason we can utilize this service onWindows platform is because the Windows OS automatically starts this servicewhenever the system is up and we can flexibily start and stop the server fromwindows services.
    • 22. What is activity log and how do you view it. These are IBM Service logs which are in binary format, which logsactivity of various WebSphere Application Server components. Log Analyzer is usedto view the activity.log files.23. How do you set up traces. In Admin console Troublshooting > logs and trace > servername >choose Diagnostic trace24. What is a PMR and explain how you worked with IBM on a PMR PMR: Problem Management Record ---- PMR is created wehn a customersubmits a request to fix a software problem via ESR. A PMR number is assigned totrack the request. You can attach files to your PMR to provide the IBM engineer moreinformation to better assist you.ESR: Electronic Service Request --------25. What all parameters did you tune in WAS (other than JDBC connectionpool and heap sizes) We can tune some of these other aspects such as 1. Application server (parameter : ) 2. JVM tunings (parameter : ) 3. Applications (parameter : ) 4. Database (parameter : ) 5. JMS (parameter : ) 6. Security 7. Hardware capacity and settings (parameter : ) 8. Operating System (parameter : ) 9. Web Servers (parameter : )26. What other connection pools do you know in WAS other than JDBCconnection pool J2C connection pool MQ connection pool Thread pool27. How do you enable global security in WAS 1. Configure User registries (it can be custom, LDAP, or localOS) 2. Configure Authentication mechanisms (LTPA) 3. Configure Authorization (if there is any) and then check Enable global security. How do u configure an LDAP 1. In the Deployment Manager Admin Console, select Security -> Global
    • Security > User Registries -> LDAP. 2. Provide the details for the fields in the Configuration panel as listed below: Serverid, Serverpassword, Type, Host, Port, Base DN, Bind DN,Bind password (please get this info from LDAP admin) 3. Click Apply 4. Save the configuration for WebSphere. 5. We need to define the configuration for Global Security in theAdministrative Console. Navigate to Security -> Global Security. 6. "Check" Enable global security option 7. "Uncheck" Enforce Java 2 Security option 8. From the Active User Registry drop-down list select LDAP as the activeuser registry. 9. Click Apply; this will validate the settings. 10. Save the configuration for WebSphere, and then restart the server. How do u configure LTPA Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA > provide the passwordand Apply How do u configure SSO Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA > SSO > checkEnabled option What is the limitation of SSO It is applicable only to a single domain. It cannot span multipledomains. Example: mail.google.com (every resource under google.com can beaccessed) but outside of that domain SSO cannot be applied. How do you make SSO work across multiple cells The LTPA token keys must be exported to the target cell and the LTPAtoken key from the target cell must be imported into the current cell. Does WAS support multiple LDAPs? Yes, from 6.0 version onwards28. What is SSL Secure Socket Layer is the technology to establish securecommunication along with data integrity and encryption over the network or betweenthe nodes (machines)29. Did you ever work with certificates Yes,30. What is the utility that comes with WAS / IHS to manage certificates ikeyman.sh31. What is the defualt key store location for WAS
    • <profile_home>/etc32. How do you change the port number for admin console Logging into the admin console http://<hostname>:<admin_port>/admin ex: http://localhost:9060/admin Without logging into the admin consoleC:WebSphereprofilesdmgrconfigcellsdmgr_cellnodesdmgr_nodeserviceindex.xml (dmgr starts but cannot open the admin console because the port hasnt beenchanged in virtual host xml file) C:WebSphereprofilesdmgrconfigcellsdmgr_cellvirtualhosts.xml33. How do you disable security for Deployment manager without logginginto the console security.xml , enable=false34. If you have to change the ports of a jvm manually without logging intothe admin console which file would you edit. serverindex.xml35. Explain virtual hosts concept A virtual host is a configuration that enable a single host machine toresemble multiple host machine. What are the two virtual hosts that come with WAS installation admin_host, default_host36. What is the plugin configuration file and where is it located The plug-in configuration file (plugin-cfg.xml) contains routing information forall applications mapped from the web server to the application server. How do u regenerate the plugin config file The GenPluginCfg command is used to regenerate the plug-inconfiguration file. Depending on the operating platform, the command is: Linux and Unix: GenPluginCfg.sh Windows: GenPluginCfg.bat When do u regenerate the plugin config file The plug-in configuration file needs to be regenerated and propagatedto the Web servers when there are changes to your WebSphere configuration thataffect how requests are routed from the Web server to the application server. These changes include: _ Installing an application
    • _ Creating or changing a virtual host _ Creating a new server _ Modifying HTTP transport settings (i.e HTTP ports) _ Creating or altering a cluster When do you manually edit the plugin config file When enabling SSL (specifying the key file name), LoadBalanceWeight,and minimum number of connections. What is the information in a plugin config file Plugin config file contains routing information along with informationon virtual hosts , clusters (cluster members), and URIs. When the request comes to a webserver how does the webserver know the JVM that is capable of handling that request. The webserver first takes the request and if it cant serve, itforwards the request to the plugin config file . The plugin config file routes therequest to the appropriate application server (or cluster member or jvm)according to the mapping information it has. What is the refresh interval of plugin. 60 seconds If a change is made to the plugin config should the webserver be restarted? Not Required because the plugins automatic refresh interval is 60seconds.37. What webserver did you work on I have on on IBM HTTP and Apache web servers. What is the configuration file for IHS httpd.conf If changes are made to the config file should the webserver be restarted Yes. The webserver must to restarted so the changes made to the configfile become effective. What changes are made to this config file (automatically) during plugin installation on the webserver The plugins binary module file (.dll) path and the pluginsconfiguration file (plugin-cfg.xml) path will be copied to the httpd.conf fileautomatically.38. What is collector tool The collector tool gathers information about your WebSphere Application
    • Server installation and packages it in a Java archive (JAR) file that you can send toIBM Customer Support to assist in determining and analyzing your problem.Information in the JAR file includes logs, property files, configuration files, operatingsystem and Java data, and the presence and level of each software prerequisite.Collector tool can be run by only root or administrator. Syntax It must be invoked from a temporary work directory >C:IBMWebSphereAppServerbincollector.sh | bat Use It can be used to send it to the IBM Customer Support to assist indetermining and analyzing your problem. Output file The output will a .jar file. For example: node31-dmgr_cell-dmgr_node-dmgr-WASenv.jar39. When on a system there is an existing installation of webspherefederated to the DM. You make one more installation and federate this toanother/same DM. Will it work?? We can federate it to the same DM. This works. If it doesnt, how will you make it work40. What is the difference between horizontal/vertical clustering. Clustering is a mechanism which provides workload management (WLM) andfailover for applications that reside on the application server cluster. Horizontal clustering: For high availability and horizontal scalability. Vertical clustering: For high availability and vertical scalability.Disadvantage: Single point of failure. When would you use them For workload management (WLM) and failover requirements.41. When an application is deployed, where can the application binaries befound In the Applications folder when the application is deployed. Ex:C:IBMWebSphereprofilesdmgrconfigcellsdmgr_cellapplications42. Unix commands43. How do you create a JDBC resource To view this administrative console page, click Resources >JDBC Providers> New.
    • Step 1: Select the database type. Choose a supported database type. Step 2: Select the JDBC provider type. Choose a supported JDBC Providertype. Step 3: Select the implementation type. Choose a supported implementationtype. Step 4: Apply Step5: Now create the required Data Sources To view this administrative console page, click Resources > JDBCProviders > JDBC_provider > Data sources > New44. What is the difference between webserver handling in WAS 5 and 645. New features in WAS 646. What is the pre requisite for syncnode command The nodeagent on the node must be in a stopped state when thiscommand is executed.47. What are the logs in IHS access.log, error.log48. How do you change the log format in IHS In httpd.conf file change the following line to your required parameters----- LogFormat"%t %h %u %m"49. What are the configuration files in IPlanet web server magnus.conf, obj.conf50. What is TAI, and how do you enable it. TAI = Trust Association Interceptor. Trust association is used to connectreversed proxy servers to WebSphere Application Server. (or) Trust association enables the integration of IBM WebSphere ApplicationServer security and third-party security servers. Global Security > LTPA > TrustAssociation > Check Enable trust associationand Apply1) What is the recommended free disk space in /tmp to install WAS.1 GB2) What is the default installation location of WAS in Linux.Opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer
    • 3) What is the default installation location of WAS in Sun Solaris.Opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer4) What is the default installation location of WAS in AIXUsr/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer5) List any 10 parameters in response file-W silentInstallLicenseAcceptance.value="true"-P wasProductBean.installLocation="C:IBMWebSphereAppServer"-OPT disableOSPrereqChecking="true"-OPT installType="installNew"-OPT createProfile="true"-OPT profileType="deploymentManager"-OPT PROF_enableAdminSecurity="true"-W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.nodeName="krishna_node"-W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.hostName="localhost"-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.winServiceQuery="true"-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.accountType="localsystem"-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.startupType="manual"6) Write the complete command to execute a response file.<was-setup>./install –options “<absolute path of response file>” – silent7) Which registry file will get updated after installation of WAS.vpd.properties8) What is the use of SOAP Connector port and what is the default soap port numberfor DMGR profile.Client Applications like wsadmin uses Simple Object Access Protocol andthat is listening to the port 8879. If we want federate a profile by usingSOAP protocol and SOAP connector port number, we can federate a profile.9) What is the default Http transport port number for Application Server profile andwhat is the use.9080, (if ssl was enabled 9443) If we want to invoke applications runningon AppServer we are using HTTP transport port10) What is the default Bootstrap port number in App.Serv profile and what is theuse.2809. To access the EJB’s, JNDI use bootstrap port to obtain initial contextroot.11) Installation was successful and when I am trying to start server it is giving“Invocation Target Exception” why you will get this issue and how you are troubleshooting this issue.May be the problem with hostnames, hostnames are mismatched. Add thehost name in etc/hosts file which you had given at the time of installation.
    • 12) What are different profile templates in WAS 6.0?Dmgr, default and managed13) Write the complete command to create an App.Serv profile through commandline.C:IBMWebSphereAppServerbin>wasprofile.bat -create -profileNameAppSrv04 -profilePath "C:IBMWebSphereAppServerprofilesAppSrv04"-template Path "C:IBMWebSphereAppServerprofileTemplatesdefault"-nodeName app_node04 -cellName cell04 -hostName krishamurthy14) Write a complete command to delete a profile.C:IBMWebSphereAppServerprofilesAppSrv01bin>wasprofile.bat-delete -profileName AppSrv0115) If you get a problem before creating a log’s directory at the time of installation,at that time where you can check the status of installation tmp/log.txt16) What is the difference between managed node and unmanaged nodeManged Node contains node agent, we can administer federated profilesservers and applications from dmgr admin console. For unmanaged the willbe no nodeagent.17) What is the impact for the federated profile servers, if DMGR is down.No impact on servers and applications18) In which xml file, we can change the port numbers.Serverindex.xml19) What is a server.Server provides a runtime environment for your web app’s Or Enterpriseapplications.Server receives user request, process that request and execute that requestand response will be generated to the end users.20) If we stop the nodeagent, what will be the impact for end users.There is no impact for end users21) How to take backup with out stopping servers../backupConfig.sh –nostop22) What are the different user registries under global security in 6.0 and 6.1.Local OS, Custom, LDAP. Federated repository was added in 6.123) What is the necessity of global security?To provide security for the admin console.
    • 24) What is the port number for LDAP server with SSL and without SSL?389 and 63625) How to disable Global Security./wsadmin.sh -conntype NONESecurityoff exit26) How to know how many profiles are available./AppServer/bin>./wasprofile.sh –listProfiles27) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Local OS,Custom and LDAP userregistries?Global Security: In 6.0 we have 3 ways to provide security for adminconsole. 1) Local os user registry. 2) Custom user registry. 3) LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) user registry.a) Custom user registry: Here we have to create two files named: Users. Registry Groups. RegistryWe can create this file any where but we have to configure this absolute path to theapplication servers.b) LDAP: It is a mechanism & not a server. Here we are integrating seperatedirectory servers. if SSL is enabled the port number is 636, if it is not enabled 389. -> In local os user registry we have to create user accounts and that useraccounts have to configure to websphere application servers. where as in the custom user registry specifying user names and passwords ina normal file and we are specifying the absolute path of that file into the websphereapplication server. whenever we are going for LDAP user registry we have to specifyuser id & password & type of directory server, port number (default is 389), if SSL isenabled we have to specify port number as 636 and we have to specify Basedistinguished name which indicates authentication for users and we have to specifyBind distinguished name and Bind password which specify authorization for user andwe have to select "Advanced Light Weight Directory Access Protocol user registrysettings" there we have to specify user filter classes and group filter classes(automatically it will be there) and finally we have to restart the server.28)What is the full form of JDBC.JDBC (java Database Connectivity) is an API (Applicationprogram Interfaces), that isuseful to write a java program to connect any database, and retrieve the data formthe database and utilize the data in the java program.Making a connection to a databaseCreating SQL or MySQL statementsExecuting that SQL or MySQL queries in the databaseViewing & Modifying the resulting records
    • We have 2 types of JDBC drivers in was. Those are Type2(Thick) andType4(Thin/Native Protocol) jdbc drivers.Type2 JDBC drivers require the databaseclient software on the client node to connect to the database server.Type4 JDBCdrivers connect directly to the database server.29) What is the full form of JAR and what a jar file contains?An EJB module which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJBdeployment descriptors are packed as JAR files with .jar extension.30)Write the name of the jar file necessary to configure Oracle 9i & Oracle 10gDatabase.In oracle 10g & 9i We have only one jar file i.e OJDBC14.JAR (for log) & Class12.jar(for 9i) and In DB2 we have 3 or more jar files. i.eDB2JCC.JAR,DB2JCC_LICENSE_C4.JAR, DB2JCC_LICENCE_CIS42.JAR.-> The .jar file is nothing but a collection of .class files. It is necessary tocommunicate with the database. So we should configure this jar files with database.31) What is a connection pool?Connection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and are used bythe different programmers with out creating connections to the database(it meansthere is a ready made connection available for the programmers where he can use).After using the connection he can send back that connection to the connection pool.Number of connections in connection pool may vary.32) What is meant by Federation33) What are the different types of console roles available and explain about eachrole?34) what is your goal and role in was?Goal -a. Goal is to provide infrastructure for the demandsb. goal is to provide stable environmentc. goal is to provide high availabilityd. goal is to provide scalabilitye. goal is to provide 0 downtimeRole-a. involve in infrastructure architecting a.k.a designb. involve in implementing architecturesc. involve in solving infrastructure issuesd. involve in solving application environment issuese. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in providing high availabilityf. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in scaling35) what is incident management?Incident = Issue. Hurdle. Risk. Downtime. Security Breach.Incident Management = Risk Plan. Potential incidents management.36) Do you know how to configure ticketing tool with WAS?
    • This is a meaningless question. You need more information to address this question.Ticketing System - is it part of IBM? Does it fall in Web Sphere Umbrella? Is it anapplication running on WAS? Is it a Web based app? or Java Client?Unless you know these, it’s a blind question.37) when you configure LDAP with application server, if the users are unable toconnect to WAS. How do you trouble shoot this scenario?You don’t trouble shoot, you *troubleshoot*The issue is - U have LDAP, running on Server x. Server y, WAS bind to server x.if a problem occurs, u need to dig like this -A) Ldap up or notB) If yes, can server y reach server x [simple ping or telnet on ldap port]C) If yes - Ur infrastructure is clearD) Any firewall between server y and server x. talk to firewall team, ask them toenable trace between server y and x. any droppage of packets?E. if everything is clean, talk to ldap admin, enable trace on that specific group whoare getting auth errors.F) Look into systemout.log, find out what exactly the error message you get.G) U have to login to admin console and verify the authentication. u can *test* ldapauth from console. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju38) What is the difference between Signed Certificate and Self-signed certificate?Which one you prefer?http://webdesign.about.com/od/ssl/a/signed_v_selfsi.htm39) In Windows 2003 box, an application server process is not responding. How doyou trouble shoot this issue. Even when you are unable to kill the process.*trouble shoot* - On any server, app server freeze - may because of resourcecrunch, or process failing to release a resource, jvm could not complete a specificthread, blablabla.a. do u have enuf rights to kill the process?b. check the processor utilization thru task managerc. kill -3, if not responding, try again, again and againd. verfiy the disk space.e. verify error log and out log.Blabla40) how many types of scripting you have done or you know?such questions cannot be asked in a forum, or its difficult to answer. if i were you, iwud say, perl scripting, php, python, jython, tcl, jacl, ant, shell, blabla. Feb 7 (2days ago)41) when you are on call support when you got a severity 1 ticket, how do you takeaction. Explain in detail.Open the ticket, read the message what the problem is about.login to targeted server(s), check logs, depending on error, propagate first hand infoto stakeholders. sit on the issue, fix it, close it.
    • 42) What is a fix pack, refresh pack and when you will go for fix pack installation andwhen you will go for refresh pack installation?fix pack fixes certain issues.refresh pack is a mile stone for a release.a refresh pack takes you to a release, say6.0.0.1 is a release. if you apply rp2, it becomes a release 6.0.2. if you apply fp35, itbecomes 6.0.2.35, which is not a release. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju43) when you find in a particular server cpu starvation error message what you willdo?whenever there is not enough physical memory available to allow the highavailability manager threads to have consistent runtimes. When the CPU is spendingthe majority of its time trying to load swapped-out processes while processingincoming work, thread starvation might occur.Goto InfoCenter, search for starvation.To achieve good performance and avoid receiving these error messages, it isrecommended that you allocate at least 512 MB of RAM for each Java processrunning on a single machine.High CPU usage in a large cell configuration when security is enabledWith certain configurations and states, the amount of time spent in discoverybecomes substantial.If a large the number of processes are defined within a core group, a proportionallylarge number of connections must be established to support these processes.If a large number of inactive processes are defined within a core group, aproportionally large number of connections are attempted during each discoveryinterval.If global security is enabled, the DCS connections are secured, and the impact ofopening a connection greatly increases .To decrease the CPU time spent in discovery:In the administrative console, click Servers > Core groups > Core groups settings ,and then select the -> DefaultCoreGroup.Under Additional Properties, click Custom properties > New.Enter IBM_CS_UNICAST_DISCOVERY_INTERVAL_SECS in the Name field and 120 inthe Value field.Click OK.Then click New again and enter IBM_CS_SS_SECURE_TOKEN in the Name fieldandfalse in the Value field.Click OK and then Save to apply these changes to the master configuration.Restart the server for these changes to take effect.Transient high availability heartbeat failures und11.If we said to analyze thread dumps can you do?Ya!! Why not44) How comfortable with scripting?
    • 100% pakka comfortable45) Did you worked with JACL or Jython scripts?I prefer one scripting style. Why wud I use two scripting styles? At a given point oftime, scripting interface accepts only one language.46) When you found hung thread error messages what you will do? Will you kill theprocess. If yes, in which case you have to kill the process?Lucky you and lucky me, we have IBMs InfoCenter. Is it not easy to perform asimple search on InfoCenter like this *hung thread*?http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v6r0/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multiplatform.doc/info/ae/ae/ttrb_confighangdet.htmlConfiguring the hang detection policyThe hang detection option for WebSphere Application Server is turned on by default.You can configure a hang detection policy to accommodate your applications andenvironment so that potential hangs can be reported, providing earlier detection offailing servers. When a hung thread is detected, WebSphere Application Servernotifies you so that you can troubleshoot the problem.Add the following properties:Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.intervalValue: The frequency (in seconds)Default: 180 seconds (three minutes).Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.thresholdValue: The length of time (in seconds).Default: The default value is 600 seconds (ten minutes).Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.false.alarm.thresholdValue: The number of times (T) that false alarms can occur before automaticallyincreasing the threshold. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju47) Explain about your enivronment, servers, webservers, etc.,Think about ur company and thier business. Cook a story. Serve it on the table withsome masala, salt and pepper.48) What is a document server and what is the use of it.this is the funniest question one can ask.what is a document server? in general a document server is a repository ofdocuments in an enterprise.what is the use of it? its the central repository and depending access polices agencywide authorized and authenticated *users* can access documents.ex.,u have prepared a document on ur environment. u need a place to put thatdocument so that ur team can access it, ur manager can access it. above that,another team who wants to read that document can access that, above that, someinfrastructure team can access it, above that datacom people can access it and soon.what is the best place to put it?on ur desk top? or attach to mail? or dump it in a shared location.
    • if its a shared location, what that could be? will you dump it in a zunkyard sharedlocation or in a proper shared location? first | < previous | next > | last report spam reply49) TYPES OF SEVERIATIES?Severities will be of different types like Severity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Depending upon the type of issue it will be classified.50) WHAT TYPE OF ISSUES CONTAIN SEVERIATY1 TICKETS?Severity 1 tickets are the most rare tickets which will get and which we have to get in our administration.If our process is not running smooth, that means your application not responding, application server is not responding or entire environment falls then we will get severity 1 ticket.51.WHAT IS THE DIFF B/W COREDUMP & THREAD DUMP?there is not much difference between these two. In thread dump we can find, what are the active threads that are there at thatparticular time. Where as core dump contains information about dead locks, hang threads also52.WHEN THE SERVER HUNG HOW WILL IDENTIFY IN SYSOUT.LOG?Its very simple in systemout.log we will find a particular thread is hung from thismany milli seconds will be found. The thread name will be WSVR****53. HOW TO TAKE BACKUP THE APPLICATION?Taking backup of the application can be done by using export optionin the admin console or directly from the directory location.54. WHATS THE RELATION B/W WIILY INTROSCOPE & WAS(LIKEAGENT/AGENTLESS)?Wily introscope is a third party tool which is used to monitor the serverenvironments, not only WAS anything.55) Difference between Websphere 5.1, 6.1 and 7.0ProfilesWebSphere 5.1:No Concepts of profile ,there are 4 types of Installation-Express,Base ,Network Deployment and Enterprise.Websphere 6.1:Cell Profile,Deployment Manager profile,Application Serverprofile,Custom ProfileWebsphere 7.0 Cell(DeploymentManager and managednode),Management,Application Server,Custom profile,Secure Proxy.Note:Under Management there are three types of profiles available :AdministrativeagentDeployment Manager
    • Job ManagerNote:The Main use of Job Manager is to queue jobs to application server in a flexiblemanagement environmentManaging ProfilesWebSphere 5.1 :Websphere multiple installation instance can be created usingwsinstance scriptWebSphere 6.1:There are two ways of managing a profile1.Profile Management Tool(GUI)2.Manage profiles(Command interface for managing profiles )WebSphere 7.0: same as 6.1Security RolesWAS 5.1:Administrator,operator,configuratorWAS 6.1:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Security Manager,ISCAdminWAS 7.0:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Security Manager,ISCAdmin,AuditorWebServers supportedWAS 5.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System WebServer,HTTP Server for iseriesWAS 6.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System WebServerWAS 7.0:HTTPServer for Z/Os and all web servers supported in 6.1User Registries/RepositriesWAS 5.1:Local Operating System,Standalone LDAP registry,Standalone CustomregistryWAS 6.1:Federated repositories,Local Operating System,Standalone LDAPregistry,Standalone Custom registry or file based registryWAS 7.0:Same as 6.1lOGGING AND TRACINGWAS 5.1Diagnostic traceJVM logsProcess logsIBM Service logsWAS 6.1Apart from the logs available in 5.1 there is a Change log detail levels which willenable the Message level and trace level of the JVMWAS 7.0Same as V 6.1Managing WebServers
    • WAS 5.1:Web Servers cannot be managed through Websphere Admin ConsoleWAS 6.1:WebServers can be Administered using the Websphere Admin Console(Stopping, Starting, Generation and propagation of Plug-in can be done). WebServers can be created in Managed node or in Unmanaged nodeWAS 7.0 same AS V 6.1JMSWAS 5.1:JMS Fail Over Support and scalability is not availableWAS 6.1:JMS Fail over support and scalability is available.SIB(Service IntegrationBus Concept is being introduced)WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1MonitoringWAS 5.1:N/AWAS 6.1:TPF(Tivoli Performance Viewer) is embedded in the Websphere AdminConsole for monitoring WebSphere ObjectsWAS 7.0same as V 6.1Intelligent Run Time provisioningWAS 5.1N/AWAS 6.1N/AWAS 7.0Intelligent run time provisioning is a new concept introduced in V7.0 At runtime the server uses the activation plan to start only those components that arerequired inside the application serverComponents like Web Container , EJB Container , Web Service and SIP Container aredynamically activatedSIP and Portlet ContainerWAS 5.1:N/AWAS 6.1SIP(Session Initiation Protocol) extends the application server to allow torun SIP applications written to JSR 116 SpecificationThe Portlet applications can deployed which is compliant with JSR 168WAS 7.0same as V 6.1wsadmin scriptsWAS 5.1:JACL is the scripting language which is usedWAS 6.1:JACL will be deprecated from 6.1 and Jython scripting will be used.WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1Posted by TechnoTips at 4:18 AM 0 commentsReactions:Thursday, September 25, 2008create Heapdump using wsadmin//Refrence of JVM
    • objectName=AdminControl.queryNames(type=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,*)wsadmin>print objectNameWebSphere:name=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,platform=dynamicproxy,node=ahdp2csmwas78,j2eeType=JVM,J2EEServer=WebSphere_Portal,version=6.0.2.21,type=JVM,mbeanIdentifier=JVM,cell=wpcell//genrate heapdumpwsadmin>AdminControl.invoke(objectName, "generateHeapDump")Posted by TechnoTips at 4:24 AM 0 commentsReactions:1)What is 5 Tier Architecture?in J2E we can write 5 tier archi like1. Client Tier- Browser, Applet, Client Applications2. Presentation Tier- Servlets, JSP3. Business Tier- EJB or Some Business Objects4. Integration Tier- JDBC5. Backend Tier- Databases, JMS2)we know that 3 tier have1.UI(User interface) or (presentation) logic2.BL (Business)3.DL (Database)2)Tell me about the Architecture of Web Application (how it will happen WorkloadManagement & clustring)when ther request coming from the browser the webserver will handled that reuest ,It will handled over to the plug-in, then the plug-in will looks in to the plug-in cfg.xmlfile forthe reuested url and It will redirect the request to the avaliability of the servers inthe cluster.The plug-in mainly perform the work load management.If any server is processingany request then the plug-in will route the request to the avaliability of the serversbased on their weight and based on the algorithams.3)what are the main point while installing an IHS?The main use of installing any external web server is to proces the dynamic contentrequest4)what the file path of httpd.conf?/opt/IBM HTTPSERVER/conf/httpd.conf
    • windowc:programfilesIBM HTTP SERVERconfhttpd.conf5)What are Java Programming languages?Servlets,jsp,ENB,Struts,JSF,HIbernate6)What is Object pool?How to take back up ? while taking back is it necessary to stop the server?execute backupConfig.sh command to take the backup ,yes it is required to stop theservers,by default when you execute this command it will stop all the servers on the node soyhe partiallysynchronized information will not be saved .what are the Deployment ways ? steps ?1.Hot fix2.wsadmin3.AdminConsole4.Using third party tolls like ,Teamsite ,Cruise Control, MKS etc.1)what is thin driver and thick driver.why it is cal...thick driver - type 1 and type 2 JDBC drivers are called thick drivers. The reason forit is - it provides JDBC access via ODBCdrivers. ODBC binary code and in many cases database client code must be loadedon each client machine that uses such a driver.and as the program is connected to database by an extra layer in the clint hencethay are called thick drivers.Thin drivers: This style of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol useddirectly by DBMSs allowing a direct callfrom the client machine to the DBMS server and providing a practical solution forintranet access. hence their conenction to DBis more direct and without any intermediate stage making them thin drivers. type 4driver. Basic difference between thin and thick clientOracle has a thin client driver which mean you can connect to a oracle databasewithout the Oracle client installed on your machine.Thick client would need the Oracle Client database drivers etc.. Drivers include JDBC-ODBC bridge drivers JDBC drivers depending on tns resolution.Dominic thin driver is 4 type driver in java which r provide the connectivity betweenoracle and java.the main advantage is this driver is we connect the databse to javawithout create DSN.and it provide the all the host computer connectivity in thenetwork.so its r most important driver which we use in the java.2)What is Connection Pooling
    • Connection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and areused by the different programers with out creating conncections to the database(itmeans there is a ready made connection available for the programmers where hecan use). After using the connection he can send back that connection to theconnection pool. Number of connections in connection pool may vary.1)How many JDBC drivers are there ?A) 2B) 4C) 3D) 12)Which of the following is false for the Type 1 JDBC bridge driver?A) A Type 1 driver is a JDBC-ODBC bridge driverB) This type of driver enables a client to connect to an ODBC database via Java callsand JDBCC) Both the database and middle tier need to be Java compliant.D) ODBC binary code must be installed on each client machine that uses this driver.Explanation: Neither the database nor the middle tier needs to be java compliant.3)Which of the following statement is true for the Type 2 JDBC driver?A) A Type 2 driver converts JDBC calls into calls for a specific database.B) This driver is referred to as a "native-API, partly Java driver."C) As with the Type 1 driver, some binary code may be required on the clientmachine, which means this type of driver is not suitable for downloading over anetwork to a client.D) All of the above4)What is the difference between EAR, JAR and WAR fileAnswered by Jey on 2005-05-08 11:23:41: In J2EE application modules arepackaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based on their functionalityJAR:EJB modules which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB deploymentdescriptor are packed as JAR files with .jar extenstionWARWeb modules which contains Servlet class files,JSP FIles,supporting files, GIF andHTML files are packaged as JAR file with .war( web achive) extensionEARAll above files(.jar and .war) are packaged as JAR file with .ear ( enterprise archive)extension and deployed into Application Server.5)Full form of java jar file?In: JAVA Programming [Edit categories]JAR = Java ARchive6)Re: URL of Oracle thin driver.Topic: JDBCLuigi Viggiano PREMIUM, Jun 4, 2001 [replies:1]briefly: jdbc:oracle:thin:@hostname:port:oracle-sid
    • 1. in green the Oracle sub-protocol (can be oracle:oci7:@, oracle:oci8:@,racle:thin:@, etc...) is related on the driver you are unsign and the protocol tocommunicate with server. 2. in red the network machine name, or its ip address, to locate the server whereoracle is running. 3. in blue the port (it is complementary to the address to select the specific oracleservice) 4. in magenta the sid, select on wich database you want to connect.1) Find Java Archive files using an Eclipse plug-injmalasko writes "Discover JAR Class Finder, a plug-in utility with improved compatibility for RationalApplication Developer,WebSphere Integration Developer, and Eclipse. This plug-in finds JAR files containing a given class for the Java build path and helpsfix NoClassDefFound exceptions.1) Explain about web sphere?The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology products. Websphere is known for its turn key operation in e business applications. It has run timecomponents and tools which can help in creating applications which run on WAS.WAS refers to web sphere application server.2) Explain about web sphere commerce?IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete ecommercesolutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are planning to do businesswith consumers, business and indirectly through channel partners. This can be usedto perform business with consumers, business and channel partners altogether.3) Detail about the architecture of web sphere?Web Sphere is built on three main components they are• Database• J2EE application server• A web serverThe databases which it supports are• DB2• Oracle• CloudscapeApplication server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are• IBM server• Microsoft IIS• Sun web server4) State some of the features present in web sphere?Some of the features which are present in web sphere are: -• Order management
    • • Web sphere commerce accelerator• Analytical and business intelligence• Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc• Web sphere commerce payments and customer care, etc5) Explain about IBM Web Sphere edge server?Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based systems.It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four components are present inthe web sphere they are Network dispatcher, Caching proxy, Content distribution andapplication service at the edge.6) Explain about extended deployment?Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the functionality ofthe server in two main areas they are manageability and performance. Dynamicvirtualization between servers is possible with the help of XD. A stand alonedistributed cache was added to it under the performance header, it is known asObject Grid.7) Explain about the security features present in WAS?Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model. It alsodepends upon the operating system. User authentication and authorizationmechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party authenticationmechanism is the main security feature present in WAS.8) Explain about asymmetric clustering?Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading systemsemployed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be declared during runtime and are usually run on a single cluster at a time. Work specific to a particularcan be routed to that cluster.9) Explain the various Administrator benefits using Web sphere?Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can manage loadon servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him flexibility to divide theload and applications among different server farms. He can also predict about theincoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart options, memory leak detection, etc.10) Explain about caching proxy of IBM Web sphere Edge sphere?A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Contentrequested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the query.Page fragments arising from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and the cachingprocess is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications can be increased byedge.11) Explain about the network deployment feature present in WAS?Managing singletons will be a thing of the past and it also provides hot recovery ofsingletons which makes you forget about your GC collected singletons. Transactionlogs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering run time operations
    • deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover support and cellconfiguration support is also present.12) Explain about IBM web sphere integration developer?Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based onservice oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and web sphere ESB werebuilt with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.13) Explain about compute Grid?Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended deploymentoffers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Grid. This forms anadditional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various features areprovided which help a developer to create, manage and execute batch jobs. Jobscheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming controller.14) Explain about web sphere MQ Real time transport?This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients throughintranet and internet. This supports high volume and high performance acrossdifferent clients. It uses the concept of light weight transport which is again based onIP rather than the queue process.15) Explain about Web sphere MQ JMS Provider?Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are veryuseful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients (publisher –subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for translating the APIcalls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to have knowledge of Websphere MQ for proper configuration.16) Explain the attribute CHANNEL in web sphere MQ?CHANNEL specifies the name of the server connection channel. Generally this is WebSphere MQ network abstraction. The default standard used by CHANNEL is SVRCONNwhich is the server connection channel. This server is generally used to communicateto the queue manager by the client.17) Is the naming of connection factory independent of the name specified by JMSclient?Yes, the naming of connection factory is independent of the name specified by JMSclient. This is made possible by WAS (Web sphere application server) with itsresource references. It isolates the application from object names. This feature isimportant because it gives us the flexibility to change the administered objectwithout changing the JMS client code.Tell me your self1) Explain us in what way your education background will help you and theorganization?
    • When answering this question explain to him about your education background andsome extra courses you learnt during the process.You need to correlate your education background with the job opening. It would beadded advantage if you can explain to him about the necessary features of the job.2) Tell us something about yourself (One of the most common question asked)?Make sure that you tell about yourself in detail. Keep it small and simple explain tohim about all your interests, previous job, passion, hobbies, projects, etc. Just briefhim about all your interests and passion without going into detail, if asked state himabout it in detail.3) Why did you choose this specific course or stream of study when there are thesemany options available to you?When answering this question explain to him about why you choose this course orstream of study. What made you to choose this course, it would be an addedadvantage if you speak about the different projects you did. Also state or explainabout your goal and higher education pursuits.4) What will be the future of this industry?You need to explain the current trend of the industry and then explain to him aboutfuture developments. This is very important because it shows you that you are goinghand in hand on the developments of the industry.5) Explain specifically why we need to hire you?Explain to the interviewer about the necessary skills you have which were mentionedin the job requirement and also tell him about your team playing skills, soft skills, etcwhich can fetch you the job. If you have interest in pursuing higher studies then doexplain about that.6) Explain us about your previous project and its benefitsAs the question states you need to explain to him about your project and its benefits.Do remember a project is done by a team and it has features such as Environment,team members, technical descriptions, usage, etc. This is very important as he willmention to the technical HR about your project.7) What was the reason you left your previous job?While explaining this question you need to make sure that you don’t speak about thenegative features of your previous job which made you to leave the company insteadexplain about those negative features in a convincing manner and you can state thatthose reasons are hindering your growth.8) What is your goal and what do you like to achieve in the near future?Explain to him about the goal which you would like to pursue in the near future andhow the company can help you achieve that goal. Have a goal which is reasonableand achievable because it gives you a feeling of accomplishment.
    • 9) What was your biggest job or project accomplishment?For this question you would be explaining to him about the most challenging projectyou undertook and the benefits you obtained by completing it within the deadline.This will explain to the interviewer about your necessary skills, management skillsand team play.10) Can you go to tours often?When answering this question have it in mind that your answer will be kept in therecord. If you cannot take tours due to various reasons state them in a pleasanttone. The answer which you give will be kept in the record. Also make it a habit totake small tours or travelling because every job demands that.11) What do you know about this organization?Before answering this question make sure that you do enough research about theorganization before applying to it. Also do remember that the interviewer knowsmuch more about this organization than you do. Try to have as much informationabout the job position also.12) Did you miss deadlines or target?Be honest when answering this question because your previous employer will haveeverything on record and your current employer may request for it. Explain tohim/her about the deadlines you have met during the process.1)How to identify unused indexes in DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows database has gone into production, the existence of too many indexes turnsout to be a cause for decreased database performance. Many indexes mean. During database application development, developers tend to define a largenumber of indexes on tables to guarantee that each and every query performs well.After application development has been finished and a database has gone intoproduction, the existence of too many indexes turns out to be a cause for decreaseddatabase performance. Many indexes mean more work for the database system when executing UPDATE,INSERT, and DELETE (UID) operations. In addition, regular maintenance activitieslike RUNSTATS and REORG also run considerably longer in cases where manyindexes are present. Therefore, to achieve the best database performance, it iscritical to be able to determine which indexes are necessary for query execution andwhich indexes you can safely drop without impacting query runtimes. This articleexplains several methods that a DB2® for Linux®, UNIX®, and Windows® (DB2LUW) database administrator (DBA) can use to identify unused and seldom usedindexes.What is a JAR file?The JAR file format is based on the popular ZIP file format, and is used foraggregating many files into one. Unlike ZIP files, JAR files are used not only forarchiving and distribution, but also for deployment and encapsulation of libraries,components, and plug-ins, and are consumed directly by tools such as compilers and
    • JVMs. Special files contained in the JAR, such as manifests and deploymentdescriptors, instruct tools how a particular JAR is to be treated.A JAR file might be used:For distributing and using class librariesAs building blocks for applications and extensionsAs deployment units for components, applets, or plug-insFor packaging auxiliary resources associated with componentsThe JAR file format provides many benefits and features, many of which are notprovided with a traditional archive format such as ZIP or TAR. These include:Security. You can digitally sign the contents of a JAR file. Tools that recognize yoursignature can then optionally grant your software security privileges it wouldntotherwise have, and detect if the code has been tampered with.Decreased download time. If an applet is bundled in a JAR file, the applets class filesand associated resources can be downloaded by a browser in a single HTTPtransaction, instead of opening a new connection for each file.Compression. The JAR format allows you to compress your files for efficient storage.Transparent platform extension. The Java Extensions Framework provides a meansby which you can add functionality to the Java core platform, which uses the JAR filefor packaging of extensions. (Java 3D and JavaMail are examples of extensionsdeveloped by Sun.)Package sealing. Packages stored in JAR files can be optionally sealed to enforceversion consistency and security. Sealing a package means that all classes defined inthat package must be found in the same JAR file.Package versioning. A JAR file can hold data about the files it contains, such asvendor and version information.Portability. The mechanism for handling JAR files is a standard part of the Javaplatforms core API.Compressed and uncompressed JARsThe jar tool (see The jar tool for details) compresses files by default. UncompressedJAR files can generally be loaded more quickly than compressed JAR files, because
    • the need to decompress the files during loading is eliminated, but download timeover a network may be longer for uncompressed files.The META-INF directoryMost JAR files contain a META-INF directory, which is used to store package andextension configuration data, such as security and versioning information. Thefollowing files or directories in the META-INF directory are recognized and interpretedby the Java 2 platform for configuring applications, extensions, and class loaders:MANIFEST.MF. The manifest file defines the extension- and package-related data.INDEX.LIST. This file is generated by the new -i option of the jar tool and containslocation information for packages defined in an application or extension. It is part ofthe JarIndex implementation and used by class loaders to speed up the class loadingprocess.xxx.SF. This is the signature file for the JAR file. The placeholder xxx identifies thesigner.xxx.DSA. The signature block file associated with the signature file stores the publicsignature used to sign the JAR file.The jar toolTo perform basic tasks with JAR files, you use the Java Archive Tool (jar tool)provided as part of the Java Development Kit. You invoke the jar tool with the jarcommand. Table 1 shows some common applications:Table 1. Common usages of the jar toolFunction CommandCreating a JAR file from individual files jar cf jar-file input-file...Creating a JAR file from a directory jar cf jar-file dir-nameCreating an uncompressed JAR file jar cf0 jar-file dir-nameUpdating a JAR file jar uf jar-file input-file...Viewing the contents of a JAR file jar tf jar-fileExtracting the contents of a JAR file jar xf jar-fileExtracting specific files from a JAR file jar xf jar-file archived-file...Running an application packaged as an executable JAR file java -jar app.jar--------------------------------------------------------------------------------what is a connection pool?
    • Connection pooling is a technique used for sharing server resources amongrequesting clients. This article focuses on support for connection pooling of bothdatabase resources and non-database resources in a J2EE environment. Sivaexamines the JDBC 2.0, JMS 1.02, JNDI 1.2 Standard Extension APIs with regard toconnection pooling and looks at some existing vendor implementations of those APIs.He then looks at the upcoming J2EE Connector Architecture 1.0 that would support avendor-independent/pluggable approach to managing resource connections.1) How many JDBC drivers ?name them? Answer There are 4 JDBC drivers are available:*JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver:-Popular name is Type-1 Driver.Inthis connection some native code or native database clientcode must be loaded on each client machine due to thisprocess it is slower than other drivers.It usesJDBC-Bridge-ODBC means between JDBC and ODBC one bridge iswork that establise the connection between application andDataBase... It is suitable for automatic installation anddownloading java technology application is not important.*Native API partly Java Driver:-Known as Type-2 Driver.Itenables driver converts JDBC calls into calls on the clientAPI for Oracle or any other databases.This driver need toload some binary code on client machine like JDBC-ODBCBridge Driver.*Network Protocol Driver:-Known as Type-3 Driver.*Jdbc net pure Java Driver:-Known as Type-4 Driver. The JDBC Driver provides vendor-specific implementations ofthe abstract classes provided by the JDBC API. This driveris used to connect to the database.there are:Type 1 : JDBC-ODBC Bridge DriverType 2: Native API Partly Java DriverType 3: Network protocol Driver-Type 4: JDBC Net pure Java Driver2) what is JDBC? AnswerJDBC(java Database Connectivity) is an API(Applicationprogram Interfaces), that is useful to write a java programto connect any database,and retrieve the data form thedatabase and utilize the data in the java program.1.Making a connection to a database2.Creating SQL or MySQL statements3.Executing that SQL or MySQL queries in the database4.Viewing & Modifying the resulting records3) How warnings are retrieved in JDBC? Answerwhile using jdbc, warnings can occur at any timewhile getting connection
    • while creating statementwhile getting resultset, at each , we can get usinggetWarnings() method.->Web Sphere relates to IBM Family.->We have different servers in market such as: JBOSS --} Web Logic -- }Application Servers Web Sphere --} Tomcat -- Partial Application Servers i.e not pure Web Server&Not pure Application Server.->JBoss is a open source software->The concepts of Web Logic & Web Sphere are same but only the terminology isdifferent.->In 6.0 Version we have 3 types of packages. 1) Express Package --} 2) Base Package --} Used for Stand alone Environment 3) Network Deployment -- Distributed Environment-> In java we have 3 parts. 1)J2SE (core java) 2)J2EE (servlets, jsps(web applications) ,Ejbs(enterprise java beans. 3)J2ME-> We will make the web application as .WAR (web Archieve)file.-> And we will make enterprise applications as .EAR file.-> For installation we have 2 modes: 1)GUI. 2)Silent Mode. Silent Mode there is a file called Response File this is what we have tocustomize.->ServerIndex.Xml file is used to find out the port number. Servers are listening to this port number, not application.-> Whenever we change port number and restart the server it will be updated inportdef, no need to change here again.Profile: A profile is nothing but an environment where we can create Servers. Thereare 3 types: 1) Application Profile. 2) Deployment Profile. 3) Custom Profile.-> The default profile is Application Server profile.-> The custom profile will give us an empty node.-> The soap connecter port number of deployment manager is 8879.-> Independantly a custom profile will have no use. We have to get connected withdmgr.
    • -> Before federation we have to check whether, .Dmgr is opening or not. .Dmgr is under running or not. In dmgr host we maintain dmgr just to monitoring and configuring theadministration.->In ND package we have 3 types of Templates: 1) Dmgr Template 2) Default Template 3) Managed Template. -> By default the dmgr profile wont give any servers. It is not at all a server,used just to configure. -> The AppServer gives server1 as default server. In application server wehave no option to create server. It is just a stand alone profile.Node: is a collection of servers. it reduces administration burden. It is a single pointof servers. If we start Node, n-number of servers will get started, if we stop all willbe stopped.Federation: In Dmgr01 we should have an eligible node to create servers but Dmgrnode is not eligible, at that time we can connect App-node which is eligibe to createservers from the appsrv01 Then we can create servers using App-Node in dmgr01. If we want to do federation we have to ping the Dmgr Server. Dmgr was introduced for single point of admin. In dmgr admin console, number of servers will be there under sameenvironment. We can create number of servers under dmgr console using Add-node.When ever we do federation a node agent will be created to communicate betweenAppserv & Dmgr.Node Agent: It will acts as a communication between which node we are federating.Cell Profile: is the combination of deployment profile and application profile. in both 6.0 & 6.1 the cell is available in deployment manager.Whenever we create cell profile automatically there will be deployment profile &application profile and federation also will be done automatically.The complete administration will be under the cell profile only.Global Security: In 6.0 we have 3 ways to provide security for admin console. 1) Local os user registry. 2) Custom user registry. 3) LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) user registry.2) custom user registry: Here we have to create two files named: users.registry groups.registryWe can create this files any where but we have to configure this absolute path to theapplication servers.3)LDAP: It is a mechanism & not a server. Here we are integrating seperate directoryservers. if SSL is enabled the port number is 636, if it is not enabled 389. -> In local os user registry we have to create user accounts and that useraccounts have to configure to websphere application servers.
    • where as in the custom user registry specifying user names and passwords ina normal file and we are specifying the absolute path of that file into the websphereapplication server. whenever we are going for LDAP user registry we have to specifyuser id & password & type of directory server, port number (default is 389), if SSL isenabled we have to specify port number as 636 and we have to specify Basedistinguished name which indicates authentication for users and we have to specifyBind distinguished name and Bind password which specify authorization for user andwe have to select "Advanced Light Weight Directory Access Protocol user registrysettings" there we have to specify user filter classes and group filter classes(automatically it will be there) and finally we have to restart the server.->Web Sphere application server is a middleware component.-> In 3-Tier Architecture we have 3 levels. In level 1 (Tier-1) we have HTTP server (or web server) In Tier-2 we have Application server In Tier-3 we have Data base.Whenever we integrate database with application server every applications are ableto communicate with the database.->A database is a collection of data.-> A schema is a collection of Tables.-> In oracle 10g & 9i We have only one jar file i.e OJDBC14.JAR (for log) &Class12.jar (for 9i) and In DB2 we have 3 or more jar files. i.eDB2JCC.JAR,DB2JCC_LICENSE_C4.JAR, DB2JCC_LICENCE_CIS42.JAR.-> The .jar file is nothing but a collection of .class files. It is necessary tocommunicate with the database. So we should configure this jar files with database.JDBC: providers create connection between web application server & database serverfor communication.But data source provide communication for applications insideWAS with particular database inside the DB server.->We can say HTTP Servers as web servers also. The responsibility of http servers is to serve static content only. It will givequick response to static content than app servers. To communicate between http servers & app servers we have a conceptcalled "PLUG-INS".(it is a intermediatory component) By using round robin algorithm (default), here we have a concept routingtable, which is taken care by the http server. -> Plug-ins contain Plugin-cfg.xml contains complete information aboutapplication server environment i.e how many clusters are there, how may clusterenvironments are there, weight of cluster etc.Virtual Host: Here we will have wc-default host port number also. We can create orchange this ports by using Virtual hosts concepts. All applications and applicationservers has to listen to this ports. ->If we want to access an application under multiple domains, or by usingmultiple ports, (simply multiple domains,multiple ports). After following all the stepswe have to restart the server. ->multiple domain names can access the same application. ->All the applications will go through the http server only at the time oftrouble shooting we can by pass this http server for some purposes.
    • Clusters: A logical group of related components is a "Cluster". ->Here, if server1 fails to deploy one application servers will take care of that,which is called as clustering but this will not supported by Base & Express.Q)What is high availability, why we have to go for clusters? At any cost the application should be available at all times, it should not godown. To overcome this problems we go for clusters. ->We have 2 types of clusters: 1) Vertical Clusters. 2) Horizontal clusters. 1) Vertical Clusters: Here we are deploying app1 through cluster, so if server1fails we can access through server2. But if the host i.e, the total physical machineget crashed then we can not access. This is the disadvantage with the verticalclusters. 2) Horizontal clusters: Here we are deploying apps in multple hosts orphysical boxes. Here if one host gets crashes, the end user can access. Hence, to achieve high availability we are going for clusters. -> coming to performance, vertical cluster gives more performance than thehorizontal because transmission of response takes time. -> vertical is preferred in development, test environment.Horizantal is used inproduction environment. -> Here if the application is not running under server2 we have to add theserver2 ports into the virtual hosts.Plugin-cfg.xml: The plugin-cfg.xml contains information about application serverenvironment like how many clusters, how may cluster members, application uri, portnumbers, routing algorithms, weight of cluster members.-> An application contains: Servlets, Jsps, Html, css, javascript } web resources. Ejbs} Ejb components. ->if we deploy any application, at that time all web resources will go underweb container and Ejb components will go under Ejb container. ->if any request is looking for web resource, at that time web container itselfwill, generate the response. Tell me about your Day-to-Day activities? Tell me about the Architecture of Web Application (how it will happen Workload Management & clustring) when ther request coming from the browser the webserver will handled that reuest , It will handled over to the plug-in, then the plug-in will looks in to the plug-in cfg.xml file for the reuested url and It will redirect the request to the avaliability of the servers in the cluster. The plug-in mainly perform the work load management.If any server is processing any request then the plug-in will route the request to the avaliability of the servers based on their weight and based on the algorithams. what are the main point while installing an IHS?The main use of installing any external web server is to proces the dynamic contentrequest
    • what the file path of httpd.conf?/opt/IBM HTTPSERVER/conf/httpd.confwindowc:programfilesIBM HTTP SERVERconfhttpd.confWhat are Java Programming languages?Servlets,jsp,ENB,Struts,JSF,HibernateHow to take back up ? while taking back is it necessary to stop the server?execute backupConfig.sh command to take the backup ,yes it is required to stop theservers,by default when you execute this command it will stop all the servers on thenode so yhe partially synchronized information will not be saved .what are the Deployment ways ? steps ?1.Hot fix2.wsadmin3.AdminConsole4.Using third party tolls like ,Teamsite ,Cruise Control, MKS etc.what is soap and soap port?SOAP is an XML-based messaging protocol. It defines a set of rules for structuringmessages that can be used for simple one-way messaging but is particularly usefulfor performing RPC-style (Remote Procedure Call) request-response dialogues. It isnot tied to any particular transport protocol though HTTP is popular. Nor is it tied toany particular operating system or programming language so theoretically the clientsand servers in these dialogues can be running on any platform and written in anylanguage as long as they can formulate and understand SOAP messages. As such itis an important building block for developing distributed applications that exploitfunctionality published as services over an intranet or the internet.what is a webcontainer?A container that implements the Web component contract of the J2EE architecture.This contract specifies a runtime environment for Web components that includessecurity, concurrency, life-cycle management, transaction, deployment, and otherservices. A Web container provides the same services as a JSP container as well as afederated view of the J2EE platform APIs. A Web container is provided by a Web orJ2EE server What is the error HTTP 403 indicates and how to solve these issues?This is due to SSL certificate or some security settings in the server might haveissues.
    • IntroductionYour Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Webbrowser or our CheckUpDown robot) was correct, but access to the resourceidentified by the URL is forbidden for some reason.This indicates a fundamental access problem, which may be difficult to resolvebecause the HTTP protocol allows the Web server to give this response withoutproviding any reason at all. So the 403 error is equivalent to a blanket NO by yourWeb server - with no further discussion allowed.By far the most common reason for this error is that directory browsing is forbiddenfor the Web site. Most Web sites want you to navigate using the URLs in the Webpages for that site. They do not often allow you to browse the file directory structureof the site. For example try the following URL (then hit the Back button in yourbrowser to return to this page):This URL should fail with a 403 error saying "Forbidden: You dont have permissionto access /accounts/grpb/B1394343/ on this server". This is because ourCheckUpDown Web site deliberately does not want you to browse directories - youhave to navigate from one specific Web page to another using the hyperlinks in thoseWeb pages. This is true for most Web sites on the Internet - their Web server has"Allow directory browsing" set OFF.403 errors in the HTTP cycleAny client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) goes through thefollowing cycle: Obtain an IP address from the IP name of your site (your site URL without the leading http://). This lookup (conversion of IP name to IP address) is provided by domain name servers (DNSs). Open an IP socket connection to that IP address. Write an HTTP data stream through that socket. Receive an HTTP data stream back from your Web server in response. This data stream contains status codes whose values are determined by the HTTP protocol. Parse this data stream for status codes and other useful information.This error occurs in the final step above when the client receives an HTTP status codethat it recognises as 403.Fixing 403 errors - generalYou first need to confirm if you have encountered a "No directory browsing" problem.You can see this if the URL ends in a slash / rather than the name of a specific Web
    • page (e.g. .htm or .html). If this is your problem, then you have no option but toaccess individual Web pages for that Web site directly.It is possible that there should be some content in the directory, but there is nonethere yet. For example if your ISP offers a Home Page then you need to providesome content - usually HTML files - for the Home Page directory that your ISPassigns to you. Until the content is there, anyone trying to access your Home Pagecould encounter a 403 error. The solution is to upload the missing content - directlyyourself or by providing it to your ISP. Once the content is in the directory, it alsoneeds to be authorised for public access via the Internet. Your ISP should do this asa matter of course - if they do not, then they have missed a no-brainer step.If your entire Web site is actually secured in some way (is not open at all to casualInternet users), then an 401 - Not authorized message could be expected. It ispossible, but unlikely, that your Web server issues an 403 message instead.Some Web servers may also issue an 403 error if they at one time hosted your site,but now no longer do so and can not or will not provide a redirection to a new URL.In this case it is not unusual for the 403 error to be returned instead of a morehelpful error. So if you have recently changed any aspect of your Web site setup(e.g. switched ISPs), then a 403 message is a possibility. Obviously this messageshould disappear in time - typically within a week or two - as the Internet catches upwith whatever change you have made.If you think that the Web URL *should* be accessible to all and sundry on theInternet and you have not recently changed anything fundamental in your Web sitesetup, then an 403 message indicates a deeper problem. The first thing you can do ischeck your URL via a Web browser. This browser should be running on a computer towhich you have never previously identified yourself in any way, and you should avoidauthentication (passwords etc.) that you have used previously. Ideally all this shouldbe done over a completely different Internet connection to any you have used before(e.g. a different ISP dial-up connection). In short, you are trying to get the samebehaviour a total stranger would get if they surfed the Internet to your Web pageURL.If this type of browser check indicates no authority problems, then it is possible thatyour Web server (or surrounding systems) have been configured to disallow certainpatterns of HTTP traffic. In other words, HTTP communication from a well-knownWeb browser is allowed, but automated communication from other systems isrejected with an 403 error code. This is unusual, but may indicate a very defensivesecurity policy around your Web server.Fixing 403 errors - CheckUpDownThe first question is whether the Web page for your URL is freely available toeveryone on the Internet. If this is not the case, then you may need to provide twoitems 2. Web Site User ID and 3. Web Site Password for your CheckUpDown
    • account - but only if your site uses HTTP Basic Authentication. The Web Master orother IT support people at your site will know what security and authentication isused.If however your Web page is open to all customers and there have been nofundamental changes recently to how your Web site is hosted and accessed, then an403 message should only appear if your Web server objects to some aspect of theaccess we are trying to get to your Web site. Because it indicates a fundamentalauthority problem, we can only resolve this by negotiation with the personnelresponsible for security on and around your Web site. These discussionsunfortunately may take some time, but can often be amicably resolved. You canassist by endorsing our service to your security personnel. Please contact us (emailpreferred) if you see persistent 403 errors, so that we can agree the best way toresolve them.If the “page can’t display “error comes then what you will do in theproduction system?a) There must be some network issue or server not receiving the request.Need to check the server availability.What is the error HTTP 404 indicates and how to solve these issues? The 404 or Not Found error message is an HTTP standard response code indicatingthat the client was able to communicate with the server but the server could not findwhat was requested..What is the difference between page not found and HTTP 404? How to solvethese issues?a) The “Page not found” error is, the request is not reaching the server. HTTP404 errors is request is reaching to server but whatever it is expecting it’s not foundat expected locationWhat is meant by ear expander utility?EAR Expander utility is used to expand the application binaries into any path,normally we will use this to expand it in other than the default path.Once expanded we will update the same app binaries from WAS admin console toupdate WAS.The EARExpander expands Ear files into the format desired by the application serverruntime, as described in the application installation instructions. EARExpander canalso collapse the expanded format back to a normal Ear (.jar or .zip) format.
    • Invoking the toolThe tool is located in the following directory:product_installation_root/bin/EARExpander.batTo view syntax, open a command line and invoke the tool without arguments. Hereis a typical result. The line breaks have been changed for better formatting in thisdocumentation.C:seaa0122.02bin>EARExpander.bat IBM WebSphere Application Server,Release 4.0 J2EEJ2EE Application Expansion Tool, Version 1.0Copyright IBM Corp., 1997-2001Required Argument Missing:earUsage: java com.ibm.websphere.install.commands.EARExpander-ear -expandDir -operation [expansionFlags]ExpansionFlags indicate whether you want every JAR file expanded, or just thecontained WAR files within the EAR file. The default is all.Expanding filesThe following example command expands the file my.ear into theproduct_installation_root/bin/myEAR directory:EARExpander -ear my.ear -expandDir product_installation_root/bin/myEAR-operation expandCollapsing filesUsing the collapse -operation reverses the format to normal.EARExpander -ear my.ear -expandDir product_installation_root/bin/myEAR-operation collapseType each of the above commands on a single line, despite their appearance in thisdocumentation.What is meant by JAVA Script?Java script is a scripting tool to developed web applications.What is meant by Heap in Java process and what information will beavailable in heap file?a) Heap is used to collect the garbage for java applications; the Heap filecontains the garbage collected from java process.
    • What are the available log file in the WAS 6.1a) In was there are list of logs available to monitor and troubleshoot. They areDiagnostic Trace ServiceView and modify the properties of the diagnostic trace service. Diagnostic traceprovides detailed information about the execution of WebSphere Application Servercomponents within this managed process. Changes on the Configuration panel willapply when the server is restarted. Changes on the Runtime panel will applyimmediately.JVM LogsView and modify the settings for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) System.out andSystem.err logs for this managed process. The JVM logs are created by redirectingthe System.out and System.err streams of the JVM to independent log files. TheSystem.out log is used to monitor the health of the running application server. TheSystem.err log contains exception stack trace information that is useful whenperforming problem analysis. There is one set of JVM logs for each application serverand all of its applications. JVM logs are also created for the deployment manager andeach node manager. Changes on the Configuration panel will apply when the serveris restarted. Changes on the Runtime panel will apply immediately.Process LogsView or modify settings for specifying the files to which standard out and standarderror streams write. The process logs are created by redirecting the standard out andstandard error streams of a process to independent log files. Native code writes tothe process logs. These logs can also contain information relating to problems innative code or diagnostic information written by the JVM. There is one set of processlogs for each application server and all of its applications. Process logs are alsocreated for the deployment manager and each node manager. Changes on theConfiguration panel will apply when the server is restarted. Changes on the Runtimepanel will apply immediately.IBM Service LogsConfigure the IBM service log, also known as the activity log. The IBM service logcontains both the WebSphere Application Server messages that are written to theSystem.out stream and some special messages that contain extended serviceinformation that can be important when analyzing problems. There is one service logfor all WebSphere Application Server Java virtual machines (JVMs) on a node,including all application servers. and their node agent (if present). A separate activitylog is created for a deployment manager in its own logs directory. The IBM Servicelog is maintained in a binary format. Use the Log Analyzer or Showlog tool to viewthe IBM service log.Change Log Detail LevelsLog levels allow you to control which events are processed by Java logging. ClickComponents to specify a log detail level for individual components, or Groups to
    • specify a log detail level for a predefined group of components. Click a component orgroup name to select a log detail level. Log detail levels are cumulative; a level nearthe top of the list includes all levels below it.If a developer requests to tune an application then what you will do?Performance TuningAll the steps for Performance Tuning would approximately take 45 minutes.JVM Heap SizeBy default, the Java virtual machines for WebSphere Application Server andWebSphere Portal Server are assigned only 256 MB per process. This value should beincreased.To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toServers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Process Definition -> JavaVirtual Machineand set both initial heap size and max heap size to an adequate value:on a machine with 4 GByte of real memory, set it to 1024 MByte, on a 8 GBytemachine to 2048 MByte.If a value greater than 1024 MByte is selected, it may be necessary to change theAIX parameter LDR_CONTRL. For details, please refer to the AIX documentation.Session TimeoutReducing the session timeout can help reduce memory consumption requirements.To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toServers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Web Container -> SessionManagement -> Session Timeoutand set Timeout to 10 Minutes.Class Garbage CollectionTo change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toServers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Process Definition -> JavaVirtual Machine -> Generic JVM argumentsand add the parameter -Xnoclassgc.Servlet Engine Thread Pool SizeTo change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toServers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Web Container -> ThreadPooland add the parameters for Minimum size threads and Maximum size threads to 70.Data Source Connection Pool SizeTo change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toResources -> JDBC Providers -> (all providers) -> Data Sources -> (all datasources) -> Connection Pools
    • and set the parameters for Minumum connections and Maximum connections to 50.Statement Cache SizeTo change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go toResources -> JDBC Providers -> (all providers) -> Data Sources -> (all datasources)And set the parameter for Statement Cache Size to 500.Tell about Resource analyser?a) Resource analyser is used to analyse the performance of the WAS resources.It is a monitoring tool comes with WAS.If you need to configure a process in UNIX what are the steps?a) No Idea about this question.How to find a text in VI editor in UNIX?a) Escape / followed by textTell about “nany process” in UNIX?a) Nanny process on Windows NT and Windows 2000 is the Windows service"IBM WS AdminServer".What is the basic command in UNIX to find network performance?a) NetstatTell about data source? Installed applications use JDBC providers to interact with relational databases.TheJDBC provider object supplies the specific JDBC driver implementation class foraccess to a specific vendor database. To create a pool of connections to thatdatabase, you associate a data source with the JDBC provider. Together, the JDBCprovider and the data source objects are functionally equivalent to the J2EEConnector Architecture (JCA) connection factory, which provides connectivity with anon-relational database. Data sources allow you to manage a pool of connections to a databaseData sources work as follows: When a client wants to use a connection, it looks up a data source by name from a JNDI server. The data source then returns a connection to the client. If the data source has no more connections, it may ask the database manager for more connections (as long as it has not exceeded the maximum number of connections). When the client has finished with the connection, it closes the connection.
    • The data source then returns the connection to the available pool.You can configure data sources for WebSphere® Application Server v6.x by using theDeployment page in the application deployment descriptor editor or using theadministrative console. For WebSphere Application Server v5.11 test environmentsand servers you can configure data sources by using the Data Source page in theserver editor.What are the profiles available in WAS 6.x? And difference between them? In WAS 6.1 we have 4 different types of profiles available. They are Deployment Manager Profile(DMGR): The deployment manager profile defines a deployment manager in a distributed server environment Application Server Profile: It is a single stand –alone application server. This profile gives you an application server that can run stand alone or un-managed. Custom Profile A Custom profile is an empty Node intended for federation to a deployment manager. Cell Profile The application server is federated to the DMGR profile. It is a combination of DMGR and Application server profiles.What is the programming model/Module? JAVA related wage to me..What is meant by Asymmetric Cluster and how it works?a) Clusters are groups of servers that are managed together and participate inworkload management. A cluster can contain nodes or individual application servers.In an asymmetric cluster, business logic is split into partitions, where each partitioncan be the sole accessor of a set of underlying data. As a result, each node in thecluster can implement its own local cache (and be the sole accessor of that data),resulting in high performance reading and writing without the need to maintain adistributed cache between cluster nodes.
    • Asymmetric clustering proposes an architecture that is almost opposite to the typicalstateless server farm where the entire app is replicated across machines, some timesusing distributed caching products for performance increasing.What information contains by SERVER INDEX file ?a) Server index will have SOAP/Boot strap and all ports and detailsWhat information contains by Plugin-cnf.xml file ?a) Plug-in configuration file contains routing information for all applicationsmapped to the web server. This file is read by binary plug-in module loaded in theweb server. Plugin-cnf.xml file will have all the configuration setting to determine whethera request is for the webserver or the application server. When a request reaches theweb server, the URL is compared to those managed by the plug-in. If a match isfound, the plug-in configuration file contains the information needed to forward thatrequest to the web container using the web container inbound transport chain.What is meant by SSL and how does it works?a) SSL mean secured socket layer. This is to secure the WebSphereenvironment. SSL provides connection security through -Communication privacy –the data on the connection is encrypted -Communication integrity—the protocol includes a built-in integrity check -Authentication—the client knows who the server is -SSL creates a VPN, securing the data using a combination os symmetric and asymmetric encryption. Symmetric key encryption: Symmetric or secret key technology is a model in which two parties have a shared secret The same key is used for both encryption and decryption Note: The trouble with this approach is that at some point the secret needs to be shared. In an e-business application, this would be rather difficult. Asymmetric key encryption: Public key cryptography:
    • -two keys that are cryptographically related-Public key (can be shared with every one)Private key ( Must never be shared; possession is proof)-Keys are asymmetricGiven message is encrypted with one key and decrypted with the otherNote : - If a server has public- private set, it can send out its publickey( through a signing certificate – also known simply as a certificate ) toclient machine. Those client machines can then use that public key to encryptmessages designed for the server which then only the server can decrypt.Unlike symmetric key encryption, this process does not require the client andserver to have a shared secret.Since the client can validate the server’s certificate, there is one way toauthentication. But the server has no way (at this point) to authenticate theclient. Nor can the server send the client secured messages.How does SSL works ?SSL uses a combination of asymmetric and symmetric encryption to create asession between the client and server.-Asymmetric encryption is used to negotiate a session key (shared secret) --asymmetric encryption is slow but does not require a shared secret.-Symmetric encryption os used to transfer data between the client and server-- symmetric encryption is fast but require a shared secretSSL Working Mechanisam:1) Client request SSL connection2) Server presents certificate3) Client verifies server certificate4) Client generate a session key, encrypts it with the server’s public key5) Using the session key, client and server swith to asymmetric key encryption6) HTTPS communications Note : Because the client chooses its own session key, nobody else knows it. It can securely send that session key to the server using the
    • server’s public key. Now nobody but client and server knew the session key. The session key is then used as “shared secret” to switch to much more efficient symmetric key encryption. Certificate (signing certificate) contains information about the server, including the server’s public key, and is digitally signed by the certificate authority.Configuration of SSL in WebSphere :SSL configuration can be achived in three different ways 1) From Admin console: Once we get the certificate from CA (Certificate Authority) then we will import into trust store. To enable security between IHS and Application server we need to export defaut personal certificates of all nodes and import the same to the trust store of the IHS. 2) Command line : By using “gsk7cmd” command we can achive the SSL configuration. Gsk7cmd provides the otions like import ,export,list,create options for certificates Gsk7cmd –cert –create –db plugin-key.kdb –pw password –label ‘websphere pluginkey’ -dn 3) ikeyman: By using ikeyman we can open the KDB(key data base) and add the certificates to the key database.What is the difference between round robin and random load balancing?a) Round robin load balance is nothing but symmetric clustering and randomload balancing nothing but asymmetric clusteringWhat is the activity log and what it is useful? The application server creates the activity.log file from the activity of the various WebSphere Application Server components. you cannot read this log with a text reader. You ca use this script called, showlog under appserver root. Ex., ./WAS_INST_ROOT/bin/showlog PATH_TOACTIVITY_LOG/activity.log like this
    • websphe: /software/opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer/bin $ ./showlog ../profiles/AppSrv*/logs/activity.log This displays ur activity log something like this, just as a sample: ExtendedMessage:What are the different roles available in the WAS?a) In WAS we have the following roles Monitor: Least privileged; allows a user to view the WebSphere configuration and current application server state. Configuration: Monitor privileges plus the ability to change the WebSphere configuration. Operator: Monitor privileges plus ability to change runtime state, such as starting or stopping servers. Administrator: Operator, Configuration, and iscadmins privileges, plus additional privileges granted solely to the administrator role, such as Modifying the primary administrative users and passwords. Mapping users and groups to the administrator role Enabling or disabling administrative and java 2 security Additional console security roles : Iscadmins (Integrated solutions console) : Only available for administration console users Allows a user to manage users and groups in the federated repository. Deployer : Only available for wsadmin users(not for administration console) Allows a user to change configuration and runtime state on application using wsadmin Admin Security Manager: 1) Only available for wsadmin users 2) Allows a user to map users to administrative roles using wsadmin 3) When restricted access to resource authentication data is in effect, users can also manage authorisation groups.
    • How many levels we can enable the trace file?a) LEVEL = all | entryExit | debug | eventIf memory leakage is there in then where (in which file) we get thisinformation?a) Memory leakage information can get in the process logs ( Native_stdout andNative_stderrer logs)How many ways we can federate the Node?Ans Before federating any Node we must make sure Application server should be started on the Node to be added We need to find the SOAP connector for DMGR( we can find this in communication section in the detailed page for the application server(DMGR) default is 8879 ) From the Admin Console: Select System Administration --> Nodes --> AddNode Select Managed Node and click next then specify the HostName of the Node to be added to the cell. Then select the connector type (SOAP or RMI) and connector port. If security is enabled provide user id and password and include application (if required)..... ii) Using the AddNode Command: To use AddNode command do the following 1) Open a command line window on the system that has the running stand – alone application server 2) Change the directory to <Profile_Home>/bin directory of the stand alone application server installation 3) Execute “AddNode” Command Syntax with Ex: <Profile_Home>/bin>AddNode <DMGR_HOST> <DMGR_SOAP_PORT> [Options] Options include like -conntype [SOAP/RMI] -includeapps (It includes installed application on the stand alone Node)
    • Note: We can add Node from DMGR installed system as well, in this option we need to give the Host name and port number of the stand alone application server’s credentials instead of DMGR’s.How many ways we can synchronise a node?a) We can Sync Node in two ways 1) From Command prompt : stop the Node then issue the “SynNode” command in the command prompt. <Node_Host>/bin> SyncNode <DMGR_HOST> <DMGR_PORT> [Options] -username -password -restart -conntype -quit -stopserver 2) From Admin Console: Select System Administration --> Nodes--> Synchronise (Select the Particular node to sync)How many user registries are available in the WAS 6.X?There are four user registries Local O/S LDAP Federated repository Custom RepositoryTell about federated repository? Federated Repository is one of the existing users registry type. In this method we can use multiple repositories with WebSphere application server.  Default repository is a file based federated repository  Can be file based, LDAP, Multiple LDAPs or subtree of an LDAP
    •  Defined and theoretically combined under a single realm  All of the user repositories that are configured under federated repository functionality are invisible to WebSphere application server.  Federation capabilities are provided by the VMM(Virtual Member Manager)If we give heap size value same for both min and max then what are theadvantages and what are the disadvantages?a) The Java heap parameters influence the behavior of garbage collection.Increasing the heap size supports more object creation. Because a large heap takeslonger to fill, the application runs longer before a garbage collection occurs.However, a larger heap also takes longer to compact and causes garbage collectionto take longer.The JVM has thresholds it uses to manage the JVMs storage. When the thresholdsare reached, the garbage collector gets invoked to free up unused storage.Therefore, garbage collection can cause significant degradation of Java performance.Before changing the initial and maximum heap sizes, you should consider thefollowing information: In the majority of cases you should set the maximum JVM heap size to value higher than the initial JVM heap size. This allows for the JVM to operate efficiently during normal, steady state periods within the confines of the initial heap but also to operate effectively during periods of high transaction volume by expanding the heap up to the maximum JVM heap size. In some rare cases where absolute optimal performance is required you might want to specify the same value for both the initial and maximum heap size. This will eliminate some overhead that occurs when the JVM needs to expand or contract the size of the JVM heap. Make sure the region is large enough to hold the specified JVM heap.Beware of making the Initial Heap Size too large. While a large heap size initiallyimproves performance by delaying garbage collection, a large heap size ultimatelyaffects response time when garbage collection eventually kicks in because thecollection process takes more time.What is FFDC?a) The first failure data capture (FFDC) log file saves information that isgenerated from a processing failure. These files are deleted after a maximumnumber of days has passed .
    • There are two artifacts which are produced by FFDC, the information can be locatedin the <Install Root>/logs/FFDC directory:* Exception Logs:<ServerName>_Exception.log* IncidentStream:<ServerName>_<threadid>_<timeStamp>_<SequenceNumber>.txtException Logrow elementsThe exception logs contains all of the exception paths which have been encounteredsince the server has started. Due to optimizations in the data collection, the tablewas created to give an over view of the exceptions which have been encountered inthe server. A entry in the table look like this :Index Occur Time of last Occurence Exception SourceId ProbeIdences-----------------------------------------------------------------------1 1 02.04.11 13:12:33:711 CDT java.io.IOExceptioncom.ibm.ws.webcontainer.http.HttpTransport.startTransport 103The first element in the row is a simply index, this is simply used to determine thenumber of rows in the table. In some entries, a + may appear in the first column,this indicates that the row has been added to the table since the last time the entiretable was dunmped.The second element is the number of occurences. This is useful to see if there is anunusual number of exceptions which are occurring.The third element in the row, is a time stamp for the last occurence of theexeception. This is useful in looking at exceptions which have occurred at about thesame time.The last element in the row is a combination of values. This consists of the exceptionname, a source Id and the probe Id. This information is useful to locate informationin the incident steam about the specific failure.file contentThe make up of the file can be a little confusing when first viewed. The file is aaccumulation of all of the dumps which have occurred over the life of the server.This means that much of the informaion in the file is out of data, and does not applyto the current server. The most relevent information is the last (tail) of the file.It is quite easy to locate the last dump of the exception table. The dump will bedeliminated by -------------------.... Entries which begin with a + appear outsidethe delimination of the table, and indicate that they are additions to the table since
    • the last time the table was dumped. (Again due to performance concerns, the tableis dump only periodically, and when the server is stopping).Here is a screen image of the end of the Server1_Exception.logThe information in the above file is displayed in the unordered form as the hashtable. A more viewable form of the file would be to actually sort the output basedupon the time stamp. (This is done by using mks commands, hopefully there areavailable on your system).Sorted output of only the last dump of the exception table forServer1_Exception.log. This is done by the following command :tail -n<n> <servername>_exception.log | sort -k4nwhere n is the number exceptions in the exception table plus 1 (use the index valueto determine this value).<servername> is the name of the server.Note: The sort key needs a little work for servers which have rolled the data.For demonstration purposes, the start, run and stop time have been included in theexception log..Incident StreamThe incident stream contains more details about exceptions which have beenencountered during the running of the server. Depending on the configuration of theproperty files, the content of the incident streams will vary.The default settings of the property files, the incident stream will not containexception information for exceptions which were encountered during the start of theserver (due to the Level=1 in the ffdcStart.properties). But where the server does toready, and new exeception which is encountered will be processed.The incident stream files should be used in conjunction of the exception log. Thevalues which are contained in the exception log, in most instances will have acorresponding entry in the incident stream. The relationship between the exceptionlog and the incident stream is the hash code which is made up of the exceptiontype, the source Id, and the probe Id. The simpliest way to look at this informationis to use the grep command. The information is not all contained on the same line, ifyou need to know the exact file containing the value, you can use a compound grepcommand.file contentThe file contains information on exception which have been encountered. Eachexception will contain information which corresponds to the information (exceptionname, source Id and the probe Id) contained in the exception table (documentedabove). If the catch of the exception is a non-static method, the content of the thispointer. In some instances, if there is a diagnostic module which corresponds to thecurrent execution, the DM will write the information about the state of the object to
    • the incident stream.The call stack will also be written to the incident stream.In some instances, there may be an exception which was encountered while theserver is running which will not produce a call stack. This is because the exceptionwas encountered during the start of the server, and since the server started, theexception is considered to be a normal path exception. All of the exception can beseen by either looking at all of the runtime exceptions, or looking at all of theexceptions.How many SSL Certificate authorities available in today’s market ?There might be many SSL CAs. Some of the SSL CAs are Etrust Verisign Geotrust RSA etc.Tell about class loader and where we use?a) Class loader enable the Java Virtual Machine( JVM) to load java classes.Given the name of a class, the class loader locates the definition of this class. Eachjava class must be loaded by a class loader. There are three class loaders: Bootstrap class loader The Extensions class loader The application class loader Default class loader option is Parent first class loader.How many certifications are available in the WAS?a)Application Servers: Distributed Application and Web Servers Test 377, IBM WebSphere Application Server, Network I May 2009 253 Deployment, V7.0, Core AdministrationBusiness Integration: Application Integration and Connectivity Test 378, IBM WebSphere DataPower SOA Appliances Firmware I June 2009 289 V3.7.x Test 374, IBM WebSphere MQ V7.0, System Administration I July 2009 994
    • Test 376, IBM WebSphere MQ V7.0, Solution Design I August 2009 996Business Integration: Dynamic Business Process Management Test 372, IBM WebSphere Business Modeler Advanced V6.2, I July 2009 992 Business Analysis and Design Test 375, IBM WebSphere Process Server V6.2, System I October 995 Administration 2009Commerce: Web Commerce None in plan.Software Development: Web Services Test 371, Web Services Development for IBM WebSphere I August 2009 807 Application Server V7.0* E = entry; I = intermediate; A = advanced36) What are the differences between 5.x and 6.x ? WAS 6.x has all the features of WAS 5.x along with some additional features included in the WAS 6.x which are Multiple profiles creation with a single installation. Introduction of service integration Bus (SIB) for messanging. Has default JMS providers Webservers can be managed from VD admin console and also can create generic servers. Has some extra addons in the admin console navigation tree. Rollout Application update option: Automatic roll out of application update in a clustered environment Ensures no service interruption of the application. Stops,updates and starts the application one cluster member at a time, while the other cluster members continue to run the application Enhanced EAR file: Using the enhanced EAR editor from the Application Developer or application Server Toolkit, you can define resources and properties for the application For example datasource, JAAS authentication aliases, Environment Variables etc. Are embed within the application resulting in an Enhanced EAR, and then export that to be installed by your system administrator. the system
    • administrator no longer need to define this deployment information, as it is already included. Mixed version Node in cell: supports V5x and V6 nodes in a Cell, Dmgr must be V6 level. V5x node can be on different platforms. Rapid Deployment: Websphere rapid deployment(WRD) simplifies the development and deployment of application. Its capabilities include annotation-based programing,deployment automation, and change-triggered process. to use WD functionality, no changes are required on the application server. It uses existing application server administration function to deploy and control applications. Annotation-based programming allows the developer to add metadata tags into application source code. WRD uses the metadata to generate additional J2EE artifacts needed to run the application on the application srver environment. Change trigger processing provided automatic monitoring of changes to the WRD user workspace. Changes trigger the automatc generation of code and deployment of the application to the application server. J2EE support: WebSphere application server v6 supoorts three levels of the J2EE specification. J2EE 1.4 is the new level supported with V6 with exsting J2EE 1.2 and J2EE 1.3 applications will continue to run on v6 WebSphere application server V6 files are divided into two categories: Product files: shared application binaries for WebSphere User files; set of user customizations include WebSphere configuration, installed applications, resource adapters, properties, log files, transaction log files etc. Improved Administrative Console Appearance and functionality console views change based on the context version platporm installed capabilities
    •  Integrated Tivoli Performance viewer Integrated IBM HTTP server V6 management Fine Grinned Application update: Ability to add, update or remove parts of the installed application and restart the changed part.37) Why you prefer 6.x ?Absolutely WAS 6X because in 6x there are advanced features than earlier versionsso we prefer 6X38) What is the command to create profile ?a) Manageprofile create -ProfileName <profile_name>-Profilepath <Profile_path>-NodeName <Node_Name>-templatePath <Templete_path>-cellName <Cell_Name>-hostName <Host_Name>List Profile:Manageprofile –listprofilesDelete Profile:Manageprofile –delete –profilename <profile_name>39) How many ways we can deploy the application ? and What is thecommand to deploy application ?a) It depends on the version of the WAS we are using, but 5X and above providethe following options. 1) Using Admin Console: In admin console Enterprise applications -- > Install Provide the required parameters like full path, context root, etc.
    • 2) Hot Deployment : “We could copy directly the JAR files to the deployedapps folder in the websphere “ we call this method as Hot Deployment Dropping JSP files, with enabled class reloading ( Not recommended for Production) 3) Using Wsadmin command: 4) Using Jacl or Jython Scripts: 5) Rapid Deployment (Feature available at 6x): a) WebSphere rapid deployment (WRD) simplifies the development and deployment of application. Its capabilities include annotation-based programing, deployment automation, and change- triggered process. to use WD functionality, no changes are required on the application server. It uses existing application server administration function to deploy and control applications. Annotation-based programming allows the developer to add metadata tags into application source code. WRD uses the metadata to generate additional J2EE artifacts needed to run the application on the application srver environment. Change trigger processing provided automatic monitoring of changes to the WRD user workspace. Changes trigger the automatic generation of code and deployment of the application to the application server.40) What is authentication mechanism in JDBC driver?a) In JDBC driver configuration we can configure the authentication details inJ2C authentication pan. This is the credentials to login into the Relational database.41) How u will secure your administrative console, if u r using local O/Susers registry u r getting messages like not able to authenticate what u willdo? What is the solution?a) There might be the privileges issue to the user in O/S level. So we need togive proper privileges to the user by logging in as System administrator.42) What is the difference between WAR, EAR, JAR and what is thedifference between deployments of these?a) In J2EE application modules are packaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based ontheir functionality
    • JAR: EJB modules which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJBdeployment descriptor are packed as JAR files with .jar extenstionWAR :Web modules which contains Servlet class files,JSP FIles,supporting files, GIFand HTML files are packaged as JAR file with .war( web achive) extensionEAR :All above files(.jar and .war) are packaged as JAR file with .ear ( enterprisearchive) extension and deployed into Application Server.There is no much difference in deploying these applications. We need to give contextroot for WAR and for others no need to give. EAR deployment: If we have two or more modules then we can target individual modules to individual servers.43) How you will solve if u get page can’t displayed?a) It is a HTTP 404 error. If you get this error we need to check the logs forapplication server status. The page expecting by the request is not finding thatmeans request is reaching the server but it is not available at expected location.44) WAS architecture? The WebSphere architecture contains Cell, DMGR, Node. Where Cell on top of the hierarchy. Within the cell Dmgr will be there where admin console is lying. For the Cell we can federate the Nodes and on the Nodes we can configure the application servers. If you want then I can explain the Web container and EJB container and Web server and JDBC etc.Web containerwhen we receive request from client browser so web container will act as interfacebetween client request and Servlets and jsp in other words Servlets and jsp willreside under web container in order to server client request. hence we required webcontainer in order to invoke Servlets or JSP (Java Server Pages)EJB Container:An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container provides a run-time environment forenterprise beans within the application server. The container handles all aspects ofan enterprise beans operation within the application server and acts as an
    • intermediary between the user-written business logic within the bean and the rest ofthe application server environment.One or more EJB modules, each containing one or more enterprise beans, can beinstalled in a single container.The EJB container provides many services to the enterprise bean, including thefollowing: • Beginning, committing, and rolling back transactions as necessary. • Maintaining pools of enterprise bean instances ready for incoming requests and moving these instances between the inactive pools and an active state, ensuring that threading conditions within the bean are satisfied. • Most importantly, automatically synchronizing data in an entity beans instance variables with corresponding data items stored in persistent storage.45) What is cluster, how request routes between cluster members?a) The algorithm which we select for load balance will route the requests. Thereare two algorithms 1) Round robin 2) Random46) Can you give me two major issues you faced and solved?a) The application was having error with SSL , shows bad certificate on theapplication right cornor..So customer requested for root cause forGSK_ERROR_BAD_CERT . I investigated...... like certificsate mismacth between Plugin and the WebSphere.. 1. I found in the WAS console that, the default personal certs in the node level of WAS in not reflected in the web servers. Which was added in the DMGR? Steps i followed to resolve this are : 1. I noted down the personal certificates serial no from the nodes by navigating to Security --> SSL certificate and key management--> Manage endpoint security configurations -->Inbound--> expand cell-->Node--> Key stores and certificates -->NodeDefaultKeyStore-->Personal Certificates
    • Noted down the serial number of the default certificate then--- >Extracted the certificate to Server temp path.Come to inbound/outbound---> expand cell-->node-->web server--> Keystores and certificates-->CMSkeystore -->signer certificates--> verify theserial no of the previous nodes certs....I found one of the cert is not appear here in Web server.i Added the same from here.. as i already enabled Dynamically update theruntime when changes occur" option.. it should update without restart...Then i came to Plugin-key.kdb to verify whether the added cert is updated inthe KDB or not.. using ikeyman.Reference:http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=180&uid=swg21264477http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21198862a copy of WebSphere Application Server V6.1 or V7.0 (or another relatedproduct) is present in the specified directory, even when the ODM VPD isclean.While uninstalling the older version of WAS(5.x) to upgrade it to 6. weuninstalled and but it was not uninstalled clearly....We tried to remove the registry with Smitty tool... after that also we are notable to install as it says the path contains the WAS already installed.So we contacted the WAS product support from IBM raised PMR.. where wegot some resolutions to clear the ODM......Then they suggested to try withmanual_WebSphere_ODM_wipe.shmanual_IHS_ODM_wipe.shAfter that we followed the same with suggested steps and we succeededfinally we upgraded to 6x.It was one of challenging task in my career
    • 47) What is the Ticketing process and escalation /approval process?a) For all issues operations team gets alerts and they used to raise the ticketsagainst the appropriate team through USD (unicentre service desk). Depending onthe priority we used to allot the tickets. The priority was like (high priority P1, P2,and low priority P3, P4, P5). Low priority tickets were attending by offshore team andhigh priority were serving by onsite team. For high priority tickets we need to getapprovals from the service delivery manager. Intern service delivery manager willtake all approvals from the client side to deliver the solution. Once we get theapprovals then service delivery manager will start a bridge call48) What is the difference between web server and App Server?a) A Web server exclusively handles HTTP requests, whereas an applicationserver serves business logic to application programs through any number ofprotocols49) What is rollout update in was6.1?a) Automatic roll out of application update in a clustered environmentEnsures no service interruption of the application. Stops, updates and starts theapplication one cluster member at a time, while the other cluster members continueto run the application50) What is JDK version supporting in WAS 6.1?a) J2RE 1.5.051) How to set plug-in logs ?a) In Administrative console Servers --> Webservers -->Webserver -->log files (configuration tab)( here we can change the path of the log files (access.log,error.log)52) What is the difference between heap dump and thread dump?a) Heap dumps anytime you wish to see what is being held in memory Out-of-memory errorsHeap dumps - picture of in memory objects - used for memory analysisJava cores - also known as thread dumps or java dumps, used for viewing the threadactivity inside the JVM at a given time. IBM java cores should a lot of additionalinformation besides just the threads and stacks -- used to determine hangs,deadlocks, and reasons for performance degradationSystem coresHeap dumps are taken by issuing a "kill -3" against the JVM pid. There is a costassociated with producing heap dumps. The writing of the heap dump can be cpuand i/o intensive depending on the size of the configured heap, you can take heap
    • dumps anytime you wish to see what is being held in memory. Out-of-memory errorsor a good time to view heap dumps. In fact,in most cases heap dumps should becreated when an OOM is triggered. Unless youre an administrator or root youll needto own the process you want to kill in order for the command to work.Depends on the OS.Java cores also known as thread dumps or java dumps, used for viewing the threadactivity inside the JVM at a given time. Thread dump should also contain a lot ofadditional information besides just the threads and stacks used to determine hangs,deadlocks, and reasons for performance degredation.The kill -3 command captures JVM signals and dumps the requested diagnosticmaterial.There are options available to dump the heap in .txt format this files can behuge and unless youre a genius with lots of time on your hands - dont try to readthe text dump with vi or something…..…….Use MDD4J or HeapAnalyzer.For taking heap dumps you need set these environment entries for that JVM usingadmin consle(this is one way of doing taking heap dumps, u can also go with jacl orjython scripts)IBM_HEAPDUMP TRUEIBM_HEAPDUMP_OUTOFMEMORY true(if a OOM occurs, a dump is saved to /tmpIBM_HEAPDUMPDIR appropriate directory.Now, if you run kill -3 pid, then a heap dump is taken in the specified directory andalso a core dump will be taken. If you didnt specify any environment entries thenonly a core dump is taken53) How you will check the details of a process if you know only port number of that process? First we need to find the socketno of that port by using Netstat –Aan|grep <port_no> Then we need to find the sid by using the socketno Rmsock <socketno> protocol Ex: #netstat –Aan|grep 944 #f100020000fc4398 ……………you get some more information…. #rmsock f100020000fc4398 tcpcb The socket oxfc4008 is being by process 626888 (Java) Ps –ef|grep 626888
    • You get the detailed information about the said process.54) What are the regular issues you get in production support and howyou resolve them?a) Usually we get tickets from the operational team. Some of the call which wefaced are 1) Out of Memory: If we get this error we need to check for the standards configured in the application server. I mean heap settings in the server and if not we need to resent according to the standards. If you are getting this error frequently then we need to ask application team to check for the memory leakage. We can get this statics from the Natice_stdout and Native_stderr files. 2) No of connections reached Check for the recommended connection pool size in the JDBC driver. Check the unused connections. Temporarily increase the connection pool size. After analysing the logs and situation if required then recycle the application server to resolve the issue. 3) File System issue: Check the file system by using DU Forward to the System admin team and coordinate for the resolution. 4) Thread Dump: Create the thread dump by issuing kill-3 command and forward to the application team for analysis. 5) 100% CPU utilisation: Check for the CPU utilisation bye using TOPAS command. If required then kill some of the non important process which are taking more cpu % 6) HTTP errors like (HTTP 400,401,403,404,500,502 etc.) HTTP 400 (Bad Request):
    • This error comes with because of syntax errors in the URL which was typed by client. Need to provide the correct (updated) URL to the users. HTP 401(UN authorised): This error comes after providing the credentials .that means the provided credentials are not having the privileged access to the requested content or page. We need to access for the requirement of the access to the credentials if require we need to add this user to the group to which the privileged access is there for the particular page or content. HTTP 403 Forbidden: Edge component is not configured properly SSO configuration might be not configured yet. WCP (WebSphere Catching component) There was separate team for proxy configuration so no idea on this issue. HTTP 404 (Page not found or file not found): Need to check the system out file for the logs and verify the ear file HTTP 500 internal errors: It is server-side error (Web server or application server). Might be application server or web server or down. Need to recycle by verifying the system out logs for analysis. HTTP 502 Bad Gateways: This might be because of Network issue. To resolve this issue we need to engage the Network team and coordinate for the solution.55) What are the disadvantages of Memory to memory replication?Ans) it consumes large amount of memory in networks with many users, because each server has a copy of all sessions. And another disadvantage is each change to a session must be replicated to all application servers.56) Difference between horizontal clustering and vertical clustering?Ans) the main difference between horizontal cluster and vertical cluster are:1) We can configure the cluster members on the same node in the vertical clustering, whereas in horizontal clustering cluster members will be there on different nodes. In other words A WebSphere cluster consists of having multiple application servers (cluster member or clones) across a machine (Vertical Cluster) or across several machines (Horizontal Cluster)57) Without admin console how to administrate the web server?
    • Ans) Using the “httpd.conf” file.58) What is meant by symptom data base?Ans) A symptom database is an XML file of symptoms, string match patterns, associated solutions, and directives. The database is used in the analysis of event and error messages that may occur in a log.A symptom is an error or event message. It may have a solution associated with it in the symptom database. A solution is information about why an error or an event may have occurred and how to recover from it.Log records can be analyzed using a symptom database to interpret known events and error conditions, and to get detailed information on error resolution.Symptom databases can be imported from an external XML symptom database, saved, and exported into an external file in XML format. You can either import symptom databases from a local or a remote host.59) What is collector tool?Ans) 1) Collector tool is the tool which collects the information about the websphere application server installation and configuration.2) This is available in two versionsa) Default standalone collector( implemented as a shell script in profle root) collects almost all the logs and configuration files found on the system, without distinctionb) A new flexible collector tool is integrated into ISA3) In either case, the result is JAR file that contains a lot of information needed by IBM support to diagnose the problema) JAR file is to IBM supportb) Only need to be run upon IBM support’s request.60) What is loganalizer & how to use?Ans) Log Analyzer provides interactive interface to WebSphere activity log and contains on-line diagnoses and resolutions to known problemsLog analyser, the tool that was previously provided for viewing and analyzing the activity or service log file, is removed from 6.1 release of the IBM WebSphere application server.Instead, use IBM log and trace analyser for Eclipse in the application server toolkit, installable from the launchpad console.For more information, see application server toolkit> detecting and analyzing runtime problems > log and trace analyzer in the information center.Overview
    • The Log Analyzer, is a separately downloaded feature of WebSphere 3.5.2 and later (it is now bundled with WebSphere 4.0x. 4.0+ and 5.0 users do not need to download the the tool). It is designed to assist customers in diagnosing and resolving common runtime problems.Starting the Log Analyzer in WindowsWindows users may launch it manually with the command <WebSphere Root>binwaslogbrStarting the Log Analyzer in Unix1. Change directory to <serverRoot>/bin; and2. Invoke shell script waslogbr./waslogbrThe Log Analyzer is a GUI application, so Unix users will need to launch it from a machine with a CDE-type environment, or export the display to a GUI client platform.Using the Log AnalyzerOnce the tool has opened, use the File->open menu item, and select the file <websphere install root>/logs/activity.log. (You can also browse to activity.logs which customers have sent you.) Expand the tree of WebSphere admin and app server logging sessions. Uncolored records are "normal", yellow are warnings, and pink are errors. If you select a record, youll see its contents, including the basic error or warning message, date, time, which WebSphere component logged the record, and which process (i.e., admin server or an app server) it came from, in the upper-right hand pane.The Log Analyzer does not analyze any other log files, such as default_stderr.log or tracefile.To analyze the records, right click on a record in the tree on the left (click on the "UnitOfWorkView" at the top to get em all), and select "analyze". Now any records with a green check mark next to them match a record in the symptom database. When you select a check-marked record, youll see and explanation of the problem in the lower-right-hand pane.Updating the symptom databaseThe database of known problems and resolutions -- used by WebSphere when you click the "analyze" menu item -- is periodically enhanced as new problems come to light and new versions of WebSphere are introduced. To ensure that you have the latest version of the database, use the "file -> update database -> advanced symptom database" menu item from within the log analyzer tool. A good rule of thumb would be to do this at least once a month. Users who have just installed the product and have never run the update should do so immediately, since extensive updates have been made since the tool was released.61) What is MBeans?Ans) MBeans are managed beans, Java objects that represent resources to be managed. An MBean has a management interface consisting of:• Named and typed attributes that can be read and written• Named and typed operations that can be invoked• Typed notifications that can be emitted by the MBean
    • Websphere application server provides a number of MBeans, each of which can have different function and operations available. For exa) An application server MBean migh expose operations such as start and stopb) An application MBean might expose operations such as install and uninstall.For example, an MBean representing an applications configuration could have attributes representing the different configuration parameters, such as a cache size. Reading the CacheSize attribute would return the current size of the cache. Writing CacheSize would update the size of the cache, potentially changing the behavior of the running application. An operation such as save could store the current configuration persistently. The MBean could send a notification such as ConfigurationChangedNotification when the configuration changes.MBeans can be standard or dynamic. Standard MBeans are Java objects that conform to design patterns derived from the JavaBeans component model. Dynamic MBeans define their management interface at runtime.A standard MBean exposes the resource to be managed directly through its attributes and operations. Attributes are exposed through "getter" and "setter" methods. Operations are the other methods of the class that are available to managers. All these methods are defined statically in the MBean interface and are visible to a JMX agent through introspection. This is the most straightforward way of making a new resource manageable.A dynamic MBean is an MBean that defines its management interface at runtime. For example, a configuration MBean could determine the names and types of the attributes it exposes by parsing an XML file.62) What is SSO ?Ans) Single sign-on (SSO) is a property of access control of multiple, related, but independent software systems. With this property a user logs in once and gains access to all systems without being prompted to log in again at each of them. Single sign-off is the reverse property whereby a single action of signing out terminates access to multiple software systems.As different applications and resources support different authentication mechanisms, single sign-on has to internally translate to and store different credentials compared to what is used for initial authentication.63) Difference between cell and nodegroup?Ans) the node group can exist in the cellThe main difference between node group and cell is cell can have nodes which are there in different platforms but nodegroup will have all the nodes which exist on same type of platform
    • Ex: in cell you can have nodes which are there in IBM AIX,HP AIX, Windows, Sun Solaris.. But we will group all windows platform based nodes into one group, and all IBM AIX nodes into one group etc.64) Shall we have different nodes in different platforms with in a node group?Ans) No, because node group is nothing but group of nodes which are there on same platforms.65) What is TPV?Ans) Tivoli Performance Viewer. The Tivoli Performance Viewer (TPV) enables administrators and programmers to monitor the overall health of WebSphere Application Server without leaving the administrative console.From TPV, you can view current activity or log Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI) performance data for the following:• System resources such as CPU utilization• WebSphere pools and queues such as a database connection pool• Customer application data such as servlet response timeIn addition to providing a built in viewer for PMI, TPV also allows you to view data for other products or customer applications that implement custom PMI66) What is the purpose of JNDI?Ans) Sun’s JNDI API is a standard extension to the java platform and it allows the java application to access naming and directory services. With the help of JNDI java applications can seamlessly access the heterogeneous enterprise naming and directory services like DNS, LDAP, and Local file system, or objects in an application server.67) What is trace file & where you get more details in trace or log files?Ans) Trace file contains the step by step activity details of the WAS process. Trace file only contains more details than the logfile68) What is virtual host and give two different virtual hosts?Ans) The term Virtual Host refers to the practice of maintaining more than one server on one machine, as differentiated by their apparent hostname. For example, it is often desirable for companies sharing a web server to have their own domains, with web servers accessible as www.company1.com and www.company2.com, without requiring the user to know any extra path information.69) What are difference scripting options in wasadmin engine?Ans) There are four types of scripting optionsa) Admincontrol
    • b) Adminconfigc) AdminAppd) AdminTask70) What are the WAS resources?Ans) WAS resources are JDBC, JMS,Mail service, Resource Adpaters, Cache instances, URL,Etc..71) What is the functionality of web server plug-in file?Ans) Web server plug-insA Web server can serve requests that do not require any dynamic content (for example, HTML pages). However, when a request requires dynamic content, such as JavaServer Pages (JSP™) or servlet processing, it must be forwarded to WebSphere Application Server for handling. To forward a request, you use a Web server plug-in that is included with the WebSphere Application Server packages for installation on a Web server. You copy an Extensible Markup Language (XML) configuration file, configured on the WebSphere Application Server, to the Web server plug-in directory. The plug-in uses the configuration file to determine whether a request should be handled by the Web server or an application server. When WebSphere Application Server receives a request for an application server, it forwards the request to the appropriate Web container in the application server. The plug-in can use HTTP or HTTPs to transmit the request.72) How to detect the hangs of JVMs?Ans) If your logs are not rotating that means your JVM hanged.73) What is FFDC? Where you will use?Ans) FFDC is nothing but first failure data capture. This is generated at the first time failure of your system. It will be deleted after some time automatically. It is usefull for diagnosis purpose.74) How you get better performance by giving the –xnoclassgc in generic JVM arguments in the JVM ?Ans) By default the JVM unloads a class from memory when there are no live instances of that class left, but this can degrade performance. Tuning off class garbage collection eliminates the overhead of loading and un-loading the same class multiple times. If a class is no longer needed, the space that it occupies on the heap is normally used for the creation of new objects. However if you have an application that handles requests by creating new instance of a class and if requests for that application come in at random times, it is possible that when previous requester is finished, the normal class garbage collection will clear up this class by freeing the heap space it occupied, only to have re-instantiate the class when the next request comes along. In this situation you might want to use this option to disable the garbage collection of classesAvoid Trouble:
    • This option should be used with caution, if your application creates dynamically or uses reflection, because for this type of application, the use of this option can lead to native memory exhaustion, and cause the JVM to throw an out of memory exception. When this option is used, if have to redeploy an application you should always restart the application server to clear the classes and static data from the previous version the application. 75) What is Webcontainer failover?Ans) The Web server plug-in in the Web server is aware of the configuration of all Web containers and can route around a failed Web container in a cluster. Sessions can be persisted to a database or in-memory using data replication services. 76) Explain about dynamic cache in WAS ? Ans) Dynamic cache service The dynamic cache service improves performance by caching the output of servlets, commands, Web services, and JSP files. The dynamic cache works within an application server, intercepting calls to objects that can be cached (for example, through a servlet’s service() method or a command’s execute() method). The dynamic cache either stores the object’s output to or serves the object’s content from the dynamic cache. Because J2EE applications have high read-write ratios and can tolerate small degrees of latency in the currency of their data, the dynamic cache can create significant gains in server response time, throughput, and scalability. The following caching features are available in WebSphere Application Server: Cache replication Cache replication among cluster members takes place using the WebSphere data replication service. Data is generated one time and then copied or replicated to other servers in the cluster, saving execution time and resources. Cache disk offload By default, when the number of cache entries reaches the configured limit for a given WebSphere server, eviction of cache entries occurs, enabling new entries to enter the cache service. The dynamic cache includes an alternative feature named disk offload, which copies the evicted cache entries to disk for potential future access Edge Side Include caching The Web server plug-in contains a built-in Edge Side Include (ESI) processor. The ESI processor caches whole pages, as well as fragments, providing a higher cache hit ratio. The cache that is implemented by the ESI processor is an in-memory cache, not a disk cache. Therefore, the cache entries are not saved when the Web server is restarted. External caching The dynamic cache controls caches outside of the application server, such as that provided by the Edge components, an IBM HTTP Server’s FRCA cache that is not
    • z/OS, and a WebSphere HTTP Server plug-in ESI Fragment Processor that is notz/OS. When external cache groups are defined, the dynamic cache matches externalcache entries with those groups and pushes out cache entries and invalidations tothose groups. This external caching enables WebSphere to manage dynamic contentbeyond the applicationserver. The content can then be served from the external cache instead of theapplication server, improving performance.Dynamic cachingThe dynamic cache service improves performance by caching the output of servlets,commands and JSP files. The dynamic cache works within an application server,intercepting calls to cacheable objects, for example through a servlets service()method or a commands execute() method, and either storesthe objects output to or serves the objects content from the dynamic cache.Because J2EE applications have high read-write ratios and can tolerate small degreesof latency in the currency of their data, the dynamic cache can create an opportunityfor significant gains in server response time, throughput, andscalability. The following caching features are available in WebSphere ApplicationServer.Cache replication:Cache replication among cluster members takes place using the WebSphere internalreplication service. Data is generated one time and copied or replicated to otherservers in the cluster, thus saving execution time and resources.Cache disk offload:By default, when the number of cache entries reaches the configured limit for a givenWebSphere server, eviction of cache entries takes place, allowing new entries toenter the cache service. The dynamic cache includes an alternative feature nameddisk offload, which copies the evicted cache entries to disk for potential futureaccess. Edge Side Include caching:The Web server plug-in contains a built-in ESI processor. The ESI processor has theability to cache whole pages, as well as fragments, providing a higher cache hit ratio.The cache implemented by the ESI processor is an in-memory cache, not a diskcache; therefore, the cache entries are not saved when theWeb server is restarted.External caching:The dynamic cache has the ability to control caches outside of the application server,such as IBM Edge Server, a non-z/OS IBM HTTP Servers FRCA cache, and a non-z/OS WebSphere HTTP Server plug-in ESI Fragment Processor. When external cachegroups are defined, the dynamic cache matches externally cacheable cache entrieswith those groups, and pushes cache entries and invalidations out to them. Thisallows WebSphere to manage dynamic content beyond the application server. The
    • content can then be served from the external cache, instead of the applicationserver, improving savings in performance.77) Administrator point of view how many containers are there in was 6.1 ?Ans) In WAS 6.1 we have 5 containers which are :Portlet Container :Portlet applications are intended to be combined with other portlets to collectively create a single page of output. The Portlet container takes the output of one or more Portlets and generates a complete page that can be displayed.Portlets are packaged in WAR files. Note that the portlet runtime does not provide the advanced capabilities of WebSphere Portal, such as portlet aggregation and page layout, personalization and member services, or collaboration features.Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) applicationsSIP applications are Java programs that use at least one Session Initiation Protocol servlet written to the JSR 116 specification. SIP is used to establish,modify, and terminate multimedia IP sessions. SIP negotiates the medium, thetransport, and the encoding for the call. After the SIP call has been established,the communication takes place over the specified transport mechanism,independent of SIP. Examples of application types that use SIP include voice over IP, click-to- call, and instant messaging. The Application Server Toolkit provides special tools for developing SIP applications. SIP applications are packaged as SIP archive (SAR) files and are deployed to the application server using the standard WebSphere Application Server administrative tools. SAR files can also be bundled within a J2EE application archive (EAR file), similar to other J2EE components.Web container:The Web container processes servlets, JSP files and other types of server-side includes.Each application server runtime has one logical Web container, which can be modified,but not created or removed.Servlet processing:when handling servlets, the Web container creates a requestobject and a response object, then invokes the servlet service method. The Webcontainer invokes the servlet’s destroy method when appropriate and unloads theservlet, after which the JVM performs garbage collection.Embedded HTTP server: the Web container runs an embedded HTTP server forhandling HTTP(S) requests from external Web server plug-ins or Web browsers. Theembedded Web server is based on the IBM HTTP Server product. Directing clientrequests to the embedded Web server is useful for testing or
    • development purposes and, in the Express configuration, can be considered forproduction use. In the more advanced configurations, the use of an external Webserver and Web server plug-in as a front end to the Web container is moreappropriate for a production environment. Session management: support is provided for the javax.servlet.http.HttpSessioninterface described in the Servlet API specification. Web services engine: Web services are provided as a set of APIs in cooperationwith the J2EE applications. Web services engines are provided to support SOAP.Web server plug-insAlthough the Web container has an embedded HTTP server, a more likely scenario isthat an external Web server will be used to receive client requests. The Web servercan serve requests that do not require any dynamic content, for example, HTMLpages. However, when a request requires dynamic content (JSP/servlet processing), it must be forwarded to WebSphere Application Server forhandling. The mechanism to accomplish this is provided in the form of a Web serverplug-in. The plug-in is included with the WebSphere Application Server package forinstallation on a Web server. An XML configuration file, configured on the WebSphereApplication Server, is copied to the Web server plug-in directory. Theplug-in uses the configuration file to determine whether a request should be handledby the Web server or an application server. When a request for an application serveris received, it is forwarded to the appropriate Web container in the applicationserver. The plug-in can use HTTP or HTTPs to transmit therequest. EJB containerThe EJB container provides all the runtime services needed to deploy and manageenterprise beans. It is a server process that handles requests for both session andentity beans. The enterprise beans (packaged in EJB modules) installed in anapplication server do not communicate directly with the server; instead, the EJBcontainer provides an interface between the EJBs and the server. Together, thecontainer and the server provide the bean runtime environment. The containerprovides many low-level services, including threading and transaction support. Froman administrative viewpoint, the container manages data storage and retrieval forthe contained beans. A single container can host more than one EJB JAR file. Client application containerThe client application container is a separately installed component on the clientsmachine. It allows the client to run applications in an EJB-compatible J2EEenvironment. There is a command-line executable (launchClient) which is used tolaunch the client application along with its client container runtime78) What is deployment descriptor and how many dedployment descriptors are available ?
    • Ans) A deployment descriptor (DD) refers to a configuration file for an artifactthat is deployed to some container/engine.In the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, a deployment descriptor describes how aweb application or enterprise application should be deployed. It directs a deploymenttool to deploy a module or application with specific container options, securitysettings and describes specific configuration requirements. XML is used for thesyntax of these deployment descriptor files. For web applications, the deploymentdescriptor must be called web.xml and must reside in a WEB-INF subdirectory at theweb application root. For Java EE applications, the deployment descriptor must benamed application.xml and must be placed directly in the META-INF directory at thetop level of the application .ear file.Deployment descriptors describe the contents of deployment units and configurecomponents and applications to their environment. They also externalize therelationships between components, so those relationships can be managed withoutwriting or changing program code. Deployment tools usually automatically generatedeployment descriptors, so you do not have to edit and manage them directly.There are five types of deployment descriptors, each of which corresponds to a typeof deployment unit: • EJB deployment descriptors are defined in the Enterprise JavaBeans specification. • Web deployment descriptors are defined in the Java Servlet specification. • Application and application client deployment descriptors are both defined in the J2EE platform specification. • Resource adapter deployment descriptors for Java Connectors are defined by the J2EE Connector architecture specification.Each deployment descriptor type is defined in its corresponding specification as anXML Document Type Definition (DTD).Deployment descriptors contain information used by a components container andalso contain information that the component can access directly by way of the JNDI.The JNDI is a standard interface to an enterprise object name service.79) Difference between JACL & JYTHON and which one is better?Ans) 1) a) Jython depends on the Python commands whereas Jacl(Java command language) depends on the Tcl commands. b) Jython syntax seems more natural to programmers used to Java or C, but Jacl syntax can be more familiar to administrators who are familiar with Tcl
    • c) Each language has its own style and syntax, but they end up being able to do the same things WSADMIN scripting tool can be used in an interactive mode, the main ability for wsadmin is to provide the ability to run scripts. 80) What is WebSphere and explain the functionality of the WAS? IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS), a software application server, is the flagship product within IBMs WebSphere brand. WAS is built using open standards such as J2EE, XML, and Web Services. Multiple world-wide IBM labs participate in creating WebSphere run-time products and development tools. It works with a number of Web servers including Apache HTTP Server, Netscape Enterprise Server, Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), IBM HTTP Server for i5/OS, IBM HTTP Server for z/OS, and IBM HTTP Server for AIX/Linux/Microsoft Windows/Solaris. Ans) WebSphere Application server is middleware software provided by IBM. It is a platform on which Java-based business applications run. It provides services like database connectivity, threading, workload management, and so on that can be used by the business applications. 81) What is the difference in installation of war and ear? Ans) Only difference in this application installation is optional context root for JAR and EAR and for WAR it is mandatory. If EAR file is having multiple modules like JAR,WAR then we can target these files to different application servers.82) What is context root? Ans) The context root identifies the web application. By context root only your configuration file (Plugin-cnf.xml) route the request to the particular application. 83) Why you are not giving context root for EAR? Ans) Context root is optional for EAR file. If we will give context root for EAR, we can access EAR file using that context root, If it uses SSO, we can access thru SSO login page, If EAR contains .JARs which is ment to access through EJB applications, then developers might use any of the protocols like IIOP/RMI in their code/login. 84) What is the memory requirement for 6.x?Ans) 512MB,1 GB is recommended 85) What is the ticket tracking tool you used?
    • Ans) unicentre service desk (USD)86) How you will check CPU utilisation? TOPAS87) What is the data source and how you configure it?Ans) A Data Source object is the representation of a data source in the Java programming language. In basic terms, a data source is a facility for storing data. It can be as sophisticated as a complex database for a large; corporation or as simple as a file with rows and columns. A data source can reside on a remote server, or it can be on a local desktop machine. Applications access a data source using a connection, and a DataSource object can be thought of as a factory for connections to the particular data source that the DataSource instance represents. The DataSource interface provides two methods for establishing a connection with a data source.88) How many jdbc drivers’ types you have in was?Ans) we have 2 types of JDBC drivers in was . Those are Type2(Thick) and Type4(Thin/Native Protocol) jdbc drivers.Type2 JDBC drivers require the database client software on the client node to connect to the database server.Type4 JDBC drivers connect directly to the database server.89) What is the s/w and h/w requirements to install the WAS 6.x? Hard ware requirements for the WAS 6.1 installation. Memory : Minimum 512 MB, Recommended 1GB ( project recommended it will go up to 4GB to 5GB ) Had disk (File system) : Temp : 10GB,Was install root 10GB,Logs : 10GB Soft ware requirements for the WAS 6.1 installation.
    • .90) Which version of unix you are using and what is java version which supports for was 6.x ?
    • Java supporting version for WAS 6.1 is J2EE 1.491) While installing if you get error like “java not found”then what could be the reason and how you solve it?Ans) The problem: Attempting to use the LaunchPad program from CD-ROM installation fails with a /java: not found error.The solution: Change directories to the cdrom/ directory and try the installationagain.92) How you will schedule jobs using cron jobs how you will set? Ans ) Crontab -l======> list the crons crontab -e =====> edit and modify The crontab File Entry Format A crontab file contains entries for each cron job. Entries are separated by
    • newline characters. Each crontab file entry contains six fields separated by spaces or tabs in the following form: minute hour day_of_month month weekday command_with_complete_path ex : To run the calendar command at 6:30 a.m. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, enter: 30 6 * * 1,3,5 /usr/bin/calendar93) Explain about ssl configuration steps using admin console? Configuration of SSL in WebSphere : SSL configuration can be achived in three different ways 1) From Admin console: Once we get the certificate from CA (Certificate Authority) then we will import into trust store. To enable security between IHS and Application server we need to export defaut personal certificates of all nodes and import the same to the trust store of the IHS. 2) Command line : By using “gsk7cmd” command we can achive the SSL configuration. Gsk7cmd provides the otions like import ,export,list,create options for certificates 3) ikeyman: By using ikeyman we can open the KDB(key data base) and add the certificates to the key database.Procedure 1. Click Security > SSL certificate and key management > Manage endpoint security configurations. 2. Select an SSL configuration link on either the Inbound or Outbound tree, depending on the process you are configuring.
    • o If the scope is already associated with a configuration and alias, the SSL configuration alias and certificate alias are noted in parentheses. o If the parenthetical information is not included, then the scope is not associated. Instead, the scope inherits the configuration properties of the first scope above it that is associated with an SSL configuration and certificate alias. The cell scope must be associated with an SSL configuration because it is at the top of the topology and represents the default SSL configuration for the inbound or outbound connection.3. Click SSL configurations under Related Items. You can view and select any of the SSL configurations that are configured at this scope. You can also view and select these configuration at every scope that is lower on the topology.4. Click New to display the SSL configuration panel. You cannot select links under Additional Properties until you type a configuration name and click Apply.5. Type an SSL configuration name. This field is required. The configuration name is the SSL configuration alias. Make the alias name unique within the list of SSL configuration aliases that are already created at the selected scope. The new SSL configuration uses this alias for other configuration tasks.6. Select a truststore name from the drop-down list. A truststore name refers to a specific truststore that holds signer certificates that validate the trust of certificates sent by remote connections during an SSL handshake. If there is no truststore in the list, see Creating a keystore configuration to create a new truststore, which is a keystore whose role is to establish trust during the connection.7. Select a keystore name from the drop-down list. A keystore contains the personal certificates that represent a signer identity and the private key that WebSphere Application Server uses to encrypt and sign data. o If you change the keystore name, click Get certificate aliases to refresh the list of certificates from which you can choose a default alias. WebSphere Application Server uses a server alias for inbound connections and a client alias for outbound connections. o If there is no keystore in the list, see Creating a keystore configuration to create a new keystore.8. Choose a default server certificate alias for inbound connections. Select the default only when you have not specified an SSL configuration alias elsewhere and have not selected a certificate alias. A centrally managed SSL configuration tree can override the default alias. For more information, see Central management of Secure Sockets Layer configurations.
    • 9. Choose a default client certificate alias for outbound connections. Select the default only when the server SSL configuration specifies an SSL client authentication.10. Review the identified management scope for the SSL configuration. Make the management scope in this field identical to the link you selected in Step 2. If you want to change the scope, you must click a different link in the topology tree and continue at Step 3.11. Click Apply if you intend to configure Additional Properties. If not, go to Step 24.12. Click Quality of protection (QoP) settings under Additional Properties. QoP settings define the strength of the SSL encryption, the integrity of the signer, and the authenticity of the certificate.13. Select a client authentication setting to establish an SSL configuration for inbound connections and for clients to send their certificates, if appropriate. o If you select None, the server does not request that a client send a certificate during the handshake. o If you select Supported, the server requests that a client send a certificate. However, if the client does not have a certificate, the handshake might still succeed. o If you select Required, the server requests that a client send a certificate. However, if the client does not have a certificate, the handshake fails. Important: The signer certificate that represents the client must be in the truststore that you select for the SSL configuration. By default, servers within the same cell trust each other because they use the common truststore, trust.p12, that is located in the cell directory of the configuration repository. However, if you use keystores and truststores that you create, perform a signer exchange before you select either Supported or Required.14. Select a protocol for the SSL handshake. o The default protocol, SSL_TLS, supports client protocols TLSv1, SSLv3, and SSLv2. o The TLSv1 protocol supports TLS and TLSv1. The SSL server connection must support this protocol for the handshake to proceed. o The SSLv3 protocol supports SSL and SSLv3. The SSL server connection must support this protocol for the handshake to proceed. Important: Do not use the SSLv2 protocol for the SSL server connection. Use it only when necessary on the client side.15. Select one of the following options:
    • o A predefined Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE) provider. The IBMJSSE2 provider is recommended for use on all platforms which support it. It is required for use by the channel framework SSL channel. When Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) is enabled, IBMJSSE2 is used in combination with the IBMJCEFIPS crypto provider. o A custom JSSE provider. Type a provider name in the Custom provider field.16. Select from among the following cipher suite groups: o Strong: WebSphere Application Server can perform 128-bit confidentiality algorithms for encryption and support integrity signing algorithms. However, a strong cipher suite can affect the performance of the connection. o Medium: WebSphere Application Server can perform 40-bit encryption algorithms for encryption and support integrity signing algorithms. o Weak: WebSphere Application Server can support integrity signing algorithms but not to perform encryption. Select this option with care because passwords and other sensitive information that cross the network are visible to an Internet Protocol (IP) sniffer. o Custom: you can select specific ciphers. Any time you change the ciphers that are listed from a specific cipher suite group, the group name changes to Custom.17. Click Update selected ciphers to view a list of the available ciphers for each cipher strength.18. Click OK to return to the new SSL configuration panel.19. Click Trust and key managers under Additional Properties.20. Select a default trust manager for the primary SSL handshake trust decision. o Choose IbmPKIX when you require certificate revocation list (CRL) checking using CRL distribution points in the certificates. o Choose IbmX509 when you do not require CRL checking but do need increased performance. You can configure a custom trust manager to perform CRL checking, if necessary.21. Define a custom trust manager, if appropriate. You can define a custom trust manager that runs with the default trust manager you select. The custom trust manager must implement the JSSE javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager interface and, optionally, the com.ibm.wsspi.ssl.TrustManagerExtendedInfo interface to obtain product-specific information.
    • a. Click Security > SSL certificate and key management > Manage endpoint security configurations > SSL_configuration > Trust and key managers > Trust managers > New. b. Type a unique trust manager name. c. Select the Custom option. d. Type a class name. e. Click OK. When you return to the Trust and key managers panel, the new custom trust manager displays in the Additional ordered trust managers field. Use the left and right list boxes to add and remove custom trust managers. 2 Select a key manager for the SSL configuration. By default, IbmX509 is the only key manager unless you create a custom key manager. Important: If you choose to implement your own key manager, you can affect the alias selection behavior because the key manager is responsible for selecting the certificate alias from the keystore. The custom key manager might not interpret the SSL configuration as the WebSphere Application Server key manager IbmX509 does. To define a custom key manager, click Security > Secure communications > SSL configurations > SSL_configuration > Trust and key managers > Key managers > New. 3 Click OK to save the trust and key manager settings and return to the new SSL configuration panel. 4 Click Save to save the new SSL configuration.ResultsImportant: You can override the default trust manager when you configure at leastone custom trust manager and set thecom.ibm.ssl.skipDefaultTrustManagerWhenCustomDefined property to true. ClickCustom Property on the SSL configuration panel. However, if you change thedefault, you leave all the trust decisions to the custom trust manager, which is notrecommended for production environments. In test environments, use a dummytrust manager to avoid certificate validation. Remember that these environment arenot secure.What to do nextIn this release of WebSphere Application Server, you can associate SSLconfigurations with protocols using one of the following methods: • Set the SSL configuration on the thread programmatically
    • • Associate the SSL configuration with an outbound protocol, and target host and port. For more information, see Associating a Secure Sockets Layer configuration dynamically with an outbound protocol and remote secure endpoint • Associate the SSL configuration directly using the alias. For more information, see Selecting an SSL configuration alias directly from an endpoint configuration • Manage the SSL configurations centrally by associating them with SSL configuration groups or zones that are scoped for endpoints. For more information, see Associating Secure Sockets Layer configurations centrally with inbound and outbound scopes. 94) What is main feature in 6.x? Ans) a) Profile concept b) Single installation WAS product supports for multible profile creation c) Cell profile d) SIB (System Integration Bus) 95) What is Webcontainer failover?Ans) the Web server plug-in in the Web server is aware of the configuration of all Web containers and can route around a failed Web container in a cluster. Sessions can be persisted to a database or in-memory using data replication services. 96) Explain about web sphere? The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology products. Web sphere is known for its turnkey operation in e business applications. It has run time components and tools which can help in creating applications which run on WAS. WAS refers to web sphere application server. 97) Explain about web sphere commerce? IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete ecommerce solutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are planning to do business with consumers, business and indirectly through channel partners. This can be used to perform business with consumers, business and channel partners altogether. 98) Detail about the architecture of web sphere? Web Sphere is built on three main components they are Database
    • • J2EE application server • A web server The databases which it supports are • DB2 • Oracle • Cloudscape Application server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are • IBM server • Microsoft IIS • Sun web server99) State some of the features present in web sphere? Some of the features which are present in web sphere are: - • Order management • Web sphere commerce accelerator • Analytical and business intelligence • Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc • Web sphere commerce payments and customer care, etc100) Explain about IBM Web Sphere edge server? Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based systems. It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four components are present in the web sphere they are Network dispatcher, Caching proxy, Content distribution and application service at the edge.101) Explain about extended deployment? Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the functionality of the server in two main areas they are manageability and performance. Dynamic virtualization between servers is possible with the help of XD. A stand alone distributed cache was added to it under the performance header, it is known as Object Grid.102) Explain about the security features present in WAS? Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model. It also depends upon the operating system. User authentication and authorization mechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party authentication mechanism is the main security feature present in WAS.
    • 103) Explain about asymmetric clustering? Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading systems employed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be declared during run time and are usually run on a single cluster at a time. Work specific to a particular can be routed to that cluster.104) Explain the various Administrator benefits using Web sphere? Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can manage load on servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him flexibility to divide the load and applications among different server farms. He can also predict about the incoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart options, memory leak detection, etc.105) Explain about caching proxy of IBM Web sphere Edge sphere? A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Content requested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the query. Page fragments arising from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and the caching process is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications can be increased by edge.106) Explain about the network deployment feature present in WAS? Managing singletons will be a thing of the past and it also provides hot recovery of singletons which makes you forget about your GC collected singletons. Transaction logs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering run time operations deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover support and cell configuration support is also present.107) Explain about IBM web sphere integration developer? Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based on service oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and web sphere ESB were built with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.108) Explain about compute Grid? Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended deployment offers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Grid. This forms an additional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various
    • features are provided which help a developer to create, manage and execute batch jobs. Job scheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming controller.109) Explain about web sphere MQ Real time transport? This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients through intranet and internet. This supports high volume and high performance across different clients. It uses the concept of light weight transport which is again based on IP rather than the queue process.110) Explain about Web sphere MQ JMS Provider? Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are very useful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients (publisher –subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for translating the API calls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to have knowledge of Web sphere MQ for proper configuration.111) Explain the attribute CHANNEL in web sphere MQ? CHANNEL specifies the name of the server connection channel. Generally this is Web Sphere MQ network abstraction. The default standard used by CHANNEL is SVRCONN which is the server connection channel. This server is generally used to communicate to the queue manager by the client.112) Is the naming of connection factory independent of the name specified by JMS client? Yes, the naming of connection factory is independent of the name specified by JMS client. This is made possible by WAS (Web sphere application server) with its resource references. It isolates the application from object names. This feature is important because it gives us the flexibility to change the administered object without changing the JMS client code.113) How many ways deployments in ibm websphere.please give me one examples ?
    • Ways of deplyment depends on version of WebSphere Application server you are using. But 5.X and Above provide following ways 1. Using Admin Console 2. Hot Deployment droping jsp files, with enabled class reloading (not recommanded for production) 3. Using Jacl Scripts 4. using WSAdmin command 5. Rapid Deployment (feature available at WAS 6).114) What is JACL? JACL and JYTHON are the two scripting language Which WebSphere supports.Jacl is an implementation of a Tcl interpreter written entirely in Java. 20) how to connect to the db2 database from websphere studio?115) I need the difference btw the two versions of 5.x and 6.x. And in which field they differ and why we go for 6.x rather than 5.x. and what are the similarities for both 5.x and 6.x ? Supports J2EE 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 specifications – Can upgrade runtime environment without upgrading applications – Supports mixed version nodes in a v6 ND Cell – Allow for migration in stages within a cell – Mixed v5 and v6 nodes must have v6 DMgr (can’t add new v5 node) – v6 ND introduces profiles
    • – Each profile has its own user data including WebSphere configuration – All profiles share same WebSphere binaries – Less disk space required than separate installations – stand-alone server, deployment manager or custom profile 116) How you will replace the multible occurance of single word in a text file with another word ? Ans) We can replace the word in vi editor by using the following command :%s/text1 /text2 /g (return) Text1 will be replaced by text2 117) In a clustered environment I have node1 in cell1 now I need to configure same node in cell2 . How can I achieve this task ? Ans) we can configure one node in one cell only. So we can can’t configure the same node in another cell 118) How you will install the WAS? Ans) WAS we can install in three different methods. a) Silent mode using responce file b) Interactive mode c) Graphical mode 119) How to install fix packs? Ans) we can apply the fix packs using the update installer. Before we go to apply fix packs we need to take backup of the existing configuration of our WAS and all profiles. To take backup we can use the command Syntax The command syntax is as follows: backupConfig <backup_file> [options] where backup_file specifies the file to which the backup is written. If you do not specify one, a unique name is generated. The QEJBSVR user profile must have *WX authority to the directory path specified in backup_file. If no path is specified, the QEJBSVR user profile must have *WX authority to the current working directory.ParametersThe following options are available for the backupConfig command:-nostop
    • Tells the backupConfig command not to stop the servers before backing up the configuration.-quiet Suppresses the progress information that the backupConfig command prints in normal mode.-logfile <fileName> Specifies the location of the log file to which information gets written.-profileName <profileName> Defines the profile of the Application Server process in a multi-profile installation. The -profileName option is not required for running in a single profile environment. The default for this option is the default profile.-replacelog Replaces the log file instead of appending to the current log.-trace Generates trace information into the log file for debugging purposes.-username <name> Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server. Acts the same as the -user option.-user <name> Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server. Acts the same as the -username option.-password <password> Specifies the password for authentication if security is enabled in the server.-help Prints a usage statement.-? Prints a usage statement.Usage scenarioThe following example demonstrates correct syntax:backupConfigThe following example creates a new file that includes the current date:WebSphereConfig_2003-04-22.zipThe following example creates a file called myBackup.zip, and does not stop anyservers before beginning the backup process.backupConfig myBackup.zip -nostopto restore the backed configuration we can use the command
    • SyntaxThe command syntax is as follows:restoreConfig <backup_file> [options]where backup_file specifies the file to be restored. If you do not specify one, thecommand will not run.ParametersThe following options are available for the restoreConfig command:-help Prints a usage statement. -location <directory_name> Specifies the directory where the backup file is restored. The location defaults to the app_server_root/config directory. The location defaults to the profile_root/config directory.-logfile <fileName> Specifies the location of the log file to which trace information is written. By default, the log file is named restoreConfig.log and is created in your logs directory.-nostop Tells the restoreConfig command not to stop the servers before restoring the configuration.-password <password> Specifies the password for authentication if security is enabled in the server.-profileName Defines the profile of the Application Server process in a multiple profile installation. The -profileName option is not required for running in a single profile environment. The default for this option is the default profile.-quiet Suppresses the progress information that the restoreConfig command prints in normal mode.-replacelog Replaces the log file instead of appending to the current log.-trace Generates trace information into the log file for debugging purposes.-username <name>
    • Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server. Acts the same as the -user option.-user <name> Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server. Acts the same as the -username option. -? Prints a usage statement.You can use the restoreConfig command to recover an application server if it fails.Perform the following steps:Locate the automatic migration backup in the app_server_root/temp directory. Forexample: MigrationBackup.Thu-Aug-28-10.15045-2006.zipRestore the configuration with the restoreConfig command. For example:restoreConfig app_server_root/temp/MigrationBackup.Thu-Aug-28-10.15045-2006.zipUsage scenarioThe following example demonstrates correct syntax:restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.ziprestoreConfig.sh WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.ziprestoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.zipThe following example restores the given file to the /tmp directory and does not stopany servers before beginning the restoration.restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostoprestoreConfig.sh WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostoprestoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostopThe following example restores the configuration stored in/home/mydir/myprofileBackup.zip to the configuration for profile myprofile:restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.zip -profileName myprofileBe aware that if you restore the configuration to a directory that is different from thedirectory that was backed up when you performed the backupConfig command,you may need to manually update some of the paths in the configuration directory.120) What is the virtual memory required for JVM process?Ans) The recomended virtual memory for JVM is ¼ of the physical memory.121) What are the regular commands is UNIX in use?
    • Ans) In our day to day activity we use the following commands in unix: a) To find out the running processes the command is :Ps – ef| grep java b) To find out the disk space the command is :du c) To find out the file system the command is :df d) To find out the network performance/port info command is :netstat e) To find out the CPU utilisation the command is : topas/osstat f) To kill the running process the command is : kill -9 <PID> g) To generate heap/thresd dump the command is :kill -3 <PID> h) To change the privileges of the file/folder the command is : chmod i) To change the owner of the file/folder the command is :chown j) To list the file the command is : ls k) To create DIR(folder) the command is :mkdir l) To TAR the files ,folders we use the following command Tar –xvf <file name with path> -- Tar – uvf --adding one or two files two folder Tar – cvf -- total folder m) To schedule the job in cron command is as follwos Crontab –l ( to list all the scheduled jobs) Crontab –e ( to edit the scheduled job) Whithin the crontab the syntax for the schedule the script as follows Ex: 30 6 * * 1,3,5 /usr/bin/calender 30(minutes) 6 (hours) *(day of the month) * (month of the year) 1,3,5 (day no of the week)/usr/bin/calender In the above example we scheduled the script called calender which is located in the location “/usr/bin” to run every Monday,Wednesday and friday n) To find fully qualified domain name (FQDN) if you know IP $ Nslookup <IP_ADDRESS> --(vice versa)
    • 122) Whats the default server in WAS for application server profile?Ans) server1123) In Clusters what is the riffle stop ?Ans) Ripple stop/start will stop one server at a time while other servers will continueto serve the client requests. Like this it will stop and start all the server in the cluster124) How you will start the server & how you will stop from command line?Ans) stopserver and startserver are the commands to stop and start from thecommand line125) How to check the physical memory (RAM) in the system?Ans) “bootinf –r “ will give you the physical memory details of the unix box126) What is the first signal you find when memory leakage is there in the application?Ans) If you have memory leakage in your application code then you get frequently “OUT OF MEMORY EXCEPTION” error.127) How to apply fix packs to WAS? a) Using update installer we can apply the fix packs. We need to make sure that update installer which is installed should be compatible with WAS. And also we need to take backup of all profiles and configuration.128) What are the performance monitor tools in WAS?Ans) Websphere provides integrated tools to monitor and tune system andapplication performance:Source Systems of the performance data : 1) Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI):Core performance data collection technology for websphere application server.Supports the Jave 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) Management ReferenceImplimentation (JSR-077) 2) Request Metrics :Technology to trace each individual transaction and record its responce time atdifferent stages as it flows through the application server. Supports externalisation ofdata to standard log files and /or an Application Responce Management (ARM) agent.Integrated Tools : a) Tivoli Performance viewer (TPV) Enables administrators to monitor the overall health of websphere application server. It is accessed from within the administrative console b) Request Metrics ( Tool)
    • Enables you to track individual transactions,recording the processing time in each of the major websphere application server components. Output viewed in standard logs or using an application responce measurement( ARM) based tool c) Performance advisor Analze collected performance data and provide configuration recommendations to improve the application server performance. Output viewed in TPV or in administrative console runtime messages d) Performace servlet Provideds simple retrival of performance data in XML format. Acced through a browser.129) What information you get with the command “ps–ef|grep httpd” ?Ans) we get the all webserver instance informations with process id.130) How you will check the web server status Ans) by using the following command we can check the all instances of the webserver $ ps – ef| grep httpd131) If you enable global security every time we need to provide userid and password while stopping the servers. It is bit security issues it will disclose to any one while typing the password. So I need to avoid the typing os my user id and password to stop the servers in security enables environment. How can we achive this task ?Ans) We can achive this task by storing the credentials in the following mentionedfiles For SOAP connector –soap.client.profs For RMI connector –sas.client.profs132) I have a standalone application server, in that server1 crashed because of some reasons. Now I need to configure server2 on the same node how can I achieve this task?Ans) To configure server2 there is no dependency on the server1 status. Becausewe are depending on the node to configure the server2 on standalone server ontheserver1.133) How can you control the web browser requests only to particular ip address?Ans) using “Virtual hosts” (need to cross verify the answer)134) If you want to know detailed information for a particular port when you know only port number then how you will check?
    • Ans) we need to follow the steps mentioned below to know the detailed informationabout the process running on the particular port $ netstat –Aan|grep <Port_no> Socket will be listed, using that socket we can get SID $rmsock <socket_no> <protocol>Ex: $netstat –Aan|grep 944 f10002000fc4398 $rmsock f10020000fc4398 tcpcb the socket oxfc4008 is being by process 626888(java) $ps –ef| grep 626888135) How you will find how much heap is used by each JVM?Ans) Using PMI we can see the percentage of the memory used by JVM136) Explain how request served by WAS explain complete step by step?Ans) First request comes to the webserver137) Explain the architecture in the cell, node & profile point of view?Ans) In WAS Cell will be on top. Within cell we have Dmgr, Nodes, Nodegroups, Nodeagents, Application servers, Clusters Websphere resources like JMS,Mail service, Resource Adpaters, Cacheinstances, URL,Etc.138) If I try to connect to use one port and I got message saying this port is already used by some other process then how to change the port number in WAS and where we can change the same?Ans) only way to change the port is by changing the virtual host port for which theapplication is trying to use.139) What is the default user registry and how you will configure the LTPAconfiguration?140) explain about session replication ?Ans) Replication is a service that transfers data, objects, or events among application servers. Data replication service (DRS) is the internal WebSphere Application Server component that replicates data. Use data replication to make data for session manager, dynamic cache, and stateful session beans available across many application servers in a cluster. The benefits of using replication vary depending on the component that you configure to use replication. • Session manager uses the data replication service when configured to do memory-to-memory replication. When memory-to-memory replication is configured, session manager maintains data about sessions across multiple application servers, preventing the loss of session data if a single application server fails. For more information about memory-to-memory replication, see Memory-to-memory replication. • Dynamic cache uses the data replication service to further improve performance by copying cache information across application servers in the
    • cluster, preventing the need to repeatedly perform the same tasks and queries in different application servers. For more information about replication in the dynamic cache, see Configuring cache replication. • Stateful session beans use the replication service so that applications using stateful session beans are not limited by unexpected server failures. For more information about stateful session bean failover, see Stateful session bean failover for the EJB container.WAS provides session recovery support in the form of a) Database session b) Memory –to –memory replicationSession recovery support is required in the following conditions 1) When the user’s session data must be maintained across a server restart 2) When the user’s session datais too valuable to lose through an unexpected server failure. These replication settings can be configured in the following location in the admin console Amin console -- > servers -- > application servers -- > [all servers] -- >webcontainer settings -- > session management -- > distributed environment settings Options are : None,Database and memeory –to – memory replicationMemory-to-memory replicationWebSphere Application Server supports session replication to another WebSphereApplication Server instance. This support is referred to as memory-to-memorysession replication. In this mode, sessions can replicate to one or more WebSphereApplication Server instances to address HTTP Session single point of failure (SPOF).The WebSphere Application Server instance in which the session is currentlyprocessed is referred to as the owner of the session. In a clustered environment,session affinity in the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests for agiven session to the same server. If the current owner server instance of the sessionfails, then the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests to anotherappropriate server in the cluster. In a peer-to-peer cluster, the hot failover featurecauses the plug-in to failover to a server that already contains the backup copy ofthe session, avoiding the overhead of session retrieval from another servercontaining the backup. In a client/server cluster, the server retrieves the sessionfrom a server that has the backup copy of the session. The server now becomes theowner of the session and affinity is now maintained to this server.There are three possible modes. You can set up a WebSphere Application Serverinstance to run in:
    • • Server mode: Only store backup copies of other WebSphere Application Server sessions and not to send out copies of any session created in that particular server • Client mode: Only broadcast or send out copies of the sessions it owns and not to receive backup copies of sessions from other servers • Both mode: Simultaneously broadcast or send out copies of the sessions it owns and act as a backup table for sessions owned by other WebSphere Application Server instancesYou can select the replication mode of server, client, or both when configuring thesession management facility for memory-to-memory replication. The default is both.This storage option is controlled by the mode parameter.The memory-to-memory replication function is accomplished by the creation of adata replication service instance in an application server that talks to other datareplication service instances in remote application servers. You must configure thisdata replication service instance as a part of a replication domain. Data replicationservice instances on disparate application servers that replicate to one another mustbe configured as a part of the same domain. You must configure all sessionmanagers connected to a replication domain to have the same topology. If onesession manager instance in a domain is configured to use the client/server topology,then the rest of the session manager instances in that domain must be acombination of servers configured as Client only and Server only. If one sessionmanager instance is configured to use the peer-to-peer topology, then all sessionmanager instances must be configured as Both client and server. For example, aserver only data replication service instance and a both client and server datareplication service instance cannot exist in the same replication domain. Multiple datareplication service instances that exist on the same application server due to sessionmanager memory-to-memory configuration at various levels that are configured tobe part of the same domain must have the same mode.With respect to mode, the following are the primary examples of memory-to-memory replication configuration: • Peer-to-peer replication • Client/server replicationMemory-to-memory topology: Peer-to-peer functionThe basic peer-to-peer (both client and server function, or both mode) topology isthe default configuration and has a single replica. However, you can also addadditional replicas by configuring the replication domain.
    • In this basic peer-to-peer topology, each server Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can: • Host the Web application leveraging the HTTP session • Send out changes to the HTTP session that it owns • Receive backup copies of the HTTP session from all of the other servers in the clusterThis configuration represents the most consolidated topology, where the varioussystem parts are collocated and requires the fewest server processes. When usingthis configuration, the most stable implementation is achieved when each node hasequal capabilities (CPU, memory, and so on), and each handles the same amount ofwork.Session hot failoverA new feature called session hot failover has been added to this release. This featureis only applicable to the peer-to-peer mode. In a clustered environment, sessionaffinity in the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests for a givensession to the same server. If the current owner server instance of the session fails,then the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests to anotherappropriate server in the cluster. For a cluster configured to run in the peer-to-peermode this feature causes the plug-in to failover to a server that already contains the
    • backup copy of the session, therefore avoiding the overhead of session retrieval fromanother server containing the backup.You must upgrade all WebSphere Application Server plug-in instances that front theApplication Server cluster to version 6.0 to ensure session affinity when using thepeer-to-peer mode.Memory-to-memory topology: Client/server functionThe following figure depicts the client/server mode. There is a tier of applicationsservers that host Web applications using HTTP sessions, and these sessions arereplicated out as they are created and updated. There is a second tier of serverswithout a Web application installed, where the session manager receives updatesfrom the replication clients.Benefits of the client/server configuration include:Isolation (for failure recovery)
    • In this case we are isolating the handling of backup data from local data; aside from isolating the moving parts in case of a catastrophic failure in one of them, you again free up memory and processing in the servers processing the Web application Isolation for stopping and starting You can recycle a backup server without affecting the servers running the application (when there are two or more backups, failure recovery is possible), and conversely recycle an application JVM without potentially losing that backup data for someone. Consolidation There is most likely no need to have a one-to-one correspondence between servers handling backups and those processing the applications; hence, you are again reducing the number of places to which you transfer the data. Disparate hardware: While you run your Web applications on cheaper hardware, you may have one or two more powerful computers in the back end of your enterprise that have the capacity to run a couple of session managers in replication server mode; allowing you to free up your cheaper Web application hardware to process the Web application. Timing consideration: Start the backup application servers first to avoid unexpected timing windows. The clients attempt to replicate information and HTTP sessions to the backup servers as soon as they come up. As a result, HTTP sessions that are created prior to the time at which the servers come up might not replicate successfully. 141) If admin console is not accessible then what we will do in base installation? Ans) in base also we have the WSADMIN scripting tool. We can connect to wsadmin by mentioning NONE connection type .After connecting to wsadmin we fire a command securityoff. It will disable the security after that we can login to the admin console and reset the passwords.142) How you get user id for datasource?Ans) from the database team we get the user id to configure the datasource. 143) How you configure LDAP with WAS? Ans) To configure the console server, do the following steps: 1. Start the WebSphere(R) Application Server service on the console server. 2. Refer to Configuring the J2EE Application in the IBM Tivoli(R) Business Systems Manager Administrators Guide for information on how to configure the console server.
    • 3. To enable WebSphere Application Server to work with Tivoli Business Systems Manager, you must map WebSphere Application Server roles to Tivoli Business Systems Manager groups. Refer to the IBM Tivoli Business Systems Manager Administrators Guide for information. 4. If you are using the LocalOS user registry, you do not need to do anything else. If you are using LDAP, see Configuring WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP. If you are upgrading and plan to use LDAP, do not following the instructions in Configuring WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP yet. You can switch to LDAP later in the process.Configuring WebSphere Application Server to use LDAPTo configure WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP, you need some informationfrom your security administrator. Following is an example of the type of informationand sample answers that you need to do the steps in this section: • Server User ID: User_ID • Server User Password: password • Type of LDAP: Active_Directory • Host: The fully qualified name of the server running LDAP • Port: 389 (Default) • Base Distinguished Name (DN): dc=DOMAIN_NAME_HERE • Bind Distinguished Name (DN): cn=user_id,cn=users,dc=DOMAIN_NAME_HERE • Bind Password: Password for the user above • Reuse Connection: Checked • Ignore Case: CheckedThis is just an example. Your security administrator knows what information youneed.The following steps assume that you configured your LDAP server on theldapserver.abc.com host and that your users and groups for Tivoli Business SystemsManager and the WebSphere Application Server that is hosting Tivoli BusinessSystems Manager are defined under the name ou=tbsm,o=abc in the directory. TheSecure Sockets Layer (SSL) between the LDAP server and WebSphere ApplicationServer is not configured.This is a sample configuration based on this example and uses the default valueswhere appropriate. 1. In the WebSphere Administrative Console, expand Security -> User Registries in the left-hand navigation pane and click LDAP. The LDAP User Registry page opens. 2. In the Server User ID and Server User Password fields, type the user ID and password from your LDAP directory that the WebSphere Application
    • Server runs under. Type the ID either as userid or as a distinguished name similar to uid=userid,ou=tbsm,o=abc.3. In the Type field, select the type of LDAP server you want to use.4. In the Host field, type the hostname of your directory server. For this example use ldapserver.abc.com.5. In the Port field, select the default value of 389.6. In the Base Distinguished Name field, type the name of the container object in the LDAP that contains your Tivoli Business Systems Manager users. For this example, type ou=tbsm,o=abc.7. In the Bind Distinguished Name and Bind Password fields, type the distinguished name and password for a user ID that is authorized to run queries on your LDAP server. If your server allows anonymous queries, you can leave these fields clear. For example, the IBM(R) Directory Server default setting allows anonymous queries. You can leave this field blank. The Active Directory default setting requires authentication to run queries, so you need to supply the appropriate values.8. In the Search Timeout field, accept the default value of 120.9. In the Reuse Connection field, accept the default setting. The check box should be selected.10. In the Ignore Case field, follow the recommendations for your LDAP server. If IBM Directory Server is selected as the LDAP directory server, select this check box. Otherwise, this field is optional and can left unchecked when a case sensitive authorization check is required. Note however that this value does not affect how Tivoli Business Systems Manager treats distinguished names stored in the Tivoli Business Systems Manager database. Internally, Tivoli Business Systems Manager treats distinguished names as case insensitive. For example, if the user registry is configured to be case sensitive, you can create users with distinguished names cn=John Doe, ou=Raleigh, o=IBM, c=US and cn=john doe, ou=raleigh, o=ibm, c=us. However, when searching for resources assigned to John Doe (for example ownership notes), all notes assigned to John Doe and john doe will be returned. To eliminate any problems, configure the user registry to be case insensitive or ensure that all users are created with unique distinguished names that are different in more than just case.11. Accept the default SSL settings to run without the SSL.12. Click Apply to accept the changes.13. The WebSphere Administrative Console might switch to the Global Security page. If so, navigate back to the LDAP User Registry window (see Step 1 for directions). Click Advanced LDAP Settings near the bottom of the window.14. Click Configuration and click the General Properties tab.15. The User ID Map field specifies a filter that is used to determine the Users Full Name in Tivoli Business Systems Manager. In the User ID Map field,
    • specify the attribute from the LDAP that you want to display for the full name of the user. For example, to use the cn attribute, specify *:cn. If you are using Active Directory, specify *:displayName.16. Verify the following settings: o Active Directory:  User Filter: (&(sAMAccountName=%v)(objectclass=user)) - The User Filter field determines what part of the LDAP entry must match the logon ID of the user.  Group Filter: (&(cn=%v)(objectclass=group))  User ID Map: *:displayName (or whatever you entered in Step 15)  Group ID Map: *:cn  Group Member ID Map: memberof:member  Certificate Map Mode: EXACT_DN  Certificate Filter: leave clear o IBM Directory Server:  User Filter: (&(uid=%v)(objectclass=ePerson)  Group Filter: (&(cn=%v)(|(objectclass=groupOfNames) (objectClass=groupOfUniqueNames)))  User ID Map: *:cn (or whatever you entered in Step 15)  Group ID Map: *:cn  Group Member ID Map: ibm-allGroups:member;ibm- allGroups:uniqueMember  Certificate Map Mode: EXACT_DN  Certificate Filter: leave clear17. Click OK. You might have to restart the console and WebSphere Application Server to see any changes you make. If the page does not display automatically, navigate to the Security -> Global Security page.18. From the Global Security page, use all the default values except the following values: o Enabled: checked o Active User Registry: LDAP19. Click OK. WebSphere Application Server validates your setup. The messages at the top of the screen indicate your results. Yellow warning messages are typical. If an round, red error message is displayed, it means that WebSphere Application Server could not validate the Server ID you gave with the LDAP. Verify that this and the other LDAP parameters are correct for your LDAP server and repeat the Global Security configuration steps until the validation is successful.20. Click Save at the top of the window.
    • 21. Click Save again. 22. Start WebSphere Application Server again.For more information about specific LDAP servers, see the LDAP serverdocumentation in the WebSphere InfoCenter. Navigate to All topics by feature ->Security -> Securing applications and their environments -> Managingsecurity -> Configuring user registries.144) How you will fix memory leakage?Ans) Memory leak is the issue with native code. We need to get the heap dumps andanalyse the dumps for any memory issues with the code and if you find any issuethen we need to ask developers to fix the same. Temporarly we can increase theheap size . In this way after analysing the exact root cause we need to fix thememory leakage issue.145) What is the recommended physical memory for WAS?Ans) Mandatory is 512 MB and IBM recomends 1024 MB. Bur in real time projects itwill be more the recomended. In our project it was 4 GB.146) How you will check the port status?Ans) netstat147) What is the command to find the process in the sun Solaris environment ?Ans) psrinfo –v (need to cross verify)148) How you will check the application status?Ans) ps –ef |grep appservername( from admin console à enterprise applications)149) If you are trying to start the WAS and you are getting the “Class not found” exception then how to solve the issue?Ans)1. Check the WebSphere Class path and set it properly if not set correctly Check the System out and systemErr logs for any specific errors/warning to identify which class is not found when starting the server150) If you get internal error then what is the solution for it?Ans) Check the IHS is running or not, if its running... check the App server isrunning or not.This is basicaly due to the request is reaching to IHS and not able to reach the app.151) How and where to find the specific class?Ans) Appcliacation classes will be available at installed app path. If WAS classes , find out in WAS classpath.152) If application is giving very slow response then how will improve?
    • Ans) Have to check Connection pooling settings, change acordingly if required JVM memory settings, change acordingly if required And check the data base if its giving slow response Check any conneciton are waiting and not closing Check the CPU utilization and JVM utilization 153) What is SIB & what is the purpose? Ans) Service Inegration BUS is introduced in V6 and the perpupose is to connect the SOA apps like MQ. 154) What is the significance of the embedded http server explain ? Ans)to get requests from external IHS and forward to WEB container. 155) What are the steps to do performance tuning for webserver? Ans) To reduce the disk i/o by using the _file() API directive on unix . 156) What is JMS destination? Ans) 157) In ssl configuration how you will provide the path of the certificate? Ans) While Adding certificate, we have to give the location of the certificate, and if you want to give Certicate store path, we have to give .p12 path 158) How you will achieve performance in production environment? Ans) 159) How you will change / migrate the project from one version to other? Ans) We will get new verion of EAR/WAR(project) deploy it. If we want to migrate WAS, We normally take the new box and install new version , then deploy new app and make new server into production, then decommission the old server. Or install new version in the production BOX and then migrate the old one with new version.160) Explain about how you will put the brand new system into production. Explain from development to production?
    • Ans) Developement team will develope the code and test in the Developement env.Then we will create Test Env. And then put the server into Production.161) Silent mode how it will work and if you get any errors then how you will rectify it?Ans) Silent mode of installation will also have the log file, where we can check theerrors 162) Explaing about configuration of IBM Tivoli directory server? Ans) Don’t have Experience. 163) What is your last project architecture? Ans) 164) How many servers are there & in which environment? Ans) 165) How many types of Garbage collections? http://www.petefreitag.com/articles/gctuning/