qualitative research techniques


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  • qualitative research techniques

    1. 1. Unit - 6 Qualitative Research Techniques
    2. 2. There are two types of qualitative research technique A. Based on questioning B. Based on observations
    3. 3. A. Based on questioning 1. 2. 3. Depth interview Focus group Projective techniques
    4. 4. Depth Interview  Depth interviews are used to tap the knowledge and experience of those with information relevant to the problem or opportunity at hand. Anyone with relevant information is a potential candidate for a depth interview, including current customers, members of the target market, executives and managers of the client organization, sales representatives, wholesalers, retailers, and so on.
    5. 5.  For example, a children’s book publisher gained valuable information about a sales decline by talking with librarians and schoolteachers who indicated that more and more people were using library facilities and presumably buying fewer books for their children.
    6. 6. Focus Group Focus group interviews are among the most often used techniques in marketing research.  In a focus group, a small number of individuals (e.g., 8–12) are brought together to talk about some topic of interest to the focus group sponsor. The discussion is directed by a moderator who is in the room with the focus group participants; managers, ad agency representatives, and/or others often watch the session from outside the room via a two-way mirror or video link. 
    7. 7. Cont.. An interview conducted among a small number of individuals simultaneously; the interview relies more on group discussion than on directed questions to generate data.
    8. 8. Cont.. In general, focus groups are less expensive to conduct than are individual depth interviews, mostly because multiple respondents are handled simultaneously. That’s not to say that they are inexpensive, however. By the time the facility has been rented, an experienced moderator has been hired to conduct the session and write the report, and incentives paid to participants, a focus group has become costly. And that’s just one focus group; add a series of focus groups and the costs can really rise.
    9. 9. Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern.  In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others.  In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation 
    10. 10. Based On Observations Ethnography Grounded theory Participant observations
    11. 11. Grounded theory  The aim of grounded theory is: ‘to generate or discover a theory’ (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)  Grounded theory may be defined as: ‘the discovery of theory from data systematically obtained from social research’ (Glaser and Strauss 1967).
    12. 12. When would you use it?  Focus of the methodology is uncovering basic social processes  Ideal for exploring integral social relationships and the behaviour of groups where there has been little exploration of the contextual factors that affect individual’s lives.
    13. 13. Cont..  ‘Get though and beyond conjecture and preconception to exactly the underlying processes of what is going on, so that professionals can intervene with confidence to help resolve the participant's main concerns’
    14. 14. Features of Grounded Theory simultaneous collection and analysis of data creation of analytic codes and categories developed from data and not by preexisting conceptualizations (theoretical sensitivity) discovery of basic social processes in the data inductive construction of abstract categories
    15. 15. Cont..  theoretical sampling to refine categories  writing analytical memos as the stage between coding and writing  the integration of categories into a theoretical framework.
    16. 16. Participant observation  Participant observation is a method of collecting information about the operation of, and attitudes existing in, a community through a researcher living in the area for an extended period1.
    17. 17. Cont..  The participant observer becomes known within the community, and gets to know the community in a more intimate and detailed way than someone who simply comes to do a survey and then departs. The participant observer consequently is given much more detailed information, and may identify specific issues and assist groups to address these by developing mutually agreed principles and practices.
    18. 18. Objectives: A participant observer is placed in a community with the aim of collecting more detailed information about a community’s habits, opinions and issues and with a view to developing planning and policies that better incorporate the community’s needs and wishes.
    19. 19. Outcomes:  Information about a community collected by a participant observer can ensure that planning and decision making incorporates community needs and opinions, and will therefore be more acceptable and more useful to the community.
    20. 20. Uses/strengths:  Can develop greater understanding of sensitive situations.  Can be used before developing a consultation program in cases where the nature of community issues is not known to agencies.  Can be used for scoping information and determining key players when the issue is contentious or controversial.
    21. 21. Cont..  Can assist in the development of a more thoughtful consultation program because participant observation is usually conducted incognito. Can allow the development of consultation processes that suit the subject community.
    22. 22. Special considerations/weaknesses:  This method is limited, and needs to be used in conjunction with other methods for collecting information (e.g. surveys, public meetings, and/or displays and exhibits).  Depends on the ability of the researcher/consultant to correctly observe and draw appropriate conclusions.  Can create concern in the community.
    23. 23. Cont..  Not recommended for use in isolation but in conjunction with other tools and techniques, to offset any bias or inaccuracy in the observer’s conclusions.  Applicable to a wide variety of issues.  Particularly useful as a technique where the issue is contentious or controversial.  Takes a long time.
    24. 24. Cont..  Not recommended for use in isolation but in conjunction with other tools and techniques, to offset any bias or inaccuracy in the observer’s conclusions.  Applicable to a wide variety of issues.  Particularly useful as a technique where the issue is contentious or controversial.  Takes a long time.