Butterfly Migration By Kishen Das firstname.lastname@example.org [email_address]
Insect Migration – Few definitions To go from one habitat to another – Oxford English Dictionary A Continued movement in a more or less definite direction, in which both movement and direction are under the control of the animal concerned – Williams, 1958 Transfer of populations from place to place by mass flights – C. G. Johnson, 1969
Types of Migration Short Distance Migration or Local Movement ( Few hundred meters to few kms ) Long Distance Migration ( Hundreds of kms ) Dispersal – Random , sporadic movements Note: There are various other classifications of Migration as well.
Monarch Migration Sierra Pelon, Michoacan, Mexico, by Carole Jordan
Early work on butterfly Migration Moore 1838 – English News Paper Aitken 1897– 98 - Migration of Euploea core and Tirumala limniace Dudgeon, G.C. 1902 Andrew 1910 Lefroy 1909 – Lampides boeticus Nurse G. C. 1914 – Catopsilia spp. J. Evershed 1907 ,1914,1921 – Migration in Kodaikanal Williams C. B. 1927, 1930 Fisher K.J. 1945 – Migration in India and Ceylon Wynter Blyth 1957
Recent work on butterfly Migration Raizuddin and Singh 1977 Larsen T. B. 1978-79 ( Family Pieridae ) Chaturvedi and Satheesan - Euploea core Meena Haribal 1997 - Danaus genutia Jaffer Palot 2002 - Appias spp. and Catopsilia spp. Chaturvedi 2005– Papilio polymnestor Krushnamegh Kunte 2005– Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp. Kishen Das, Adavanne Shivaprakash 2000- Till date – Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp.
Migration takes place through 4 states in south India
Migratory Paths change every year depending on rain
More people more natural history
Books on Insect Migration Insect Migration: Tracking Resources through Space and Time. V.A. Drake & A.G. Gatehouse (eds) (1995). The Biomechanics of Insect Flight : Form, Function, Evolution. R. Dudley (2000). Flow of Life in the Atmosphere: An Airscape Approach to Understanding Invasive Organisms. S.A. Isard & S.H. Gage (2001). Migration: the Biology of Life on the Move. H. Dingle (2001). Insect Migration: Mechanisms and Consequences. I.P. Woiwod, D.R. Reynolds & C.D. Thomas (eds) (2001). Johnson, C.G. 1969. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen & Co Ltd., London. Williams, C. B. 1930. The migration of butterflies . Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh