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Butterfly migration latest_kishen_das

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Information about butterfly migration in South India.

Information about butterfly migration in South India.

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  • 1. Butterfly Migration By Kishen Das kishen.das@gmail.com [email_address]
  • 2. Insect Migration – Few definitions To go from one habitat to another – Oxford English Dictionary A Continued movement in a more or less definite direction, in which both movement and direction are under the control of the animal concerned – Williams, 1958 Transfer of populations from place to place by mass flights – C. G. Johnson, 1969
  • 3. Types of Migration Short Distance Migration or Local Movement ( Few hundred meters to few kms ) Long Distance Migration ( Hundreds of kms ) Dispersal – Random , sporadic movements Note: There are various other classifications of Migration as well.
  • 4. Monarch Migration Sierra Pelon, Michoacan, Mexico, by Carole Jordan
  • 5. Monarch Migratory Path Credits: Carol Cullar
  • 6. Monarch Migration Credits : Cerro Pelon , Jim Mason
  • 7. Monarch ( Danaus plexippus) Life Cycle
  • 8. Butterfly Migration in India
    • 60 Species in India
    • 44 species in Western Ghats
    • Species belonging to families Nymphalidae and Pieridae exhibit more migratory instincts
    • Pea Blue (Lampides boeticus) supposed to be the only Lycaenidae member that migrates in India
  • 9. Few migratory species in India
  • 10. Lime ( Papilio demoleus )
  • 11. Large Blue Oakleaf (Kallima horsfieldi)
  • 12. Common Emigrant (Catopsilia pomona)
  • 13. Mottled Emigrant(Catopsilia pyranthe)
  • 14. Common Albatross (Appias albina)
  • 15. Lemon Pansy (Junoniana lemonias)
  • 16. Striped Tiger ( Danaus genutia )
  • 17. Common Leopard ( Phalanta phalanta )
  • 18. Painted Lady ( Cynthia cardui )
  • 19. Early work on butterfly Migration Moore 1838 – English News Paper Aitken 1897– 98 - Migration of Euploea core and Tirumala limniace Dudgeon, G.C. 1902 Andrew 1910 Lefroy 1909 – Lampides boeticus Nurse G. C. 1914 – Catopsilia spp. J. Evershed 1907 ,1914,1921 – Migration in Kodaikanal Williams C. B. 1927, 1930 Fisher K.J. 1945 – Migration in India and Ceylon Wynter Blyth 1957
  • 20. Recent work on butterfly Migration Raizuddin and Singh 1977 Larsen T. B. 1978-79 ( Family Pieridae ) Chaturvedi and Satheesan - Euploea core Meena Haribal 1997 - Danaus genutia Jaffer Palot 2002 - Appias spp. and Catopsilia spp. Chaturvedi 2005– Papilio polymnestor Krushnamegh Kunte 2005– Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp. Kishen Das, Adavanne Shivaprakash 2000- Till date – Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp.
  • 21. Danainae Migration in South India
    • 3 Species Tirumala septentrionis, Euploea core and Euploea sylvester migrate together
    • Distance covered is 350-500Kms
    • Migrate between Western Ghats and Plains/ Eastern Ghats
    • Twice a year
    • March/April/May Towards Plains/Eastern Ghats
    • September/October/November towards Western Ghats
    • Direction -- SW-NE in March/April/May
    • Direction -- NE-SW in Sept/Oct/Nov
  • 22. Dark Blue Tiger (Tirumala septentrionis)
  • 23. Blue Tiger ( Tirumala limniace ) Migrates only locally
  • 24. Niligiri Tiger ( Parantica nilgiriensis ) Non-migratory species
  • 25. Glassy Tiger ( Parantica aglea ) Non-migratory species
  • 26. Double Branded Crow ( Euploea sylvester)
  • 27. Common Indian Crow ( Euploea core ) Has both migrating and residential populations
  • 28.  
  • 29. Brown King Crow ( Euploea klugii ) Non migratory species
  • 30. Sex determination in Tirumala septentrionis
  • 31. Ratios
    • Tigers : Crows – 3 : 1
    • Crows - Euploea core : Euploea sylvester – 1 : 1
    • Tigers - Sex Ratio - Male : Female – 3 : 1
    • ( Sometimes 2:1 has also been observed)
  • 32. Time Period
    • March End / April/May - South West to North East
    • September/October / November – North East to South West
    • Fly between 9AM – 4 PM
    • Migrate is immediately halted if there is sudden rain
    • Migration is never seen on cloudy days
  • 33. Direction during Sept/Oct/Nov
  • 34. Places in South India where migration has been observed
  • 35. Life Cycle – Tirumala limniace
  • 36. Life Cycle- Tirumala septentrionis By Dr K. Saji
  • 37. Life cycle of Euploea core Host Plants: Nerium sp. Ficus sp. Tylophora indica
  • 38.  
  • 39. Marsdenia brunoniana, Dregea volubilis, Marsdenia volubilis, Asclepias volubilis,Watakaka volubilis Host Plant
  • 40. Wattakaka volubilis Host Plant
  • 41. Asclepias curassavica Host Plant
  • 42. Calotropis gigantea (White) Host Plant
  • 43. Feeding on Heliotropium indicum
  • 44. Crotalaria verrucosa Alkaloidal Resource
  • 45. Crotalaria retusa Alkaloidal Resource
  • 46. Reasons for Migration
    • Extreme climatic conditions in Western Ghats during Monsoon
    • Availability of Alkaloidal (Pyrrolizidine) resources
    • Overwintering sites
    • Breeding
    • Absence of Diapause
  • 47. Other Activities – Congregation
  • 48. Other Activities - Basking
  • 49. Other Activities – Mud-Puddling
  • 50. Other Activities – Courtship and Mating
  • 51. Tracking Techniques
    • -Gliders
    • Genetic Markers
    • Radio Tagging
    • Tags
    • - 2 wheeler / 4 wheeler ( Just kidding, this has been my technique so far  . Though highly inefficient when done alone, you can still collect decent amount of Natural History !!!)
  • 52. Gliders Credits : http://www.Papalotzin.com
  • 53. Monarch Tag Credits : Jim Gallion
  • 54. Monarch Tag Credits: NancyLee Bergy
  • 55. Radio Tagging -Credits: Vijay Barve
  • 56. Importance of Migration
    • Role in Food Web
    • Pollination
    • Can be used as an iconic species to conserve large stretches of forests
    • Easy to orient general public towards nature using butterflies
    • Bio-indicators
  • 57. Pollination – Euploea sylvester
  • 58. Predation on Tirumala spp. and Euploea core
    • Spiders
    • Frogs and Toads
    • Geckos and skinks
    • Birds ( Bee-eaters, Bulbuls , Myna , Crow )
    • Rodents
    • Note: Specific predator species data is not shown as its not published yet. Rather it’s in the pipeline for last few years !!!
  • 59. Nephilengys malabarensis preying on Tirumala septentrionis
  • 60. Threats
    • Homo sapiens
    • - Habitat destruction ( Depletion of host and nectar resources)
    • - Soil Mining ( Destruction of mud puddling sites)
    • - Pollution
    • - Traffic ( Thousands of them die every year on highways during their migration)
    • - Mining ( Affects the entire breeding cycles)
    • - GM crops
    • - Extensive use of Agro-chemicals ( Especially Endosulphan)
    • - Butterfly Trade ( Prominent in parts of Kerala)
  • 61. I have collected thousands of dead butterflies every year during migration season. It’s just sad   
  • 62. Need for a Network of People
    • Migration takes place through 4 states in south India
    • Migratory Paths change every year depending on rain
    • More people more natural history
  • 63. Books on Insect Migration Insect Migration: Tracking Resources through Space and Time. V.A. Drake & A.G. Gatehouse (eds) (1995). The Biomechanics of Insect Flight : Form, Function, Evolution. R. Dudley (2000). Flow of Life in the Atmosphere: An Airscape Approach to Understanding Invasive Organisms. S.A. Isard & S.H. Gage (2001). Migration: the Biology of Life on the Move. H. Dingle (2001). Insect Migration: Mechanisms and Consequences. I.P. Woiwod, D.R. Reynolds & C.D. Thomas (eds) (2001). Johnson, C.G. 1969. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen & Co Ltd., London. Williams, C. B. 1930. The migration of butterflies . Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh
  • 64. Thank You [email_address]

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