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Report on (leather)  garment
 

Report on (leather) garment

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    Report on (leather)  garment Report on (leather) garment Document Transcript

    • ContentsIntroduction to leather garment 01Variety of leather for garments & properties 02 – 04Types of garment leather 05Principles in production of garment leather 06Tanning, dyeing &finishing of garment leather 07 – 09DESCRIPTION,DETAILS & PRICE OF GARMENT LEATHER 10 – 14LEATHER FAQ 15 – 16Bibliography 17 0
    • AN INTRODUCTION TO LEATHER FOR GARMENTSGARMENT LEATHERA wide selection of raw stock with large differences in the structure of the skin and hide, fatcontent, etc., is used for garment leather. This diversity implies that processes have to beadapted to the particular type of raw hide in order to gain the best results. The methodsemployed in the processing of garment leather are much more varied than those used in themanufacture of other types of leather. Goatskin and pigskin are mainly used for suedegarment because of the structure of the skin, but most sheepskin is full-grain. Garment leatherhas to be soft and lightweight, with a pleasant handle and reasonably weatherproof.PROPERTY OF GARMENT LEATHERThe properties of leather vary considerably depending upon the type and quality of both theskins and the tanning process. Every piece of leather has individual markings which relate to itsorigins and add character to each skin.Like a fine wine, a good quality leather garment should improve with age. The naturalelasticity of each hide means it is flexible and will stretch and return to its original shape.Leather also has a natural tendency to repel liquids and resist staining. Its also fire resistant,and emits no toxic fumes, even when exposed to intense heat.Relative to virtually all man-made textiles, leather is very strong and has a high resistance levelto tears and punctures. The comfort provided by most leather goods is due in part to leathersability to combine breathing and insulating properties. You may have heard... "Leather is hot insummer and cold in winter." In reality, leather adjusts constantly to its environment. Because itis a natural product, leather "breathes" freely, maintaining a comfort level in all seasons. 1
    • VARIETIES IN LEATHER FOR GARMENTLeather, Suede & NubuckLeather, suede and nubuck are natural materials which provide good wind shielding, warmthand fiber breathability as well as being very comfortable and easy to wear.The quality is determined by the softness and the origin of skin / hides (e.g. lamb, kid, sheep,goat, pig, and cow/buffalo). Lamb, kid, sheep and goat leathers are very soft and supple tothe touch, as well as beautifully lightweight making them very comfortable and a joy to wear.Pig, cow/buffalo hide leathers are thicker and heavier and therefore cheaper in cost.PROPERTIESLeather, nubuck, suede are flexible and natural fabrics which will mould and adjust withregular wear to the body at the contact and contour points. This is the case whether the fit onthe person is loose, fitted or comfort fit. Leather garments will also stretch with regular wear atsnug contact points. A new leather jacket, coat or waistcoat will have been having on ahanger in the warehouse before you receive. It is therefore not uncommon for the leather tostick out from the body where there is a bit of space. The leather with wear will fall into thebody with a little wear and also as it warms up from body heat. Generally leather garments allimprove with wear and will give the wearer a lot of pleasure and comfort during its life. In ouropinion you cant beat a premium quality leather jacket or coat, and yes we are bias asotherwise we would not be in the leather jacket business.PROPERTIES OF NAPPA LEATHERNappa leather is the highest quality and most expensive leather type. Nappa leather isdefined by its beautifully lightweight structure, suppleness and softness. Nappa leather isderived from lamb and sheep skins. The main benefit of a garment crafted in nappa leather isthat it can be worn all day with out it weighing down like a lead coat (which is what hideleather jackets and coars can feel like). Of course if you want a jacket or coat that you canabuse then hide leather will definitely be more suitable. So it is all down to what you want asan individual. 2
    • TYPES OF FINISHING USED IN NAPPA:Standard - very subtle natural sheen.Brushed - matt finish with no sheen.Crushed / Creased - subtle crushed or creased effect.Glazed - shiny glaze finish. Slightly stiffens leather.Semi-Glazed - as a above but lighter glazed effect. Slightly stiffens leather.Washed - subtle antiqued finish that lends a great added vintage styling.Rub off - colour has been lightly rubbed off during the dye stage.Distressed - fashion worn look.PROPERTIES OF NUBUCK LEATHERNubuck is made from finely sanding and milling full grain leather, the process is expensive andproduces a luxuriously soft finish. Nubuck can be described as velvet on leather, this short napthat catches the light to give a very subtle dual tone effect in a matt finish. High qualitynubuck jackets and coats offer an attractive vintage look finish.Nubuck is generally more expensive than standard nappa leather.nubuck has gorgeous velvety soft touch finish and is a beautiful medium weight, it is definitelygorgeous to touch and wear.PROPERTIES OF SUEDE LEATHERSuede is derived from an interior split of a leather skin. Suede has short hair like structure onboth sides. Suede is generally cheaper than premium nappa leather or nubuck.Finish - short hair / fuzzy finish. Lightweight to wear.PROPERTIES OF HIDE LEATHERS (PIG&COW)Pig and cow skins are used for hide leathers. Pig and cow skins are thicker andheavier than nappa leather, with cow hide being the heaviest and thickest. Cow hide is alsocommonly referred to as buffalo hide - it is the exact same leather type.Pig and cow hide (buffalo hide) leathers are lower in cost and less sought after due to theirweight and thickness. The pig or cow skin is sliced by a laser to reduce weight and thicknessto make it more suitable and practical for wear and crafting into jackets.continue…….. 3
    • It is generally worthwhile being aware that the leather jackets and coats generally sold withinhigh street fast moving fashion chains are typically made of very thin slices of cow and, or pighides in order to achieve the maximum number of leather sections and hence garments froma single hide. Thus quality is sacrificed for higher profits.Leather motorbike jackets are also typically made from hide leathers for extended durability;these are made of an optimum thickness to provide protection and sufficient flexibility.Finish - full grain thick leather.BRUSHED HIDE LEATHERThis is milled cow hide leather to give a nubuck type finish. This has a soft touch finish and isthicker than nubuck, nappa leather or suede.  The added advantage of brushed leather is that it has a matt finish.  Finish - brushed matt effect finish in a soft touch.IMITATION LEATHERThere are very good leather, nubuck and suede imitation garments available and these arereferred to and labelled as "faux". It is worthwhile noting that imitations generally mimic thehigher quality end of genuine leather, suede and nubuck skins (i.e. these do not imitate thelower quality end). All the same, the imitations do not offer the wind shielding, warmth andfibre breathability of real leather, nubuck or suede. Most people that have an imitationleather, suede or nubuck jacket or coat will either find that it does not keep them warm in thedepths of winter or will find themselves hot or sweating in the garment when in the warmindoors or in a warm environment. 4
    • TYPES OF GARMENT LEATHERCowhide is the most common leather used in the making of garments, furniture and leathergoods. Cowhide as a category covers a wide spectrum of textures and quality, but generally,it is quite durable, easy to care for and resistant to water and dirt. Cowhide leather willmaintain its integrity, taking on the shape of the wearer, making it more comfortable witheveryday use. This affordable, functional leather offers fashion, value, endless colors and style.Lambskin is very soft, luxurious leather. Its natural lightweight layers give it a distinctive, velvetytouch, which suites form fitting jackets, pants, skirts as well as coats. But dont let its delicatetexture discourage you. With a little extra care, lambskin is very wearable and the ultimateluxury.Pigskin is by far the most popular and versatile, easily transformed into fashions most currentlooks. When tanned on the outside, it produces smooth napa finish, often used for jackets andaccessories. Tanning on the inside results in a silky suede finish. The natural, lightweightstructure of pigskin produces delicate patterns, textures and silky soft naps, perfect forsportswear, shirts and blazers.Sheepskin refers to the hide of a sheep used with the wool still attached. Usually, the wool sidefaces into the garment or accessory, but it can also be made reversible. The wool can beironed, which means straightened to yield a smooth, fur-like appearance, or it can be leftnaturally curly. Whichever way the wool is styled, this is the warmest leather available.Shearling is quite similar in appearance to sheepskin, the term shearling refers to hides fromlambs which are generally much lighter in weight then sheepskin hides and much softer.Although they may be lighter, shearling coats are just as warm as the heavier sheepskin. Theyare an elegant alternative to a fur coat. 5
    • The following principles need to be observed in the production of garment leather Raw stock Cattle hide calfskin, sheepskin, pigskin, goatskin and skins of various game animals such as deerskin. Beam house The skin has to be opened up well during liming. Greasy skins need to be degreased well. Tannage Chrome tanning is more appropriate than other tanning methods due to the required softness of the leather. For that reason combinations with chrome and glutaraldehyde can also be found quite often. Retannage Attention needs to be paid to the following factors when selecting syntans and polymers: High light fastness Neutral odour Dyeing Leather can be dyed to all colors, from classical shades to very intense, brilliant shades. High light fastness High migration resistance and perspiration resistance Fat liquoring / Neutral odourwater repellents Extremely soft leather High bulk Pleasant handle High water resistance and perspiration resistance Water-resistant treatment may be applied Finishing Leathers range from being left unfinished to being given a fairly thick coat of finish. Stretchy leather Pleasant handle and optical appearance 6
    • ANNING INVOLVED IN LEATHER FOR GARMENTThe tanning industry is a multi-billion dollar industry with factories throughout the world. WhileLeather has always been largely a byproduct of the meat industry, today this is a universalfact; the most notable exceptions being some types of snake skins. The greatest and mostvaluable advancements in tanning technology relate to the mitigation of its environmentaleffects. Today, the vast majority of countries with tanning industries have stringentenvironmental regulations to ensure that these technological advancements are, in fact,employed. While the exact specifications and procedures for tanning vary considerably,depending on the type of skin and its application, the basic processes are common to alltanning operations.THE TANNING PROCESSThe skins and hides are received at the tannery in a cured form, which means they have beentreated with salt to prevent rot before they leave the meat packing plant. The hides are thensoaked in water to soften them and to remove the remaining salt solution. The soaking periodvaries from two to forty eight hours. The next step is fleshing. Machines equipped with a rubberroller and a shaft to which spiral knives are attached remove the flesh and tissues from theinner side of the skin. These knives leave a clean, uniform surface. After fleshing, workerstransfer the skin to a department of the tannery known as the beam house. Here the hair isremoved by soaking the hides in a vat with a solution of lime and sodium sulfate. The hides aremilled or kept in motion in the vat for several days.The next operation involves removing the lime from the skins. After washing with cold waterthey are placed in a bating vat which contains an enzyme and a sulfate or chloride. Batingalso softens the texture of the hide during this 3 to 4 hour treatments. At this stage, the hidesenter one of two possible processes of tanning: Vegetable or Chrome tanning. Leathers forshoe soles, heavy cases, harnesses and most upholstery applications are prepared byvegetable tanning. Many plants and barks contain a bitter ingredient called tannin. It has theproperty of combining with proteins to form a compound that will not rot or decomposeeasily. In this case, the protein is the hide and after tannin is added, the compound is leather.The principal sources of tannin are leaves, nuts, bark and woods of hemlock, oak, chestnutsand various other types of trees.Continue…. 7
    • Chrome tanning is used for tanning the upper leather of shoes, handbags, wallets andgarments. Prior to chrome tanning, the hides must be pickled after the bating step. Picklinginvolves soaking the hides in a solution of salt and acid for several hours to achieve a low pHlevel. This is necessary because the chrome-tanning agents that are to follow are not solubleotherwise. The pickled skins or hides are then placed in a tanning drum containing a solutionof common salt, soda and acid. The chemical reaction to the compounds tans the hide andafter 5-10 hours, the conversion to leather has been effected.DYEING & FINISHINGAfter the leather has been tanned, it is then split and shaved to a uniform thicknessappropriate for the intended product. Dyeing or coloring is achieved by placing the leather inanother drum with a combination of coloring materials and chemicals to increase theirpenetration. This process may take several hours.Fat liquoring is the last step in the "wet" stage and requires about one hour. Here the leather isplaced in a drum with a variety of oils and greases. This step and the combinations of oilsemployed, determine the pliability of the leather. The leather is then dried to remove all excessmoisture. A number of different methods are used, each having a different "dehydration" levelwhich influences the characteristics of the final product. Often the leather is then buffed. Allskins have natural healed scratches or blemishes, which attest to the genuineness of leather.However, to improve its final appearance, it is often desirable to lightly sand or buff the grainsurface. If the leather is not buffed, the leather is top or full grain leather.Finishing involves the application of film-forming materials to provide abrasion and stainresistance and to enhance colour. Pigments are also added when a more opaque or vividcoloring effect is required. However, with smooth or top grain leather, usually only a light,transparent coating is applied. This is known as aniline dyeing. Of the two, aniline finishedleathers are the finest quality. The final processing step to influence the appearance and feelof the leather is called plating. The plating operation is done on a press capable of exertingup to 300 tons per square inch. The plating smoothes the surface of the coating materials justContinue…. 8
    • applied and firmly affixes them into the grain. At the same time, the plate may be speciallyengraved to emboss a particular pattern on the leather.The specifications and required characteristics of the tanned leather is determined by the enduse of product for which it is intended. Tanneries produce to order for a wide variety of finalgoods manufactures; there is a huge range in the quality of both materials and workmanshipin leather goods. In 1995, total world leather production was approximately 7,000,000 metrictons of cowhide; 1,400,000 metric tons of lambskin, shearling, sheepskin; 800,000 metric tons ofpigskin and 450,000 metric tons of goatskins. It has been estimated that more than 2,000,000people in the world are employed in the various branches of the leather industry.Today, the leather tanning industry stands out as perhaps the most productive byproductindustry in the world. It is hard to imagine the environmental impact of the additional syntheticproduct manufacturing which would be required to replace all of the current applications forleather, suede and shearing. It is impossible to imagine how any of these synthetic substitutescould ever match the esthetic appeal of genuine leather. 9
    • DESCRIPTION,DETAILS & RETAIL PRICE OF SOME GARMENT LEATHERGarment leather is breathable, supple, elastic and also true to form while tough anddurable like a second skin. Leather being a refined natural product is traded in differentsizes. Garment leather is obtainable in either square meters (m2) or in square footage (qfs).Steed (Horse) Nappa Relax: smooth and extreme soft Nappa Leather for high endgarments. Retail Item Description Details Price(€/m²) Thickness: Horse Nappa A thin garment horse leather, somewhat 0,7-0,9 mm Leather Relax stronger as lamb nappa, ideal for pants, Size: 1 Skin 49,50 jackets, erotic attire, pilot caps, etc. ca. 3-4 m²Square Foot : 1qfs = 0,0929 m² , 1m² = 10,76 qfs. 10
    • Steer Suede Leather for strong and durable Garments Item Description Details Retail Price Steer Suede Leather, all colors Thickness: 1.1 - 1.3 Steer Suede complete steer splits with fine finish. mm Leather Also known as: Wild Leather, Raw Size: Croupon ca. €/m² 1.1 - 1.3mm Leather; good for leather garments. 1,4 m² 27,50 Leather goods, belts, shoes and other Order minimum: 1 applications. CrouponPig Suede Leather for fine Garments Item Description Details Retail Price Pig Suede, (Known as: Wild Thickness: 0,5-0,7Pig Suede Leather, Raw Leather), full finish, mmLeather 4,30 €/qfs good for fine garments, shirts, Size: ca. 10 - 15 qfs Women’s attire. Order minimum: 1 Skin 11
    • Lamb Nappa Leather for light garments Item Description Details Retail Price Thickness: For soft garments like: Lamp Nappa Leather 0,8-0,9 Lamb jackets, trousers. Additional colors upon €/qf Size: ca. 5-10Nappa, 1A request with a minimum six skin per color 5,90 s qfs purchase. Thickness: Lamb 0,8-0,9 mm For soft garments like: Lamb Nappa €/qfNappa, Size: ca. 5-10 3,90 Leather jackets, trousers sblack qfs Thickness: Lamb 0,8-0,9 mm Special request, for soft garments like: €/qfNappa Eco, Size: ca. 5-10 3,90 Lamp Nappa Leather jackets, trousers. sblack qfsWater Buffalo Leather for Garments Item Description Details Retail Price Nubuk Leather with polished Water Thickness: 1,0-1,2 surface. Wild goods with naturalBuffalo mm texture, good for robust leather €/qfsLeather Size: ca. 30-45 qfs 3,85 garments such as pants andNubuk medieval costumes. 12
    • Chamois Leather / Lining leather, unsorted, authentic Item Description Details Retail Price Authentic Chamois Leather like in Thickness: 0,9- Lining Leather, early medieval times, or by Western - 1,2 mm 6,3Sheep, traditionell €/qfs Country, traditional tanning process, Size: ca. 7-10 qfs 0finish sorted by quality.Kangaroo Leather, extremely tear resistant. For thin garments and Falcon hoods. Item Description Details Retail Price Thickness: 0,5- Kangaroo For extreme strong garments, like: motorcycle clothing, 1,0 mm 8,90 €/qfsLeather corsets, Falconry articles. Wild goods with natural texture. Size: ca. 5 - 10 qfs 13
    • Leather for erotic needsFor theneeds in the erotic area only leather with a closed surface are mostly used.Recognizable for the ability to be hand washed and with a nice shine, as well as having ahigh tensile strength. We recommend for you: black, Lamb Nappa 0,8 - 0,9 mm malborored fine under garments Patent 0,4 - 0,5 mm / Material, Steer black 0,6 - 0,7 mm Nappa Leather Solid Kangaroo 0,8 - 0,9 mm / 0,6 Leather, Steer Nappa black, brown fine under garments , - 0,7 mm extreme strength Leather Solid Horse Leather, Aniline 0,7 - 0,9 mm diff. colors normal Garments Leather Thick Leather, Full 1,4 - 1,6 mm black sturdy Outfit Grain Harness Sides veg. 2,2 - 2,5 mm black Restraints, Straps and heavy equipment 14
    • LEATHER FAQ  Q: I see leather garments at lots of different price points. Why are some more expensive than others?  Ans -Inexpensive leathers tend to be made from cows that are older and whose hide is thicker, heavier in weight and generally quite durable. More pricey leather is commonly made from a younger animal whose hide is smoother, lighter in weight and traditionally more delicate. Tanning processes and treatments can also affect a leather garments price, as do all sorts of design considerations.  Q: I saw a pair of leather jeans in a magazine that were listed as washable. I always thought that water ruined leather. Could you explain?  Ans: Typically, "washable leathers" are made of suede that has been coated with an environmentally friendly enzyme and then pre-washed. This process strengthens the material, gives it a more leathery hand and renders it able to withstand the washing machine. Cold water with a mild liquid soap (not regular detergent) in the gentle cycle is recommended; then tumble-dries on low. Since the garments are pre-washed, consumers will find minimal change in color and texture. By eliminating the need for traditional leather cleaning, washable leather can also bring big savings. BUT NOTE CAREFULLY: Most leathers are not washable. Always check the garments care label or Consult with your place of purchase to be certain whether your particular garment is made of washable leather or suede.  Q: What should I do when leather is exposed to rain or salt from the streets?  Ans: Promptly remove salt deposits by sponging with clear water, and then allow wet or damp leather items to air-dry naturally, away from any heat source. You can then treat most items with a specially formulated leather conditioner to renew flexibility, while suede can be brushed with a terry towel to restore its surface.  Q: My leather skirt became wrinkled during travel. Can it be fixed?  Ans: It can. Most wrinkles will hang out on their own, although it is perfectly safe to iron leather. Simply set iron on its rayon setting, use heavy brown wrapping paper as a pressing cloth on the right side of the item and iron. Wrinkles should come right out. As always when doing something at home, test on a small, inconspicuous area first.  Q: Does leather lose its shape?  Ans: In a word, yes. Leather jackets and shirts should be hung on wide or padded hangers to best maintain their shapes. Shoe and boot trees keep footwear looking good and handbags will look better longer when stuffed with white tissue paper when not in use. 15
    •  Q: Are there any common things that can damage leather? Ans: Perfumes, hair spray and your natural body oils are a few of the things that, over time, can discolor or damage leather. You should avoid spraying perfumes or hair spray while wearing your garment. A scarf at the neckline will also help keep hair and body oil away from the collar. Q: I had my leather jacket professionally cleaned and the color changed. Is this normal? A: As a matter of fact it is. Leather is a natural product and you can never determine exactly how it will react to the cleaning process. An LAA recommended leather cleaner would clean the garment and then restore the essential oils that were lost during the procedure. Since the cleaner can never exactly match the method that was originally used when your garment was created, this process will sometimes produce a slight change in color or texture. Also note that for this reason it is important to clean matching garments at the same time. Q: What kinds of products can be used to keep my leather looking great? A: LAA can provide names of reputable manufacturers of at-home treatments. Be sure to choose products intended for your item and carefully read and follow the instructions for best results. Never use household products, waxes, silicone or any other preparations that impair the leathers ability to breathe. And always test products on a small inconspicuous area first. Q: How should I store my leathers? A: A dark closet that is neither too dry nor too humid is an ideal storage place. When putting garments away for the season, always place them in breathable covers. Never use plastic, which can dry out leather. Source : www.agoatoolkit.com/agoa/English/Select%20Products/.../Leather/04.pdf 16
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY www.leatherhouse.comwww.agoatoolkit.com/agoa/English/Select%20Products/.../Leather/04.pdf cbi.edu.in 17