GIS in Professional Planning Practice<br />CRP 608Winter ‘10<br />Class presentation<br />February 04, 2010<br />SAMIR GAM...
Overview<br />Background <br />Kirwan Institute<br />Our work<br />Using GIS for research and advocacy<br />Opportunity Ma...
About Kirwan Institute<br />Multidisciplinary applied research institute<br />Our mission is to expand opportunity for all...
Maps: Powerful Visual Tools<br />Maps are incredibly efficient<br />compacting volumes of data <br />ability to convey inf...
Space and Social Equity<br />Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with issues of equity?<br />Regional, racial a...
Using Maps for Advocacy<br />In our work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals<br />Analysis<br />Existin...
Analytical Examples<br />Are minority businesses located in areas of economic opportunity? (Cleveland)<br />Are hospital i...
MBE and Projected Job Change 2000-2030<br />
Hospital Investments and African American nbhds:Columbus<br />
Race and Foreclosure Crisis<br />
Spatial Mismatch:Job Growth & PublicTransit in Baltimore<br />
Stimulus investments and Job creation in Orlando MSA, Florida<br />
Narratives Examples<br />Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing segregation (Baltimore)<br />Foreclosures in African Ame...
Conditions in Baltimore <br />Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s predom...
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)<br />
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)<br />Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SA...
Looking at Issues Across Time and Space: The Growing Vacant Land Problem in Detroit<br />
Montclair School District, NJ<br />
Opportunity Mapping:Combining Analysis with a Strong Narrative<br />Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to underst...
Mapping Opportunity:why and How<br />Inequality has a geographic footprint<br />Maps can visually track the history and pr...
Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes<br />“Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individual...
Which community would you choose?<br />22<br />
Some people ride the “Up” escalator to reach opportunity.  <br />Others have to run up the “Down” escalator to get there.<...
Opportunity Mapping Model<br />A refined model to depict spatial pattern of opportunity<br />Identifying indicators as pro...
Opportunity Mapping Booklet<br />
Methodology<br />Identifying and selecting indicators of opportunity<br />Identifying sources of data<br />Compiling list ...
Methodology:Indicator Categories<br />Education<br />Student/Teacher ratio? Test scores? Student mobility?<br />Economic/E...
Methodology:Sources of Data<br />Federal Organizations<br />Census Bureau<br />County Business Patterns (ZIP Code Data)<br...
Methodology:Effect on Opportunity<br />
Methodology:Calculating Z Scores<br />Z Score – a statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard d...
Methodology:Calculating Opportunity using Z Scores<br />Final “opportunity index” for each census tract is the average of ...
Austin MSA, TX<br />
Baltimore Opportunity and Subsidized Housing<br />Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in...
Detroit Opportunity and Race<br />African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit<br />
Austin Opportunity and Linguistic Isolation<br />	Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isola...
Redlining: 1937 to 2009<br />
Comp Opportunity and Race<br />
Follow-up<br />Need more research on methodology<br />The model needs to be made more robust<br />Critical analysis of all...
Work in progress<br />Customizing data transfer procedures<br />National Opportunity Mapping<br />Web-based Opportunity ma...
Comparison<br />
Web-based mapping<br />Online interactive maps <br />ArcGIS Server<br />Baltimore Foreclosures(http://kirwan27:8399/Baltim...
Thank you!<br />For questions, comments or for more information visit our website www.kirwaninstitute.org or e-mail me at ...
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GIS in Professional Planning Practice

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GIS in Professional Planning Practice

  1. 1. GIS in Professional Planning Practice<br />CRP 608Winter ‘10<br />Class presentation<br />February 04, 2010<br />SAMIR GAMBHIR<br />Senior Research Associate<br />Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Background <br />Kirwan Institute<br />Our work<br />Using GIS for research and advocacy<br />Opportunity Mapping<br />Work in progress<br />National Opportunity Model<br />Web-based GIS<br />
  3. 3. About Kirwan Institute<br />Multidisciplinary applied research institute<br />Our mission is to expand opportunity for all, especially for our most marginalized communities<br />Founded in 2003 by john powell<br />Opportunity Communities Program (1/3 of staff)<br />Opening pathways to opportunity for marginalized communities through investments in people, places and supporting linkages<br />Opportunity mapping<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Maps: Powerful Visual Tools<br />Maps are incredibly efficient<br />compacting volumes of data <br />ability to convey information in seconds<br />tell a story or solve a problem<br />Research has shown that people can solve problems faster with map based information, than by looking at charts, tables or graphs<br />
  5. 5. Space and Social Equity<br />Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with issues of equity?<br />Regional, racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity<br />Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena<br />Maps give us the opportunity to look at our entire regions or states<br />Informing people about an issue at a scale they may not usually think of <br />linking communities sharing similar problems<br />
  6. 6. Using Maps for Advocacy<br />In our work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals<br />Analysis<br />Existing conditions, spatial trends, scenarios, optimization etc. <br />Storytelling<br />A narrative<br />Combination<br />
  7. 7. Analytical Examples<br />Are minority businesses located in areas of economic opportunity? (Cleveland)<br />Are hospital investments benefiting communities of color? (Columbus)<br />Are marginalized communities disproportionately affected by foreclosure crisis? (Connecticut)<br />Are job growth areas connected to transit? (Baltimore)<br />What is the impact of stimulus money investment on job creation? (Florida)<br />
  8. 8. MBE and Projected Job Change 2000-2030<br />
  9. 9. Hospital Investments and African American nbhds:Columbus<br />
  10. 10. Race and Foreclosure Crisis<br />
  11. 11. Spatial Mismatch:Job Growth & PublicTransit in Baltimore<br />
  12. 12. Stimulus investments and Job creation in Orlando MSA, Florida<br />
  13. 13. Narratives Examples<br />Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing segregation (Baltimore)<br />Foreclosures in African American neighborhoods are due to subprime lending patterns (Cleveland)<br />Vacant property problems are spreading, vacant property challenges are not just an inner city problem (Detroit)<br />What if Montclair, NJ schools returned to neighborhood school system?<br />
  14. 14. Conditions in Baltimore <br />Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s predominately African American neighborhoods<br />
  15. 15. Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)<br />
  16. 16. Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)<br />Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University<br />
  17. 17. Looking at Issues Across Time and Space: The Growing Vacant Land Problem in Detroit<br />
  18. 18. Montclair School District, NJ<br />
  19. 19. Opportunity Mapping:Combining Analysis with a Strong Narrative<br />Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas<br />The purpose of opportunity mapping is to illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities) <br />Also, to understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities <br />
  20. 20. Mapping Opportunity:why and How<br />Inequality has a geographic footprint<br />Maps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate people<br />Identifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity<br />
  21. 21. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes<br />“Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel.<br />Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:<br />High-quality education<br />Healthy and safe environment<br />Stable housing<br />Sustainable employment<br />Political empowerment<br />Outlets for wealth-building<br />Positive social networks<br />
  22. 22. Which community would you choose?<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Some people ride the “Up” escalator to reach opportunity. <br />Others have to run up the “Down” escalator to get there.<br />
  24. 24. Opportunity Mapping Model<br />A refined model to depict spatial pattern of opportunity<br />Identifying indicators as proxy for opportunity<br />Supported by social science literature<br />Data easily available<br />Index based approach compresses multi-factors to an index<br />Model is a good communications tool to work with communities<br />
  25. 25. Opportunity Mapping Booklet<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Methodology<br />Identifying and selecting indicators of opportunity<br />Identifying sources of data<br />Compiling list of indicators (data matrix)<br />Calculating Z scores<br />Averaging these scores<br />
  31. 31. Methodology:Indicator Categories<br />Education<br />Student/Teacher ratio? Test scores? Student mobility?<br />Economic/Employment Indicators<br />Unemployment rate? Proximity to employment? Job creation?<br />Neighborhood Quality<br />Median home values? Crime rate? Housing vacancy rate?<br />Mobility/Transportation Indicators<br />Mean commute time? Access to public transit?<br />Health & Environmental Indicators<br />Access to health care? Exposure to toxic waste? Proximity to parks or open space?<br />
  32. 32. Methodology:Sources of Data<br />Federal Organizations<br />Census Bureau<br />County Business Patterns (ZIP Code Data)<br />Housing and Urban Development (HUD)<br />Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)<br />State and Local Governmental Organizations<br />Regional planning agencies<br />Education boards/school districts<br />Transportation agencies<br />County Auditor’s Office<br />Other agencies (non-Profit and Private)<br />Schoolmatters.org<br />DataPlace.org<br />ESRI Business Analyst<br />Claritas<br />
  33. 33. Methodology:Effect on Opportunity<br />
  34. 34. Methodology:Calculating Z Scores<br />Z Score – a statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) between data points and the mean<br />Z Score = (Data point – Mean)/ Standard Deviation<br />Allows data for a geography (e.g. census tract) to be measured based on their relative distance from the average for the entire region<br />Raw z score performance<br />Mean value is always “zero” – z score indicates distance from the mean<br />Positive z score is always above the region’s mean, Negative z score is always below the region’s mean<br />Indicators with negative effect on opportunity should have all the z scores adjusted to reflect this phenomena<br />
  35. 35. Methodology:Calculating Opportunity using Z Scores<br />Final “opportunity index” for each census tract is the average of z scores (including adjusted scores for direction) for all indicators by category<br />Census tracts can be ranked<br />Opportunity level is determined by sorting a region’s census tract z scores into ordered categories (very low, low, moderate, high, very high)<br />Top 20% can be categorized as very high, bottom 20% - very low<br />
  36. 36. Austin MSA, TX<br />
  37. 37. Baltimore Opportunity and Subsidized Housing<br />Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods<br />
  38. 38. Detroit Opportunity and Race<br />African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit<br />
  39. 39. Austin Opportunity and Linguistic Isolation<br /> Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated households<br />
  40. 40. Redlining: 1937 to 2009<br />
  41. 41. Comp Opportunity and Race<br />
  42. 42. Follow-up<br />Need more research on methodology<br />The model needs to be made more robust<br />Critical analysis of all indicators e.g. job mismatch, park access issues <br />
  43. 43. Work in progress<br />Customizing data transfer procedures<br />National Opportunity Mapping<br />Web-based Opportunity mapping<br />
  44. 44. Comparison<br />
  45. 45. Web-based mapping<br />Online interactive maps <br />ArcGIS Server<br />Baltimore Foreclosures(http://kirwan27:8399/BaltimoreForeclosure/mapviewer.jsf?width=261&height=438)<br />Open source<br />Austin Opportunity Mapping(http://www.gis.osu.edu/webgis-projects/opportunity/index.html)<br />
  46. 46. Thank you!<br />For questions, comments or for more information visit our website www.kirwaninstitute.org or e-mail me at Gambhir.2@osu.edu<br />

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