Opportunity Mapping: Geographic Information System (GIS), Advocacy And Social Justice

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  • 1. Mayor’s Summit on Race, Culture and Human RelationsTallahassee, FLSeptember 25th 2010Presented by:Jason ReeceSenior ResearcherDirector of the Opportunity Communities ProgramThe Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & EthnicityThe Ohio State University 1
  • 2. Today’s Workshop (3 Parts) Introduction  Learning from you…  Why use Mapping? Opportunity Mapping and Advocacy  What is it?  What can it be used for?  Outcomes? The Future – Democratizing Data  Web Based & Interactive Opportunity Maps 2
  • 3. IntroductionMore about us….Learning from you….Why use mapping? 3
  • 4. More about us… Multidisciplinary applied research institute  Our mission is to expand opportunity for all, especially for our most marginalized communities Founded in 2003 by john powell (executive director)  Opportunity Communities Program ○ Opening pathways to opportunity for marginalized communities through investments in people, places and supporting linkages ○ Disrupting systems of disadvantage ○ Opportunity mapping, Regional Equity, Neighborhood Revitalization, Opportunity Based Housing 4
  • 5. Learning from you… Why are you interested in mapping?  What do you hope to learn in this workshop? Have you tried using mapping in your organizing and advocacy?  Why did you use it?  How was it helpful?  What were the challenges? Are you interested in using mapping – but haven’t tried it yet?  Why not? What are the impediments & obstacles? 5
  • 6. Using Mapping For Advocacy: Space and Regional Equity Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with issues of equity?  Regional, racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity  Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena Other disciplines and sectors are using multivariate mapping to problem solve  Private industry  NGO’s (Non Profit Sector) ○ Long history in the environmental field  Public sector ○ Local Government ○ Federal Government  Recent interest in mapping by HUD for supporting sustainable communities 6
  • 7. Why Mapping?Communications Why is a map an excellent visual tool to inform someone about an issue/problem or solution?  Maps are incredibly efficient, compacting volumes of data into single pictures that can be understood at a glance ○ One map may contain tens of thousands of pieces of information than can be understood in seconds  A good map can enable you to tell a story or solve a problem ○ Research has shown that people can solve problems faster with map based information, than by looking at charts, tables or graphs 7
  • 8. GIS/Mapping = Powerful Analysis The power of GIS  Overlays of data/information ○ Depth of analysis – because of its storage and overlay capabilities, GIS allows analysis which would be difficult or impossible without GIS technology ○ Interaction of variables: GIS allows for extensive exploration of the interaction between various factors, primarily the focusing on correlation and relationships (spatial) 8
  • 9. Think of Mapping as a Tool:It can be used for positive or negative purposes.E.g. Mapping for Inequity – Redlining to supportinstitutionalized disinvestmentHow can we use this tool andeffectively use maps to advocate forequity? 9
  • 10. OpportunityMapping & AdvocacyWhat is it?What can it be used for?Outcomes? 10
  • 11. #1 - Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, andLife Outcomes “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks 11
  • 12. # 2 - Systems Thinking: We are all situated within “opportunity structures” Physical Social Cultural Outcomes & BehaviorsThese structures interact in ways that produce racialized outcomes for different groups, but alsoin ways that influence identity 12
  • 13. # 3 – Place, Race and Opportunity Structures: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations ○ Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities 13 13
  • 14. # 4 – Structural – Fueled Interaction Between Structures Our understanding of opportunity has shifted with time….from a one- dimensional understanding… • One variable can explain why differential outcomes.…to a multi-dimensional understanding…. • Structural Inequality – Example: a Bird in a cage. Examining one bar cannot explain why a bird cannot fly. But multiple bars, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird. 14
  • 15. Neighborhoods and Systemic Disadvantage: InteractiveSource: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/ 15
  • 16. # 5 - Systems are dynamic and create feedback loops:E.g. the cycle of school segregation School Lower Educational Segregation Outcomes for Urban (Economic) School Districts Increased Flight Neighborhood of Affluent (Housing) Families from Segregation Urban Areas 16
  • 17. Access to Opportunity &Marginalized Groups Some people ride the “Up” Others have to run up escalator to reach the “Down” escalator opportunity to get there 17
  • 18. The Communities of Opportunity Modeland Fair Housing Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life. Low Opportunity neighborhoods limit the development of human capital A Community of Opportunity approach can develop pathways that result in increased social and economic health, benefiting everyone  Looking at people, places and linkages ○ Linkages = building connections to areas of opportunity ○ Example: Opportunity based fair housing 18
  • 19. People, Places and Linkages: Deliberate, coordinated, andregional investments in people, places, and linkages
  • 20. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US  Projects in at least a dozen states ○ Full State Analysis: MA, CT, OH, FL ○ Regions: Seattle, San Francisco, Chicago, Atlanta, Baltimore, Washington D.C., Detroit, Austin, Sacramento, Los Angeles, New York, Houston, New Orleans Why identify the “State of Opportunity”  How are low-income groups situated in the State?  How are racial and ethnic groups situated?  How does housing intersect with race, class and opportunity  What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape? 20
  • 21. Mapping Communities of Opportunity:Methods and Indicators  How do you map opportunity?  Data representing community conditions was gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state or region ○ Data for all indicators of community conditions was aggregated to the Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the census tracts (neighborhoods) throughout the state or region  The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score ○ Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High 21
  • 22. Sample Indicators: From Recent KingCounty Opportunity Mapping AnalysisEducation Housing & Neighborhood Student poverty rates Health Reading/Math test scores  Home ownership rates Adult educational attainment  Crime incidence Teacher qualifications  Vacancy rates Graduation rate  Home value appreciation  Neighborhood poverty rates  Population changeECONOMIC HEALTH  Proximity to parks/open space Proximity to employment  Proximity to toxic waste release sites Commute times Job growth trends Business start trends Unemployment rate All indicators grounded in social science research Public assistance rate literature, also indicators can be more narrowly tailored to meet the needs of particular populations (e.g. public housing residents). 22
  • 23. Creating the Composite Opportunity Map FinalEducation Economic Housing & OpportunityOpportunity Opportunity Neighborhood Score Score Score Score (Map) 23
  • 24. Example of an Opportunity Map: Detroit MI(Dark Areas = Most Opportunity Rich Communities)(Light Areas = Most Opportunity Deprived Areas) 24
  • 25. MA Legal Services and Opportunity Communities Background on this project  Originated from effort to incorporate mapping analysis into legal services Partners  Massachusetts Law Reform Institute, MA Legal Assistance Corp (foundation) and other Legal Services Entities  Year long process of meeting with stakeholders to understand mapping needs and issues  Training with service providers & agencies (using mapping for programming) 25
  • 26. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston 26
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  • 30. Applications and Impact Program design and use within legal services  New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program  Use in exploring client concerns/challenges State level program design (public sector)  New $5 million state affordable housing program, targeted to high opportunity communities (see press release)  Targeting of $21 million in NSP funds to low opportunity communities by the MA Department of Housing and Community Development Implementation still unfolding 30
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  • 32. Other Project Impacts: CT Connecticut  “The mapping is guiding our next round of fair housing testing…our mapping report has been identified by the CT Department of Economic and Community Development as one of the three central principles that will guide its planning over the next five years.” ○ Erin Boggs, CT Fair Housing Center 32
  • 33. Analysis and Communications
  • 34. Other Projects Impacts &Activities Connecticut  State embraces model as a strategic planning principal Baltimore  Remedial proposal in Thompson v. HUD Chicago (Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities)  Use in advising voucher holders in neighborhood selection Austin  Use in evaluating city’s affordable housing investments Related Project: Washington County, OR  Advised on opportunity map created by the County included in recent consolidated plan for County ○ Exploring application in planning activities for the broader Portland region Child Development  Jacksonville, FL & the Duvall County children’s commission Evaluation of stimulus/NSP activities  Florida Minnesota  Utilized framework to help faith based community organizers educate and frame an advocacy agenda 34
  • 35. Opportunity Mapping A study of the opportunity status of four regions in Florida  Miami  Tampa  Orlando  Jacksonville Preparatory analysis for ARRA resource allocation research and advocacy efforts  What places and have the greatest need for investment?  What people and have the greatest need for investment?  What elements of success need the most investment? ○ Education, Housing, Transportation, Employment, etc.?
  • 36. MappingOpportunity Education  Math & Reading Scores  Graduation Rates  Student Poverty  Teacher Qualifications  Educational Attainment Economics & Mobility  Jobs & Job Change  % on Public Assistance  Unemployment Rates  Mean Commute Time  Business Vacancy Rates Housing & Neighborhoods  Home Ownership Rates  Residential Vacancy Rates  Median Home Values  Poverty Rates  Proximity to Hazardous Sites
  • 37. Visualizing the Opportunity Model
  • 38. Opportunity & Subsidized MiamiHousingJacksonville
  • 39. Opportunity & Foreclosure Jacksonville Orlando
  • 40. Moving Forward - Strategies What is this information/approach useful for?  Diagnostics and targeted investments  Identifying areas of opportunity and challenges ○ Opportunities  Opportunities for investment - Targeting services better, targeting programs ○ Challenges  Looking at broader policy issues and concern  Communications – using maps to illustrate areas of concern, areas of opportunity, broader community discussions A powerful tool to help produce a collaborative process around opportunity isolation among diverse stakeholders
  • 41. Moving Forward - Strategies Spend time identifying areas of concern/need prior to mapping  Targeted inquiries and analysis (areas of concern, areas of opportunities for progress)  Diagnostics (programs, investments etc.) Consider mapping to help address broader challenges  Planning and strategy, communications, public discourse, advocacy – outreach, stakeholder, informing program design ○ Comprehensive opportunity maps more useful in this role Be aware of data challenges  Access to data sometimes a limiting factor
  • 42. Want to Learn More?Resources & Reference Materials Mapping for Social Justice  The Kirwan Institute Study: ○ Utilizing GIS to Support Advocacy and Social Justice More on Opportunity Mapping  The Kirwan Institute Reports ○ Communities of Opportunity: A Framework for an Equitable & Sustainable Future ○ The Geography of Opportunity: A Review of Opportunity Mapping Research Initiatives  All Available on-line at: kirwaninstitute.org 42
  • 43. Want to Learn More?Resources & Reference Materials Mapping & Advocacy – Two recent articles from Clearinghouse Review  Jason Reece and Eric Schultheis. Poverty’s Place: The Use of Geographic Information Systems in Poverty Advocacy. Clearinghouse Review Journal of Poverty Law and Policy. January-February 2009.  Maya Roy and Jason Reece. Poverty’s Place Revisited: Mapping for Justice & Democratizing Data to Combat Poverty. Clearinghouse Review Journal of Poverty Law and Policy. July/August 2010. To access, visit Clearinghouse Review at:  www.povertylaw.org/clearinghouse-review 43
  • 44. Web Based and Interactive Opportunity Maps http://www.kirwaninstitute.org/connect/king-county-wa-opportunity-mapping.html 44
  • 45. www.KirwanInstitute.org www.race-talk.org KirwanInstitute on: 45