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  • 1. The State of Black Ohio Andrew Grant-Thomas, Deputy Director,The Kirwan Institute Black Ohio in the 21st Century Institute for Urban Public Policy1 April 20, 2010
  • 2. Black Ohio has many stories to tell…“That’s one of the challenges, sometimes the leadership of the African American community is asked to give the “African American perspective” and sometimes I have to stop and say I can speak on my behalf, but it’s inaccurate to think I could give insight on behalf of the community because we are so diverse…”2
  • 3. Neighborhood Opportunity Indicators • Education •Economic & Mobility •Housing & Neighborhood • Public Health •Public Safety & Criminal Justice3
  • 4. Nearly 3 out of 4 Black Ohioans were living in the State’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods….4
  • 5. …compared to 1 in 2 Latinos and 1 in 4 Asians and Whites.5
  • 6. Which domains are we talking about? Healthy neighborhoods, healthy businesses Education disparities in Ohio’s African American community Gender issues and disparities Immigration impacts Political empowerment, leadership, and representation Health and health care in Ohio’s African American community Crime and criminal justice among Black Ohioans 6
  • 7. Divergence of Fortune “I believe the State is staring at the crossroads: one path has opportunities with advancement… and the other is more of the status quo, where folks are falling behind.” Focus: EDUCATION 7
  • 8. Interviewees’ top concern for Black Ohio wasEDUCATION, and… Challenges to Black Ohioans** Housing (Access to Credit, Predatory… Poverty Workforce Development System Prejudices Economy African American Incarceration Hopelessness Family (Single Mother-Headed Households) Access to Opportunity Healthcare Racism/Stereotypes Employment/Unemployment Education System 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 8
  • 9. …and their #1 solution related to Education. Suggested Responses to Challenges Leadership Realization Healthcare Access Credit Discrimination Teach Values MBE Development Community Strengths Addressing Crime Strategic Planning Address Criminal Justice System Mentorship Improve educational opportunities 0 5 10 15 20 9
  • 10. Signs of lag and progress: HS graduation rates over time Ohio High School Graduation Rate, 1995 - 2006 (%) 100.0% 95.0% 90.0% 85.0% 80.0%Percentage 75.0% 70.0% 71.3% 65.0% 61.4% 68.4% 69.0% 66.8% 60.0% 62.5% 62.9% 61.2% 61.1% 60.6% 55.0% 59.5% 56.8% 50.0% 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 White 82.7% 83.0% 83.4% 84.0% 84.2% 85.1% 86.9% 88.6% 89.8% 89.8% 89.8% 90.3% Black 62.5% 61.4% 61.2% 61.1% 56.8% 59.5% 60.6% 62.9% 66.8% 68.4% 69.0% 71.3% Asian 88.1% 87.5% 87.3% 88.0% 88.3% 89.3% 90.3% 92.1% 91.8% 92.5% 93.6% 93.2% Hispanic 61.5% 59.1% 63.1% 61.4% 61.9% 63.1% 65.9% 71.6% 71.8% 74.1% 73.8% 67.0% 10 Graduation Rates by Race in Ohio; Source: The Ohio Department of Education Data Warehouse
  • 11. Signs of progress: Math proficiency Increase in proficiency rates for 4th grade mathematics from 1999 to 2006, percent Black Students 13Economically Disadvantaged Students 12 Disabled Students 8 Hispanic Students 7 All Students 6 11 Source: Achieve, Inc. “Creating a World Class Education System in Ohio.” 2007
  • 12. Question: Many interviewees pointed to the need for a unified strategic plan for Black Ohio; what should it look like?12
  • 13. 4 Principles to Guide Strategic PlanningI. Educate about Our Linked FatesII. Build (on) Community AssetsIII. Weave the Web of OpportunityIV. Promote Universal Policies in Targeted Ways 13
  • 14. I. Educate about Our Linked Fates As Black Ohio goes, so goes all Ohio  Example:The Subprime & Foreclosure crisis  Example: Lack of Health Care  Example: Disappearance of Blue-Collar Jobs “African Americans are bearing the brunt of the [housing] problems here. The mortgage problems have been going [on] for 10 years. In 2000, there were conferences on predatory lending. [It’s] only on the radar now because it’s affecting Whites, upper- income people, [and] people across the globe. Talk about the canary in the coal mine illustration!” 14 Source: Center for Responsible Lending http://www.responsiblelending.org/mortgage-lending/tools- resources/factsheets/ohio.html
  • 15. Linked Fates (cont.) $2.6 billion would be added to Ohio’s economy just by raising the African American graduation rate to that of white students (by 2020) The poverty of a school, more than the poverty of the individual, determines students’ educational outcomes Seven of top-ten counties in foreclosure-filing growth – each of which saw a 26%+ increase last year – were in the Northwest and Appalachian regions of the state. 15
  • 16. II. Build (on) Community Assets Strengths and Assets of the Black Community Interviewees Middle Class Status identified Federal Support many Blacks Can Move to any Neighborhood Quality of Life community Diversity assets on Health Services and Programs Values which to History of Struggle Education build Church Economic, Political, and Educational… 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 16
  • 17. III. Weave the Web ofOpportunity Some keys to educational opportunity: School-based • Tracking • Funding • Class size Health • Teacher quality Employment Childcare Non-school Housing Education • Families Effective • Neighborhoods Participation • Children’s Transportation Health • Housing Stability 17
  • 18. What happens beyond school walls matters Health disparities account for as much as 25 percent of the black-white achievement gap. In Ohio, in 2004, African American women twice as likely as white women to have low-weight babies. These babies are more likely to suffer from impaired physical and cognitive development, and decreased health overall throughout childhood. Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is equivalent to missing a full year of school. 18
  • 19. IV. Promote Universal Policies in Targeted Ways • There is no “one size fits all”…“One vision, many paths” • Examples: • Social Security Act: Social Security benefits were initially denied to household and farm laborers – effectively excluding 65% of the Black population. • Since the passage of near-universal healthcare in Massachusetts in 2006, emergency room visits in the state have spiked, fed largely by demand from newly insured patients. 19
  • 20. Targeted Universalism (cont.) Student B:Student A: •Tracking• Tracking •Funding• Funding •Housing Stability •Health •Neighborhoods What does an intervention aimed at mitigating the effects of tracking and funding do? 20
  • 21. Moving Forward:Principles of a Strategic PlanI. Educate about Our Linked FatesII. Build (on) Community AssetsIII. Weave the Web of OpportunityIV. Promote Universal Policies in Targeted Ways 21
  • 22. www.KirwanInstitute.org www.race-talk.org KirwanInstitute on:22
  • 23. Works cited Sampson, et.al.“Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 842-844. Kids Count Ohio. Profiles by Geographic Area: Ohio. Available online at http://www.kidscount.org/datacenter/profile_results.jsp?r=37&d=1; Ohio Kids Count 2007 Databook. Children’s Defense Fund- Ohio. Available online at http://www.childrensdefense.org/site/DocServer/Ohio_KIDS_COUNT_Data_Book.pdf?docI D=6021 Barton, Paul. 2003. “Parsing the Achievement Gap: Baselines for Tracking Progress.” Policy Information Center, Education Testing Services. Available online at: http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICPARSING.pdf. Currie, Janet. 2005. “Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness.” The Future of Children 15(1): 117-38. See also a Broader Bolder Approach to Education online at: http://www.boldapproach.org/. Kowalczyk, Liz. “ER visits, costs in Mass. Climb.” The Boston Globe, April 24, 2009. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/04/24/er_visits_cos ts_in_mass_climb/?page=2 23