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Sprawl: Between 1950 and 1990, the number of municipalities in metropolitan areas grew from 193 to 9,600.
Segregation: Typical white resident resides in a neighborhood that is 80% white. A typical Black person lives in a neighborhood that is 33% white.
Concentrated Poverty: 3 of 4 persons living in concentrated poverty are Black or Latino even though more whites are poor.
Cross-Domain Impacts of Opportunity Segregation Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Racial stigma, other psychological impacts Job segregation community power, civic participation and individual assets Educational Achievement Exposure to crime Transportation limitations and other inequitable public services Adapted from figure by Barbara Reskin at: http://faculty.washington.edu/reskin/ Segregation impacts a number of life-opportunities Impacts on Health
Opportunity Mapping The Geography of Opportunity
Maps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate people.
Example: Opportunity Based Housing in Practice (Baltimore – Thompson Litigation)
Plaintiffs used opportunity mapping to frame their remedial proposal, in response to a liability ruling that found the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in violation of the Fair Housing Act
The plaintiffs have proposed establishing 7,000 affordable housing units in the region’s high- opportunity communities, available to volunteers who wish to relocate out of the City of Baltimore’s public housing