GIS Mapping in the Field of Social Equity and Advocacy


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GIS Mapping in the Field of Social Equity and Advocacy

  1. 1. 2010 SOUTHEASTERN COLLOQUIUM ON RACIAL INEQUALITY AND POVERTY GIS MAPPING IN THE FIELD OF SOCIAL EQUITY AND ADVOCACY Samir Gambhir Senior Research Associate (GIS) Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity The Ohio State University
  2. 2. About Kirwan Institute2  Multidisciplinary applied research institute  Our mission is to expand opportunity for all, especially for our most marginalized communities  Founded in 2003 by john powell
  3. 3. About Our Work3  Emphasis on how systems work to produce inequity  How do multiple issues interact to either depress or uplift certain populations or communities?  What can we do to “strategically intervene” and improve outcomes for marginalized communities  Extensive use of GIS/mapping in our work  Inequity has a geographic footprint  Leverage points sometimes geographic in scope  Maps powerful for tools for  Research  Designing policy/programming  Communicating research/issues to the public and other stakeholders
  4. 4. 4 Overview  GIS, its use and effectiveness  Use of mapping in our work  Opportunity mapping: Assumptions, methodology and examples  Applications and Impact
  5. 5. Introduction5  What is GIS?  "A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps."  “GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.”  “A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.”  Bing maps, Google Earth, GPS Source: Environmental Systems Research Institute
  6. 6. Why use maps?6Maps are incredibly efficient compacting volumes of data ability to convey information in seconds tell a story or solve a problem
  7. 7. Why is visual information important?7  A picture is worth a thousand words  “People are able to look at the information based on where they live or areas they are familiar with and obtain a better understating”
  8. 8. Why are maps effective?8  Provide spatial reference  “People feel like they understand maps. Nobody will give you feedback on regression analysis”  Identifying strategic intervention points  Shared sense of value; builds mutual trust
  9. 9. Research project 9  In collaboration with  The Opportunity Agenda  Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies
  10. 10. Findings10  Maps must be clear and easy to comprehend  Maps work best when framed to convey specific advocacy issues  Mapping is  powerful in identifying systemic community-based disadvantage and spatial racialization  very effective at identifying strategic intervention points  a good entry point for uniting diverse coalitions or stakeholders
  11. 11. Space and Social Equity11  Racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity  Local issues tend have a regional scope and variation e.g. school performance, housing vacancy  Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena  Maps give us the opportunity to look at our entire regions or states  Informing people about an issue at a scale they may not usually think of  linking communities sharing similar problems
  12. 12. Using Maps for Advocacy12  In our work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals  Analysis  Existing conditions, spatial trends, scenarios, optimization etc.  Storytelling A narrative  Combination
  13. 13. Analytical Examples13  Are minority businesses located in areas of economic opportunity? (Cleveland)  Are hospital investments benefiting communities of color? (Columbus)  Are job growth areas connected to transit? (Baltimore)  What is the impact of stimulus money investment on job creation? (Florida)
  14. 14. MBE and Projected Job Change 2000-203014
  15. 15. Health equity research15 Hospital Investments and African American neighborhoods Columbus
  16. 16. Recent Job Growth 98-02 and Public Transit in the Baltimore Region Spatial Mismatch16 Job Growth & Public Transit in Baltimore Percent Change in Jobs Job Loss 0-5 5 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 66.6
  17. 17. ARRA Investments17 Stimulus investments and Job creation in Orlando MSA, FL
  18. 18. Narratives Examples18  Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing segregation (Baltimore)  Foreclosures in African American neighborhoods are due to subprime lending patterns (Cleveland)  Vacant property problems are spreading, vacant property challenges are not just an inner city problem (Detroit)  What if Montclair, NJ schools returned to neighborhood school system?
  19. 19. Conditions in Baltimore19  Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered c in the region’s predominately African American neighborhoods
  20. 20. Race and Foreclosure (Cleveland MSA) (Note: Not one of our maps)20
  21. 21. Race and Subprime Lending (Cleveland MSA) (Note: Not one of our maps)21 Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University
  22. 22. Time and Space: Vacant Land Problem in Detroit N22 Growth of Vacant Housing Legend: W E in Detroit 1970-2000 S City of Detroit % of Homes Vacant (% Vacant Housing Highways 0-3 in 1970 and 2000) Counties 3 - 10 10 - 15 Prepared by: Kirwan Institute Source Data: U.S. Census Bureau 15 - 20 20 - 57.6 % Vacant % Vacant 1970 2000 8 0 8 16 Miles
  23. 23. Montclair School District, NJ
  24. 24. Opportunity Mapping: Combining Analysis with a Strong Narrative24  Research tool to  understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas  illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities)  understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities  Based on Kirwan Institute’s “Communities of Opportunity” framework
  25. 25. The Communities of Opportunity Approach25  Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life.  Low Opportunity neighborhoods limit the development of human capital.  A Community of Opportunity approach can develop pathways that result in increased social and economic health, benefiting everyone.
  26. 26. The Communities of Opportunity Primer26
  27. 27. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes27  “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel.  Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks
  28. 28. Space and Opportunity28 28
  29. 29. Redlining maps (Hartford, CT)29
  30. 30. 30 Some people ride the “Up” Others have to run up the escalator to reach opportunity. “Down” escalator to get there.
  31. 31. Opportunities Affordable Lead to Equity housing frees up money for transportation Well-educated children will Increased access benefit in the employment arena to jobs as adults Higher income allows you to provide better A better job educational provides more opportunities for your income31 children
  32. 32. Mapping Opportunity:32 Why and How  The Communities of Opportunity framework is inherently spatial  Inequality has a geographic footprint  Maps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate people  Identifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity  The model uses state-of-the-art GIS and extensive data sets to analyze the distribution of opportunity in our metro regions
  33. 33. Opportunity Mapping Model33  A refined model to depict spatial pattern of opportunity  Identifying indicators as proxy for opportunity  Supported by social science literature  Data easily available  Index based approach compresses multi-factors to an index  Model is a good communications tool to work with communities
  34. 34. Opportunity Mapping Booklet34
  35. 35. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators35  How do you map opportunity?  Data representing community conditions is gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state or region  Aggregated to the Census Tract level  Analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the region  The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score  Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High
  37. 37. Education Indicators37  Adult Education Attainment  Neighborhood School Poverty  Math and Reading Test Scores for Neighborhood Schools  Teacher Qualifications
  38. 38. Education Opportunity Map38
  39. 39. Economic Indicators39  Unemployment Rates  Population on Public Assistance  Proximity to Employment  Economic Climate (Job Change)  Business Climate (Business Creation)
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Housing and Neighborhood Indicators41  Housing Vacancy Rates  Poverty rates  Crime Rates  Home Ownership  Foreclosures  Property Appreciation  Proximity to Toxic Waste Sites
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Creating the Composite Opportunity Map43 Education Economic Housing & Final Opportunity Opportunity Neighborhood Opportunity Score Score Score Score (Map)
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45 Opportunity Analysis
  46. 46. Redlining: 1937 to 200946
  47. 47. Detroit Opportunity and Race47 African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit
  48. 48. Austin Opportunity andLinguistic Isolation48 Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated households
  49. 49. 49 Applications and Impact
  50. 50. Thompson v. HUD50  Fair housing Litigation in Baltimore  brought on behalf of 14,000 African-American residents of public housing  in response to history of racial segregation of public housing  Represented by Maryland ACLU and NAACP Legal Defense Fund  US District Court of Maryland, Judge Marvin Garbis  Began in 1995…judge issued liability ruling in 2005  found HUD liable for violating the federal Fair Housing Act
  51. 51. Opportunity Mapping in Baltimore51  Use of 14 indicators of neighborhood opportunity to designate high and low opportunity neighborhoods in the Baltimore region  Indicators of Opportunity (General)  Neighborhood Quality/Health  Poverty, Crime, Vacancy, Property Values, Population Trends  Economic Opportunity  Proximity to Jobs and Job Changes, Public Transit  Educational Opportunity  School Poverty, School Test Scores, Teacher Qualifications
  52. 52. 52  Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods
  53. 53. Impacts53  Outside of the litigation, the opportunity maps have been used in a variety of ways  Program evaluation and planning  Monitoring partial consent decree program  Identifying Opportunities/Challenges  Assessing opportunities/challenges related to the foreclosure crisis  Regional housing advocacy  Baltimore Regional Housing Coalition  Research  Tracking outcomes for families who move to high opportunity areas (John Hopkins)
  54. 54. Initial Moves and Secondary Moves by Thompson Consent Decree Program Participants c c c54
  55. 55. MA Legal Services and Opportunity Communities55  Background on this project  Originated from effort to incorporate mapping analysis into legal services  Partners  Massachusetts Law Reform Institute, MA Legal Assistance Corp (foundation) and other Legal Services Entities  Year long process of meeting with stakeholders to understand mapping needs and issues  Training with service providers & agencies (using mapping for programming)
  56. 56. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators56  Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability:  Education Quality and Opportunity  Economic Health and Transportation  Neighborhood Stability and Health
  57. 57. Impact57  Program design and use within the legal services  New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program  Use in exploring client concerns/challenges  Use in litigation (National Consumer Law Center)  Internal use by funder (MLAC)  Direct advocacy  State opportunity impact assessment (proposed)  Dissemination among state agencies  State level program design (public sector)  New $5 million state affordable housing program, targeted to high opportunity communities  Implementation still unfolding
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59 Concluding Thoughts
  60. 60. Tools and Tips for Using GIS to Support Regional Equity60  Do not underestimate the power of maps to illustrate problems, build support, increase awareness and change minds  Think regional when mapping  Even when looking at localized issues/problems, you may find they are regional in scope  Maps are just another tool to help you  Do not be wary of the technology  Many places to receive help: universities, research/advocacy organizations, some non-profits  What story do you want to tell?  Utilize maps to tell that story
  61. 61. Thank you! For questions, comments or for more information: or e-mail us at Gambhir.2@osu.edu61