TRUE INTEGRATION: STRENGTHENING COMMITMENT TO COLLABORATIVELY IDENTIFY INTER DISTRICT BEST PRACTICESIDENTIFY INTER‐DISTRICT BEST PRACTICES j john a. powell p Director, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of LawWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Moritz College of Law WMEP Workshop WMEP Workshop February 18, 2010 Minnetonka, MN
Today’s Conversation y2 How do we talk about race? Understanding true integration What true integration looks like … in the classroom … within a school … within a district How to achieve true integration Legal considerations
Perceiving Race g Racial categorization occurs automatically, regardless g y g of any efforts to divert attention from race. Within moments of perceiving someone, we Withi t f i i automatically judge that person in terms of in‐group favoritism Is that person is an “us” or a “them”? We unconsciously think about race even when we do y not explicitly discuss it. Drew Westen s Drew Westen’s The Political Brain Implicit Association Test 3
Context: The Dominant Consensus on Race White privilege National values Contemporary culture Current Manifestations: Social and Institutional Dynamics Racialized public policies and institutional Processes that maintain racial hierarchies practices Outcomes: Racial DisparitiesRacial inequalities in current levels of well‐ Capacity for individual and community being improvement is undermined Ongoing Racial Inequalities4 Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004
Implicit Bias p People have multiple networks that may be p p y activated without our awareness. Depending on the situation, one network becomes p g , dominant over the others Even though we may fight them, implicit biases Even though we may fight them implicit biases reside within us… 5
Unconscious Operations pIs your baby more likely y y yor less likely to be a racist if you talk about race with him/her? 6
Talking About Race ‐ Don’t g 7 Present disparities only p y Frame action as ‘robbing Peter to pay Paul’ Separate out people in need from “everybody else” Glide over real fears, shared suffering, or the fact that people are often internally divided Dismiss the importance of individual effortsPhoto source: Lester, Julius. Let’s Talk About Race
Talking About Race ‐ Do g8 Anchor the discussion to narratives that resonate with your audience Make sure everyone can see themselves in the story It’s about “us,” not just “those people” Acknowledge that individualism is important – but that the healthiest individual is nurtured by b t th t th h lthi t i di id l i t db a community invested in everyone’s success
Understanding Framing Understanding Framing9 Framing is about how people think, and how they Framing is about how people think and how they interpret information and process arguments. Frames are ‘set paths for interpreting information’ that operate subconsciously. All words are related to conceptual frames. These All words are related to conceptual frames These frames are ways in which people perceive and filter issues.
Effective Messaging Effective Messaging 10 Everyone needs help now and then; we all want to do better We share deep values, concerns, and hopes Addressing the problems that have a racial footprint has implications and benefits for all members of society, not just marginalized groups Linked fate – everyone benefitshttp://www.equaljusticesociety.org/2008/12/talking‐about‐race‐in‐the‐obama‐era/
Underscore shared deep values Underscore shared, deep values11 Unity Security Opportunity Community Mobility bl Redemption d Fairness Liberty
Transformative Discourse on Race Transformative Discourse on Race Not constructive Constructive Don’t frame issues around “what’s Reinforce the belief of opportunity fair” for all Assert that system flaws hurt everyone Don’t focus on who or what is Steer the conversation toward the responsible for present inequities results being sought (i.e., a quality education for everyone) Don’t focus on exceptional Talk about where systems we all rely individuals upon break down and how we can fix those systems fix those systemsFrameworks Institute Message Brief: Framing Race 12
Integration13 Integration is not just about representation; it’s g j p ; constitutional. It constitutes the structures we inhabit and who we are. “The table, and the people at the table.” Are our structures doing the work we want them to do?
Cumulative disadvantages interact within systems Cumulative disadvantages interact within systems14 Systems Thinking: The Newtonian Perspective: h i i A D ABCDE C B Linear causation E Causation is reciprocal, mutual, 14 and cumulative.
Cumulative Disadvantages for Students of Color C l ti Di d t f St d t f C l15 High crime levels i h i l l Environmental pollutants ll t t Inaccessibility of health care health care Poor housing stock Lack of quality early childhood education d ti programs
Cumulative and Mutual: Cycle of Segregation Cycle of Segregation Lower Educational School Outcomes for Urban Seg egat o Segregation School Di t i t S h l Districts Increased Flight Neighborhood of Affluent (Housing) Families from Segregation Urban Areas 16
Housing is a critical Housing is a part of a larger set of intervention point into the interrelated structures that are both co p e web o oppo tu tycomplex web of opportunity affected by housing and have impacts on attainment of safe, stable housing. Incarceration/ I ti / juvenile justice Childcare Education Housing Employment Health Transportation 17
Where children live determine their access to schools…. schools18
Academics Academics 20 These cumulative disparities place students of color at an early academic disadvantage One study found that African Americans entering kindergarten already performed 34 percentile points lower than their white counterpartsVE Lee & DT Burkham. Inequality at the Starting Gate. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2002.
Community DialoguesC it Di lGauging and Building Support G i d B ildi S t for Integration
Desegregation True Integration Desegregation ≠ True Integration22 Simple desegregation efforts often result in: assimilation, in‐school segregation, or g g , tracking. Debates about integration often focus on D b b i i f f Assimilation and Segregation g g instead of Integration and Segregation
Other Terminology Concerns Other Terminology Concerns23 Segregation is not just exclusion of people; it’s also g g j p p ; the limitation of their opportunities and resources. Integration is often equated with black kids, Integration is often equated with black kids excluding Latinos and others.
Confusion Over Integration g What is Integration? Why is it Important? How do we effectively integrate? H d ff ti l i t t ? How do we build support for it?
Confusion in Educational Discourse Confusion in Educational Discourse25 Excellence and achievement are often posed as competing with integration. Integration Excellence, Achievement A hi t
Confusion in Legal Discourse: g Chief Justice Roberts: “The Constitution is not violated by racial imbalance in our schools. violated by racial imbalance in our schools.” Justice Thomas: Racial imbalance is not Justice Thomas: “Racial imbalance is not segregation, and the mere incantation of terms like resegregation...cannot make up the difference...Integration is merely racial balancing.g
Confusion in Civic Discourse: We no longer think of education as a public, democratic function; it is not viewed as a private and trade function. We conflate integration with desegregation, diversity, affirmative action… We ask whether race can be used today or whether we are not a post racial nation. whether we are not a post‐racial nation.
How Can We Move From Confusion to Understanding and Action?Understanding and Action?Stress the Importance of Integration p g Segregation makes it very difficult to develop effective citizens and social cohesion. effective citizens and social cohesion Bringing together students from different g g g backgrounds should remain a central objective of American education. In a globalizing world, if we fail at this, our country fails.
How Can We Move From Confusion to Understanding and Action?Understanding and Action?Understand what True Integration is:“Although the terms desegregation and integration are often usedinterchangeably, there is a great deal of difference between the g y, g f fftwo…Desegregation is eliminative and negative…Integration is thepositive acceptance of desegregation and the welcomedparticipation of [nonwhites] into the total range of humanactivities. Integration is genuine intergroup, interpersonaldoing. Desegregation…is only a short term goal. Integration is theultimate goal of our national community.” l i l f i l i ” Martin Luther King, Jr. The Ethical Demands for Integration.
How Can We Move From Confusion to Understanding and Action?Understanding and Action?True Integration also: g Improves critical thinking. Raises academic achievement and graduation rates. Fosters inter group contact. Fosters inter‐group contact Avoids tracking and disproportionate discipline and special ed designations designations. Increases parental involvement. Reduces residential segregation. Reduces residential segregation
How Can We Move From Confusion to Understanding and Action?Understanding and Action?Learn about how Implicit Bias impacts how we p pthink about integration. We have made great progress toward outward equality, but we still harbor implicit bias. q y, p Implicit biases can lead to internal conflict, Implicit biases can lead to internal conflict active resentment, and unwillingness to change.
How Can We Move From Confusion to Understanding and Action?Understanding and Action?Talk about academic excellence andintegration in new ways. Framing matters. F i It satisfies our need to make sense of the world, It satisfies our need to make sense of the world particularly when we are conflicted over issues like integration. How we talk about integration can entrench or p g p yp uproot and reconfigure policy preferences and attitudes.
True Integration g 33 True integration is creative and respects inter‐group g p g p relations based on mutuality, equality and fairness It is transformative rather than assimilative It both transforms and enriches the mainstream In contrast, desegregation, at best, attempts to assimilate “minorities” into the mainstreamSource: powell, john a. “A new Theory of Integrated Education: True Integration” in School Resegregation: Must the South Turn Back? Ed. John Charles Boger and Gary Orfield.
Benefits of Diverse Educational Settings g34 Children in diverse educational settings are… …more comfortable with people of other races as adults …better able to function in our multi‐racial and multi‐ b tt bl t f ti i lti i l d lti cultural world …potentially able to ease racial tensions as adults and i ll bl i l i d l d help work for a democracy that embraces diversity …important to the position of the United States in an era of globalization and global economies
The enefits of Racial iversity in ducation The Benefits of Racial Diversity in Education 35 “Helps students avoid or overcome stereotypes by providing a range of experiences and viewpoints…; i d i i t Promotes cross‐cultural understanding and helps students develop interpersonal skills for a multiracial world; Prepares students for a racially diverse workplace; Trains and educates a diverse group of leaders; Contributes to better decision making on issues affecting our multicultural society; Fosters diversity among civic and business leaders.” F di i i i d b i l d ”Source: “Preserving Diversity in Higher Education: A Manual on Admissions Policies and Procedures After the University of Michigan Decisions.” Compiled by the firms of Bingham McCutcheon, Morrison & Foerster, and Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe. Equal Justice Society, 2004.
Educational Benefits of Integration: Research HighlightsResearch Highlights Raises achievement and graduation rates g • Diverse schools have smaller achievement gaps than racially isolated ones • Low poverty schools out‐perform high poverty schools by L t h l t f hi h t h l b 24:1 Builds social skills and networks needed in a global economy; breaks down stereotypes harmful to citizenship in a multi‐racial democracy y Enhances critical thinking and problem‐solving by placing students of diverse experiences in learning teams l i d f di i i l i
Support for Diversity – Beyond Schools37 65 Fortune 500 companies and the U.S. military submitted amicus briefs in Grutter stating their need for employees who had “exposure to widely p y p y diverse people, cultures, ideas and viewpoints.” The Supreme Court ruled that integrated, equitable education is a necessity for the American economic system and national security.Bikson, T.K. & Law, S.A. (1994). Global preparedness and human resources. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Institute on Education and Training. (Brief for Amici Curiae, 65 Leading American Businesses in Support of Respondents, Grutter v. Bollinger, 2003) www.sxc.hu
What True Integration Looks Like h k k Classrooms Schools Districts
Inside School 39 “In assessing integration efforts, we too often In assessing integration efforts, we too often look at the racial composition of a school, and not at what happens in the school.” pp“Is Racial Integration Essential to Achieving Quality Education for Low‐Income Minority Students, In the Short Term? In the Long Term?” john a. powell in May/June 1998 issue of Poverty & Race
What a Truly Integrated School Looks Like What a Truly Integrated School Looks Like40 A truly integrated school must employ teaching and y g p y g techniques that address the multitude of student learning styles and utilize materials fashioned by and about people of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Work toward transformative diversity The work of creating a diverse institution does not end with a diverse student body y
41 “Integration then is both an external and an p ; g internal process; we need to integrate not only the students inside the building but the hearts and minds of the students as well. hearts and minds of the students as well.” j john powell p “A New Theory of Integrated Education: True IntegrationSource: powell, john a. “A new Theory of Integrated Education: True Integration” in School Resegregation: Must the South Turn Back? Ed. John Charles Boger and Gary Orfield.
Truly Diverse Schools y42 Harness the genuine benefits of diversity within g y and across the school Teachers, administrators and staff must share diversity goals and be culturally competent Teachers must have the skills and knowledge to create a safe, supportive, and inclusive space , pp , p Curriculum should be challenging, engaging, and culturally relevant l ll l
Creating Culturally Relevant Curriculum 43 Teachers should be able to articulate why students should learn particular aspects of the curriculum h ld l ti l t f th i l “What am I trying to accomplish by having my students read this text? read this text?” Culturally relevant teachers think about students’ long‐term academic goals l t d i l Instead of focusing on next week’s lesson plans, think about semester or year long goals about semester‐ or year‐long goals Students should have a sense of why they are doing what they are doingLason‐Billings, Gloria. “Yes, But How Do We Do It?” in White Teachers/Diverse Classrooms. Ed. by Julie Landsman and Chance W. Lewis (2006)
Creating Culturally Relevant Curriculum 44 Culturally relevant teachers use many real life Culturally relevant teachers use many real‐life and familiar examples Help students “honor their own cultural beliefs and practices while acquiring access to the wider culture” (p. 36) l ” Lason‐Billings, Gloria. “Yes, But How Do We Do It?” in White Teachers/Diverse Classrooms. Ed. by Julie Landsman and Chance W. Lewis (2006)
Achieving True IntegrationA hi i T I t ti Navigating Parents Involved
Context for Parents Involved46 Prior to Parents Involved, many districts , y concerned that the reversion to neighborhood schools and local control would result in rapid resegregation implemented voluntary ti i l t d l t integration plans. These plans included redrawing attendance zones, student transfers, magnet school programs to retain diverse schools amidst a backdrop of residential segregation.
Parents Involved In Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007) Seattle School District No 1 (2007)47 Parents of non minority students sued the Seattle Parents of non‐minority students sued the Seattle and Jefferson County school districts, claiming that the student assignment plans denied their children the equal protection of law under the 14th th l t ti f l d th Amendment to the US Constitution. In 2007, the Supreme Court sided with the plaintiffs and declared, in a 4‐1‐4 decision, that the Seattle and Louisville school districts used impermissible d ll h ld d bl racial classifications in student assignment in violation of the Constitution.
Parents Involved In Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007) Seattle School District No 1 (2007)48 The Court found that the plans at issue were not narrowly tailored. The use of the racial tiebreaker within a particular +/‐ range was Constitutionally infirm. However, the Court also allowed for the use of race in some circumstances and affirmed i i t d ffi d maintaining diverse schools—as well as the p prevention of racially isolated schools—as y compelling state interests.
What Can School Districts Do Post‐ Parents Involved? Parents Involved?49 School districts are free to pursue socioeconomic p integration, using indicators such as income, wealth, parental educational attainment. Districts can also be “race conscious,” according to the Supreme Court, when they drew school h S C h h d h l boundaries, chose sites for new schools and directed money to particular programs. But they are limited to taking into account the racial composition of a ki i h i l i i f neighborhood rather than the race of an individual student.
Parents Involved In Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. No 1 (PICS) (2007)Seattle School Dist No 1 (PICS) (2007) Seattle & Louisville voluntary integration plans y g p used race of students in assignment, in an effort to approximate, in each school, the overall racial demographics of the student population. g p p p In 2007, the Supreme Court held that schools these plans impermissibly classified students by race, in plans impermissibly classified students by race in violation of the U.S. Constitution. HELD: SCHOOLS MAY NOT ASSIGN STUDENTS BASED ON THE RACE OF THE U C INDIVIDUAL CHILD.
What May School Districts Do? y Use race conscious programs (e.g., magnet Use race‐conscious programs (e.g., magnet schools) or attendance zones. Targeted recruiting of students and faculty Track enrollment & performance by race Pursue socio‐economic integration Integration plan must tie to educational goals. Integration plan must tie to educational goals
Opportunity Mapping pp y pp g52 While concentrated neighborhood poverty is often correlated with race, race is not reducible to income l t d ith i t d ibl t i differentials. A multi‐factor analysis best captures more than poverty y p p y rates alone do. Opportunity mapping of educational opportunity O i i f d i l i looks at many indicators that correlate with educational performance. Goal: identify neighborhoods that are the most disadvantageous environments for educational success, g p g looking at a number of factors producing cumulative disadvantage for students residing in these neighborhoods.
Other Options: School Siting p g Siting schools in areas that would naturally draw a diverse student body was another race‐conscious d d b d h suggestion in Kennedy’s opinion that can be used to achieve integrative outcomes. Example: Charlotte, NC requires its school board to Example: Charlotte NC requires its school board to consider the socioeconomic diversity of nearby housing and the availability of public transit lines decisions about where to build schools. This criteria could conceivably include consideration of neighborhood racial compositions.
Other Options: Inter‐District Schools p Interdistrict magnet schools are one of the remedies that g Connecticut adopted in response to a state Supreme Court ruling that the state desegregate schools in the Hartford region. a o d eg o . Students are chosen from a lottery of applicants from both Hartford and suburban districts with preference given to siblings of students already attending the school. Inter‐district transfers or the development of inter‐ district magnet schools could be a means of alleviating racial isolation and increasing educational performance.
Other Options: City‐Suburban Transfers p y St. Louis operates a city‐suburban transfer program, originally implemented in the early 1980s under court order and continued under voluntary terms since 1999. Recently, the participating districts extended the program through at least 2013‐14. At its peak, nearly half of St. Louis children were participating At its peak nearly half of St Louis children were participating in one of the interdistrict programs. St. Louis suburban districts were required to participate and to accept enough St. Louis students to meet targets for minority percentage. t d t t t t t f i it t The state initially bore the costs of the program (i.e., y p g ( , transportation) but since 1999, the programs have been funded through a voter‐approved tax increase.
Opting for Diversity p g y 58 A Gallup poll in 1999 indicated that 59% of respondents pp 999 59 p thought we should do more to integrate schools. This number was only 37% in 1988. In one poll of public school parents, results indicated that 67% would select a “good diverse school” over a “outstanding homogenous school” (26%).Source: Divided We Fail: Coming Together through Public School Choice (2002)
Democratic Implications p59 Segregation makes it very difficult to develop effective citizens and social cohesion. Bringing together students from different backgrounds should remain a central objective of American education. In a globalizing world, if we fail at this, our country fails.
Questions for Discussion Questions for Discussion60 How does your school/district stand with respect to true integration? What barriers in achieving true integration does your school/district face? What practical changes can be made at the classroom level to encourage true integration? What support can the district provide to reach this goal? Do you have any success stories/advice to share that may help others?
Minneapolis Public School System (MPS) 61 Stude ts ea g o c a te sc oo s Students leaving for charter schools Increasingly segregated by race, socioeconomic status Two other interdistrict integration programs in East integration programs in East, Nortwest metro areas Reorganizing under Changing School Options Plan Boundary changes, school closings, program changes Intradistrict choice program to minimize racial/economic isolation
Moving forward Moving forward62 Surveying institutions/individuals to determine y g / who is working on integration in the district Looking at the ways integration has been used by different constituencies Messaging and framing around the meaning of true integration i t ti Training that builds on the framing and messaging work Using this for parents, elected community leaders, activists to promote true integration p g Linking housing to education
www.KirwanInstitute.org www.race‐talk.org Kirwan Institute on: www.Transforming-Race.org