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GCAA 2010 Southeastern Colloquium On Racial Inequality and Poverty
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GCAA 2010 Southeastern Colloquium On Racial Inequality and Poverty


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    • 1. GCAA 2010 SOUTHEASTERN COLLOQUIUM ON RACIAL INEQUALITY AND POVERTY KEYNOTE ADDRESS john a. powell Williams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law Director, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity February 17, 2010 Atlanta, GA
    • 2. Overview
      • Structural Racialization
        • Types of Racism
        • Structural and institutional arrangements
        • Systemic Interactions
      • Opportunity
        • Low and High Opportunity Communities
        • Remedying Opportunity Isolation
        • Opportunity Mapping in Atlanta, Georgia
      • Mind Science
        • Explicit and Implicit Racism
        • Unconscious Networks
      • Appendix
    • 3. Structural Racialization
    • 5. Types of Racism
      • Individual
      • Institutional
      • Structural Racialization
    • 6.
      • Individual Racism
      • Institutional Racism
      • Recognized that racism need not be individualist or intentional
      • Institutional and cultural practices can perpetuate race inequality without relying on racist actors
        • Jim Crow
      • Discrimination Model
        • Victim/perpetrator
        • Prejudice (bad actor/ bad apple)
        • Intent (purpose or motive)
    • 7. Structural Racialization
      • How race works today
        • There are still practices, cultural norms and institutional arrangements that help create and maintain (disparate) racialized outcomes
      • Structural racialization addresses inter-institutional arrangements and interactions
        • It refers to the ways in which the joint operation of institutions produce racialized outcomes
          • In this analysis, outcomes matter more than intent
    • 8. Structural Racialization
    • 9. Structural Racialization Adapted from the Aspen Roundtable on Community Change. “Structural Racism and Community Building.” June 2004
    • 10. Contrasting Perspectives Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (1997) Traditional Understanding {-} Structural Understanding {+}
        • An independent-isolated-individual psychological issue
        • An outcome that results from interactivity of institutions & actors
        • De jure
        • De facto
        • Static
        • Dynamic
        • Past, if present an anomaly
        • Present
        • Overt
        • Overt and covert
        • Irrational
        • Rational
        • Tautological
        • Non-tautological (multidimensional)
    • 11. The Arrangement of Structures
      • How we arrange structures matters
        • The order of the structures
        • The timing of the interaction between them
        • The relationships that exist between them
      • We must be aware of how structures are arranged in order to fully understand social phenomena
    • 12. Example: Structural Arrangements and Unemployment
      • Jobs are distributed through structures
        • Most teachers are women
        • Most construction workers are men
        • When unemployment rates change, we need to be conscious of how people are segregated into economic sectors
        • There are racial and gendered outcomes to these structural arrangements
    • 13. The outcome of structural racialization is a highly uneven geography of opportunity … … Some people ride the “Up” escalator to reach opportunity … Others have to run up the “Down” escalator to get there
    • 14. Historic Government Role
      • A series of mutually reinforcing federal policies across multiple domains have contributed to the disparities we see today
        • School Desegregation
        • Suburbanization/ Homeownership
        • Urban Renewal
        • Public Housing
        • Transportation
      Disparities in how federal government invested in people and in places….
    • 15. System Interactions Source: Barbara Reskin. This historic exclusion is perpetuated through our institutions…
    • 16. The Importance of Institutional Arrangements
    • 17. Structural Racialization Structural racialization accounts for the cumulative effects of institutional arrangements Causation is interactive between institutions
    • 18. Not only are people situated differently with regard to institutions, people are situated differently with regard to infrastructure. People are impacted by the relationships between institutions and systems… … but people also impact these relationships and can change the structure of the system.
    • 19. Opportunity
    • 20. Landscape of the Present Environment Source: Program for Environmental and Regional Equity “ the whole financial system has been rigged against lower income communities in general and communities of color in particular ”
    • 21. Tackling the Pressing Issues … “ our financial system has a distinctly racial character, one that requires a response rooted in racial and social justice ” Source: Program for Environmental and Regional Equity “ If we are going to turn the financial industry back into something that benefits the consumer … WE HAVE TO SHIFT THE UNDERLYING BALANCE OF POWER”
    • 22. New Challenges: The Foreclosure Epidemic
      • The foreclosure problem is really a credit problem
        • From redlining to reverse redlining
        • The impacts
        • More to come?
    • 23. Source: Duda, Mark and William Apgar. 2005. “Mortgage Foreclosures in Atlanta: Patterns and Policy Issues”
    • 24. The Impact of Concentrated Foreclosures in a Neighborhood
      • Foreclosures pull wealth/equity and assets out of the neighborhood
      • Widespread displacement of renters, homeowners which rips the neighborhood’s social fabric and creates instability for school age children
      • The growth of vacant property encourages crime, disinvestment and public safety risks
      • Challenges which eventually ensnare all residents (even those who were never foreclosed upon)
    • 25. Opportunity
      • We can define opportunity through access
      • Opportunity includes access to
        • Healthcare
        • Education
        • Employment
        • Services
        • Healthy food
    • 26. Living in Low-Opportunity
      • Reduces IQ points of students by 4 points , equivalent to one year of school (Sampson 2007)
      • Generates unhealthy levels of stress hormones in children, which impairs their neural development
    • 27. Living in Low-Opportunity
      • Correlates with children having levels of lead in their blood 9 times above the average ; high levels of lead linked to ADD and irreversible loss of cognitive functioning
      • Links to higher levels of violent offending among juveniles
      • Is highly correlated with childhood aggression and social maladjustment
    • 28. A Tale of High and Low Opportunity Structures
      • Less than 25% of students in Detroit finish high school
      • More than 60% of the men will spend time in jail
      • There may soon be no bus service in some areas
      • It is difficult to attract jobs or private capital
      • Not safe; very few parks
      • Difficult to get fresh food
      • The year my step daughter finished high school, 100% of the students graduated and 100% went to college
      • Most will not even drive by a jail
      • Free bus service
      • Relatively easy to attract capital
      • Very safe; great parks
      • Easy to get fresh food
      • Low Opportunity
      • High Opportunity
    • 29. Remedying Opportunity Isolation
      • Adopt strategies that open up access to levers of opportunity for marginalized individuals, families, and communities
        • Bring opportunities to opportunity-deprived areas
        • Connect people to existing opportunities throughout the metropolitan region
        • Targeted Universalism
    • 30.
    • 31.
    • 32. Targeted Universalism
      • Target universalism is a common framework through which to pursue justice
        • A model which recognizes our linked fate
        • A model where we all grow together
        • A model where we embrace collective solutions
    • 33. Problems of Targeted Universalism
      • Example: The G.I. Bill
      • In the 7 years following WWII,
      • approximately 8 million veterans
      • received educational benefits
      • Approximately 2.3 million attended colleges and universities, 3.5 million received school training , and 3.4 million received on-the-job training
    • 34. Problems of Targeted Universalism
      • Benefits of the G.I. Bill
        • Bill provisions included assistance with:
          • buying a home
          • attending college
          • starting new business ventures
          • locating a job
      • From 1946 to 1947, VA mortgages comprised more than 40% of the total
    • 35. Problems of Targeted Universalism
      • Despite the bill’s achievements, many barriers were placed in the path of Black soldiers
      • Implementation was left to states and localities , including those that practiced Jim Crow racism.
    • 36.
      • The access of Black people to primarily White colleges and institutions was limited
        • 95% of Black veterans used their education vouchers at historically Black colleges (HBCUs) in the South
        • These historically Black institutions were limited in number and had limited space to admit the influx of Black veterans
    • 37.
      • The education gap widened instead of closed
      • The vocational training black veterans received was not held to any standards , thus often proving inadequate
      “… despite the assistance that black soldiers received, there was no greater instrument for widening an already huge racial gap in postwar America than the GI Bill.” (Katznelson 2005, p. 121)
    • 38. Communities of Opportunity
        • Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life
        • Communities are linked to a larger system
        • Affirmatively connecting people to opportunity creates positive, transformative change in communities
    • 39. Community Development Model
        • A systems response
          • Where are your key leverage points?
          • What are the critical intervention points?
        • Equity focused
          • Creating a community for all
        • Emphasis on strategic collaboration
          • Across multiple domains
        • Opening pathways to opportunity through engagement
          • People , places, linkages
      For more information, see our report “Pathways to Opportunity: Partnership and Collaboration for Revitalizing the Rosemont-Walbrook Neighborhood” available at
    • 40.
    • 41.
    • 42.
    • 43.
    • 44.
    • 46. Mind Science
    • 47. Three Interrelated Sites of Racial Justice
    • 48. Explicit Racism
    • 49. Individual Racism, Implicit Bias
      • Only 2% of emotional cognition is available to us consciously
      • Messages can be “framed” to speak to our unconscious
      • Racial bias tends to reside in the unconscious network
    • 50. The Location of Implicit Racism
        • Racial attitudes operate in our “unconscious” (also called “subconscious”) mind
        • Usually invisible to us but significantly influences our positions on critical issues
        • Negative unconscious attitudes about race are called “implicit bias” or “symbolic racism.”
    • 51. Unconscious Networks
    • 52. Unconscious Networks
      • What colors are the following lines of text?
    • 53. Unconscious Networks
      • What colors are the following lines of text?
    • 54. Unconscious Networks
      • What colors are the following lines of text?
    • 55. Unconscious Networks
      • What colors are the following lines of text?
    • 56. Unconscious Networks
      • What colors are the following lines of text?
    • 57. Awareness Test
    • 58. How to Talk about Race
      • Speak on structures and systems rather than explicit individual action/reaction
      • Speak on the subconscious —the implicit bias that is stored within the mind
      • Speak on relationships —build collaborations and engage in real discussion
    • 59.
      • Talk about race can reinforce our conscious beliefs or challenge our implicit biases
    • 60. In Conclusion…
    • 61. Seeing the Connections
      • Attempts to address singular issues in isolated ways will ultimately fail
      • Targeted interventions must recognize the interconnected nature of our structures
      • While many policy areas can appear distinct, we must think of them collectively.
        • Ex: transportation
          • Is this an urban policy issue?
          • An environmental issue?
          • A jobs/economic issue?
    • 62. Linked Fate
      • Why should others care about equity and inclusion ?
        • A region and all its residents share a linked fate
        • Inequality is a sign of an economically/socially inefficient region, where proper investments are not made in human capital, and where much of the population can not meet its creative potential
    • 63. Interconnectedness
        • Recognize the interconnectedness of our being and our fate
      • Focus on targeting within universalism
      • Be the natural extension of an overarching , shared vision and framework
        • Reconceptualize society to
        • promote the political, economic,
        • spiritual, and psychological
        • health of all
    • 64.
      • A Final Lesson
        • We must consider how we each stand differently with respect to our opportunities for work, education, parenting, retirement…
              • We must understand the work our institutions and organizations do, not what we wished they would do , in order to make them more equitable and fair
    • 65. KirwanInstitute on:
    • 66. Appendix
    • 67. Implicit Association Tests
      • Racialized outcomes do not require racist actors
    • 68. Links
      • Implicit Association Test
        • https :// /
      • Examples of priming
    • 69. System Archetypes
    • 70. Further Reading
      • Systems Thinking and Race Primer Stephen Menendian and Caitlin Watt. (July 2009)
      • Talking About Race—Resource Notebook  (pdf) Tom Rudd, Annette Johnson, Cheryl Staats, john a. powell, Andrew Grant-Thomas (August 2009)