1. Abused and Neglected Children in Franklin County: A Case Study in Structural and Community Violence Andrew Grant-Thomas, Deputy Director Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity Central Ohioans for Peace October 19, 2009
2. [The] sickness [of marginalized people] is a result of structural violence: neither culture nor pure individual will is at fault; rather, historically given (and often economicallydriven) processes and forces conspire to constrain individual agency.Structural violence is visited upon all those whose social status denies them access to the fruits of scientific and social progress. -Paul Farmer, Medical Anthropologist
3. Direct violence is horrific, but its brutality usually gets ourattention: we notice it, and often respond to it. Structuralviolence, however, is almost always invisible, embedded inubiquitous social structures, normalized by stable institutionsand regular experience…[E]ven those who are victims ofstructural violence often do not see the systematic ways inwhich their plight is choreographed by unequal and unfairdistribution of society’s resources. Structural violence isproblematic in and of itself, but it is also dangerous becauseit frequently leads to direct violence. -Deborah DuNann Winter and Dana Leighton, Structural Violence: An Introduction
4. Effects of structural violence: lifeexpectancy Life expectancy for selected countries, 2009 estimates 90 83 81 79 78 80 76 73 70 70 61 59 60 49 50 40 40 30 20 10 0 Source: CIA World Factbook
5. Effects of structural violence: Lifesatisfaction Satisfaction with life index, selected countries, 2006 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Source: Satisfaction with Life Index, 2006
6. Effects of structural violence: reports of childabuse and neglect in Franklin County, 2007 5201 5000 4000 3146 3082 3000 2000 1400 1000 54 0 Physical Neglect Sexual abuse Emotional Need services abuse maltreatment Source: The 2009-2010 Public Children Services Association of Ohio Factbook
7. African Americans are greatly over-represented among abused or neglectedchildren in custody Franklin County Profiles of Children in Custody, 2007 (%)80 70 60 50 White 40 Black 30 Other 20 10 0 Temporary Permanent PPLA Total Total custody custody population Source: The 2009-2010 Public Children Services Association of Ohio Factbook
8. Mainly structural factors account for number of Black children in foster care custody Neighborhood resources Adoption Surveillance and Safe Families Act ABUSE & NEGLECT REPORTS (Implicit?) Family Racial bias resources Exposure to risk factors
9. Family Resources: many Black and Latino Ohioansare poor
10. Neighborhood resources: race and opportunity in Franklin County Indicators of Opportunity Property values Unemployment ratesNeighborhood poverty School math and reading Vacancy rates proficiency rates Population change School poverty ratesProjected job growth School graduation rates Crime rates Home Ownership Rates
11. Finding: African Americans in Franklin County live disproportionately in neighborhoods of relatively low opportunity.
12. Neighborhood resources: Latinos and AfricanAmericans live disproportionately in low-opportunityneighborhoods Neighborhood Opportunity in Franklin County in 2007, by Race 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Very High 50% High Moderate 40% Low Very Low 30% 20% 10% 0% White Black Asian Latino
13. Racial Bias: Implicit Association Testhttp://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2007/08/19/
14. Implicit bias against nonwhites isstrong Distributions of Responses on Explicit (Self-reported) and Implicit Measures Groups Explicit Implicit Compared Nonwhite Neutral White Nonwhite Neutral WhiteBlacks/Whites 12% 56% 32% 12% 19% 69%Asians/Whites 16% 57% 27% 11% 26% 63%Note: Percentages represent the percent biased in favor of group.Source: 94 California Law Review (2006), p. 957
15. What Would You Do?
16. Implicit Racial Bias: The ShooterGame Images of suspects -- armed and unarmed, black and white – flash on a monitor. Is the man in each picture carrying a gun? Subjects have less than one second to press one key to shoot or another not to shoot. After repeated experimentation, people’s mistakes follow a clear pattern: They shoot more unarmed blacks They fail to shoot more armed whites
17. Implicit Racial Bias: Demonstrated Behavioral Links Split-second police decisions about when and what to shoot – regardless of explicit attitudes Implicit biases affected sentencing decisions for defendants convicted of felonies More or less implicit bias corresponded with comfort level and body language in interracial interactions People with greater implicit bias were more likely to interpret ambiguous behavior with respect to negative stereotypesSource: Dasgupta 2008
18. Implicit Racial Bias: Demonstrated Behavioral Links As physicians pro-white implicit bias increased, so did their likelihood of giving white patients, but not black patients, clot-busting thrombolytic drugs White people who exhibited greater implicit bias toward black people reported stronger tendency to engage in everyday discriminatory acts such as avoiding or excluding blacks socially, uttering racial slurs and jokes, and insulting, threatening or physically harming blacks. The greater the implicit bias of an employer against Arab-Muslim men, the less likely he or she was to call an applicant with a name such as Mohammed or Reza for an interview.
19. “CASA of Franklin County advocates for abused andneglected children by providing them with a voice in thejuvenile court system. CASA recruits, screens, trains andsupports community volunteers to advocate for the bestinterests of abused and neglected children.“- CASA mission statementhttp://www.casacolumbus.org/ (614) 462-7450
20. Supporting CASA: volunteering• Guardian Ad Litem (GAL)• Diversity Team• Speakers Bureau• Board Member• Special Events Volunteerhttp://www.casacolumbus.org/ (614) 462-7450
21. Supporting CASA: providing in-kind support• Columbia Gas included a CASA flyer in billing statements• Casual wear/Jeans Day with employees donating to CASA• Redesigning CASA promotional ads and pamphlets• Printing CASA promotional ads and pamphlets• Donating IT/technology support at a reduced non-profit rate• Providing meals to GAL volunteer training classes• Helping to recruit new volunteers http://www.casacolumbus.org/ (614) 462-7450
22. For more information: www.KirwanInstitute.org 22