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    2009 08 14_warren_ministerial 2009 08 14_warren_ministerial Presentation Transcript

    • Advancing Opportunity in the Mahoning Valley
      john a. powellDirector, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law
      Warren Ministerial Alliance
      August 14, 2009
      1
    • Today’s Conversation
      2
      Opportunity matters – neighborhoods & access to opportunity
      Patterns of racial and economic segregation
      Recommendations for organizing around criminal justice reform & housing
      ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Appendix:
      Targeted universalism
      Coalition building
      Transformative leadership
    • Opportunity matters
      Place and life outcomes
      3
    • Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes
      4
      “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel.
      Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:
      High-quality education
      Healthy and safe environment
      Stable housing
      Sustainable employment
      Political empowerment
      Outlets for wealth-building
      Positive social networks
    • Place Has a Profound Impact on Health, Well-Being, and Child Development
      5
    • 6
      Opportunity is Racialized
      • Structures and policies are not neutral. They unevenly distribute benefits and burdens.
      • Institutions can operate jointly to produce racialized outcomes.
      • This institutional uneven distribution & racial marking has negative consequences for all of us.
    • 7
      Fiscal Policies
      Health
      Childcare
      Employment
      Housing
      Education
      Effective
      Participation
      Transportation
      Place and Life Outcomes
      Housing, in particular its location, is the primary mechanism for accessing opportunity in our society
      For those living in high poverty neighborhoods, these factors can significantly inhibit life outcomes
    • Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity
      8
      High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing, and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes
      A system of disadvantage
      People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods & communities
    • What are the implications of opportunity isolation?
      9
    • What are the costs of opportunity isolation?
      10
      • Individual/family costs
      • Living in “concentrated disadvantage” reduces student IQ by 4 points, roughly the equivalent to missing one year of school (Sampson 2007)
      • Societal cost
      • Neighborhoods of concentrated poverty suppress property values by nearly 400 billion nationwide (Galster et al. 2007)
    • Opportunity Mapping
      11
      Because opportunity is a spatial phenomenon, maps are an effective representation
      Opportunity mapping is a research tool that allows us to understand the dynamics of opportunity
      Maps are incredibly efficient, compacting volumes of data into single pictures that can be understood at a glance
      Maps allow us to understand volumes of data at a glance through layering
    • 12
      Demand
      Connection
      Supply
      Layering of Information
    • Opportunity Mapping
      13
      The Kirwan Institute has performed opportunity mapping for a variety of areas, including:
      Massachusetts
    • Baltimore
      14
    • 15
      Detroit:
      African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit
    • & closer to home.. Cuyahoga County
      16
      Subprime lending, race, and foreclosure
    • Opportunity in Ohio
      Darker shades are associated with higher levels of opportunity
      17
    • Northeast Ohio
      Darker shades are associated with higher levels of opportunity
      18
    • Patterns of Racial and Economic Segregation
      City of Warren
      Mahoning Valley area
      19
    • Population Decline
      20
      http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/PopulationAndTrends.aspx
    • City of Warren, OH – Demographic data
      21
      44,473 people
      Median age: 36.8 years
      Foreign born 1.1%
      Data from 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates
    • City of Warren, OH – Economic data
      22
      Median household income (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars): $33,122
      Median family income (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars): $41,312
      Families below poverty level: 22.1%
      Individuals below poverty level: 24.9%
      Data from 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates
    • Index of Dissimilarity
      • Measures whether one particular group is distributed across census tracts in the metropolitan area in the same way as another group.
      • Range 0-100; Higher values = high degree of segregation
      • Interpretation: A value of 60 means that 60% of the members of one group would need to move to a different tract in order for the two groups to be equally distributed.
      23
      City of Warren
      Blacks and Hispanics are re-segregating.
      http://mumford.albany.edu/census/WholePop/CitySegdata/3980892City.htm
    • School Locations
      Mahoning and Trumbull counties
      Darker shades indicate higher percentages of non-whites
      24
    • School Poverty
      Mahoning and Trumbull counties
      25
    • Lowest-Performing Schools are usually High-Poverty Schools.
      26
    • Index of Dissimilarity
      • Measures whether one particular group is distributed across census tracts in the metropolitan area in the same way as another group.
      • Range 0-100; Higher values = high degree of segregation
      • Interpretation: A value of 60 means that 60% of the members of one group would need to move to a different tract in order for the two groups to be equally distributed.
      27
      Youngstown – Warren MSA
      Between 1990 and 2000, segregation between all groups decreased.
      http://mumford.albany.edu/census/WholePop/WPSegdata/9320msa.htm
    • Racial Differences in Neighborhood CharacteristicsYoungstown-Warren, OH MSA
      28
      Data are provided for households, & households have been classified by the race/ethnicity of the household head. 
      http://mumford.albany.edu/census/SepUneq/PublicSepDataPages/9320msaSep.htm
    • Unemployment: Youngstown-Warren MSA
      29
      http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/LocalEconomy/Unemployment.aspx
      http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/Monthly%20EconomicIndicators.aspx
    • Youngstown-Warren-Boardman MSA EMPLOYMENT
      30
      http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/LocalEconomy/JobGrowth.aspx
    • Organizing and Advocacy
      Framing the issues
      31
    • Fragmentation, Regionalism, and Equity
      32
      Investing in equity builds the economy of the entire region, thus uplifting everyone
      “…even controlling for the fact that growth itself probably lowers poverty and inequality, improvements in various equity measures are likely to improve regional performance and therefore benefit city dwellers and suburbanites alike.” (p. 98)
      “But our research, both in Los Angeles and in the rest of the country, suggests that individuals and communities that are better connected to regional opportunities experience higher incomes and increased efficacy.” (p. 12)
      Pastor, Manuel, et al. Regions that Work: How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together (University of Minnesota Press, 2000).
    • Creating Empathetic Space
      33
      Everyone needs help now and then; we all want to do better
      We share deep values, concerns, and hopes
      Addressing the problems that have a racial footprint has implications and benefits for all members of society, not just marginalized groups – linked fate
      It’s not “robbing Peter to pay Paul;” instead, everyone benefits
      http://www.equaljusticesociety.org/2008/12/talking-about-race-in-the-obama-era/
    • Framing Conversations
      34
      Lead with values:
      Opportunity
      “Everyone deserves a fair chance to achieve his/her potential.”
      Security
      “All people should have the tools & resources necessary to support themselves & their families.”
      Mobility (moving forward)
      “Everyone in our society should have the chance to move forward in economic and educational status, no matter where they started out.”
      Talking Points: Opportunity and Economic Recovery (2009). Opportunity Agenda.
    • Framing Conversations
      35
      Lead with values:
      Community
      “We are all in it together in our society and share interests and responsibilities for each other and the common good.”
      Equality
      “What we look like or where we come from should not determine the burdens, benefits, or responsibilities that we bear in society.”
      Redemption
      “People grow and change over time, and deserve a chance to start over after missteps or misfortune.”
      Talking Points: Opportunity and Economic Recovery (2009). Opportunity Agenda.
    • Organizing for Criminal Justice Reform
      36
      Seek analyses of successful efforts elsewhere
      Gather data such as whether crime increased, feelings of public safety, etc.
      Learn about how those efforts were conducted
      Campaign strategies
      Communication tactics
      Compare the Warren area to the areas involved in other efforts
      How does your community relate?
      How does it differ?
    • Crime in the Youngstown-Warren area
      “The overall crime rate in the Youngstown-Warren area has improved in the last few years, making the area a safer place to be.
      The U.S. average is 50.
      An index of 100 is the least crime, thus the higher numbers are more attractive.”
      Source: Editor and Publisher Market Guide 2008
      37
      http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/LivingInYoungstown/CrimeRates.aspx
    • Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives
      38
      Ohio Justice and Policy Center (OJPC) in Cincinnati
      In 2004 OJPC sued the Ohio Secretary of State and 21 boards of elections who had been erroneously advising felons that they could not vote. OJPC was co-counsel to two class action lawsuits against the Ohio Department of Youth Services (2007 & 2008), forcing the state to make major improvements to the existing system. Additionally in 2008 they filed a class action suit challenging residency restrictions for convicted sex-offenders.
    • Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives
      39
      Voices for Ohio’s Children: Juvenile Justice Initiative (Columbus and Cleveland)
      Earlier this year Voices partnered with nearly 20 other Ohio based organizations from across the state and created a work group to publish a report called: “Framework for Transforming the Juvenile Justice System.” This report provides a model Ohio Department of Youth Services (ODYS) care continuum. Although the report identifies sixteen attributes of a model ODYS, one of the center points of this vision is to reduce institutionalization by expanding effective community-based alternatives.
    • Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives
      40
      ACLU of Ohio
      The ACLU works on criminal justice reform issues specifically related to juvenile justice. They released a 2009 report card for Ohio’s Juvenile Justice System publicizing the ways that Ohio is failing its children, such as, permitting them to be routinely shackled, requiring them to be charged as adults for certain crimes, and waiving their right to an attorney. Defending children’s right to counsel and access to the courts is one of the ACLU’s main juvenile justice emphases. ACLU Ohio also offers a variety of informational and advocacy resources on their website including the “cradle to the prison pipeline,” juveniles’ rights, and pending legislative action.
    • Reform on a National Level
      41
      Ban the Box
      This campaign calls for the elimination of the questions about past convictions on initial public employment applications. This campaign challenges many “boxes” on a variety of applications (i.e. employment, housing, social services, etc.) we are required to check that supports structural discrimination against formerly-incarcerated people.
      Banning the box on public employment applications will contribute to public safety because it will promote stable employment in our communities. People with jobs and stable community lives are much less likely to return committing crimes in order to survive.
      Boston, San Francisco, Chicago and Minneapolis/St. Paul are among the cities that have removed the box from applications for government jobs. Boston’s ordinance extends to vendors with government contracts.
      Partially quoted from: http://www.allofusornone.org/campaigns/ban-the-box
      http://www.examiner.com/x-662-Strange-News-Examiner~y2009m1d10-Ban-the-box--exconvict-job-seekers-no-longer-required-to-disclose-criminal-past
    • Reform on a National Level
      42
      The Justice Project – Opportunities for Reform
      Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures
      Expanding Post-Conviction DNA Testing
      Improving Forensic Evidence Testing Procedures
      Improving Standards for Admissibility of Accomplice and Snitch Testimony
      Ensuring Proper Safeguards Against Prosecutorial Misconduct
      Expanding Discovery in Criminal Cases
      Electronic Recording of Custodial Interrogations
      Ensuring Standards for the Appointment and Performance of Counsel in Capital Cases
    • Reform on a National Level – The Justice Project’s Successes
      43
      Ensuring Passage of the Innocence Protection Act- TJPled a five-year campaign to pass the Innocence Protection Act (IPA), the first federal death penalty reform legislation to pass Congress and be signed into law. The IPA includes funding for the Kirk Bloodsworth Post-Conviction DNA Testing Program, which provides funding for DNA testing of individuals who may have been wrongfully convicted.
      Leading the Campaign to End the Juvenile Death PenaltyOn March 1, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the juvenile death penalty in a landmark 5-4 decision in Roper v. Simmons. TJP coordinated a national campaign, “Kids Are Different,” to illustrate that kids are mentally, emotionally and physically different from adults and therefore less culpable for their actions.
      Preserving Habeas CorpusThe Justice Project successfully fought legislation in the 109th Congress that would have effectively eliminated federal review of criminal cases and increased errors and injustice in the criminal justice system.
    • How can we advocate for opportunity communities?
      44
    • Neighborhood Revitalization
      45
      A systems response
      Where are your key leverage points?
      What are the critical intervention points?
      Equity focused
      Creating a community for all (not a model of gentrification)
      Emphasis on strategic collaboration
    • Remedying Opportunity Isolation
      46
      • Adopt strategies that open up access to levers of opportunity for marginalized individuals, families, and communities
      • Connect people to existing opportunities throughout the metropolitan region
      • Bring opportunities to opportunity-deprived areas
      • Invest in people, places, and linkages
    • People, Places, & Linkages
      47
    • 48
      Questions or Comments? For More Information, Visit Us On-Line:www.KirwanInstitute.org
    • Appendix
      49
    • 50
      Targeted Universalism
      Targeted Universalism recognizes racial disparities and the importance of eradicating them, while acknowledging their presence within a larger inequitable, institutional framework
      Targeted universalism is a common framework through which to pursue justice.
      A model which recognizes our linked fate
      A model where we all grow together
      A model where we embrace collective solutions
    • 51
      Interconnectedness
      Recognize the interconnectedness of our being and our fate
      Develop and implement solutions that benefit ALL members of society
      Reject the myth of scarcity
      Strengthen our democracy
      Collaborate and focus on coalition building
      Interconnectedness provokes both political and spiritual questions.
    • Coalition Building
      52
      We need to move from transactional level to a deeper transformative level
      What would this look like?
      What are the costs and consequences of this transition?
      Coalition across groups, space, ideology
      Ethics of connectedness and linked fate
      Structures, policies, institutions actively disconnect us whereas they could proactively connect us
    • 53
      The Path to Transformation
      Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires redefining the self in relation to others
      Moving beyond the self: “In every major religious tradition the ideal is unity, and separation leads to suffering.”
      * * * * * * * * * *
      What interferes with building these transformational relationships?
      What kind of leadership is required of us?
    • Transactional v. Transformational Leadership
      54
      Transformational Leadership
      Transformational leadership is about implementing new ideas
      These individuals continually change themselves
      They stay flexible and adaptable
      They continually improve those around them
      Transformational leaders have been written about for thousands of years--being both praised (Christ and Buddha) and cursed (Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan)