2009 08 14_warren_ministerial


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2009 08 14_warren_ministerial

  1. 1. Advancing Opportunity in the Mahoning Valley<br />john a. powellDirector, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and EthnicityWilliams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law<br />Warren Ministerial Alliance<br />August 14, 2009<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Today’s Conversation<br />2<br />Opportunity matters – neighborhoods & access to opportunity<br />Patterns of racial and economic segregation<br />Recommendations for organizing around criminal justice reform & housing<br />------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Appendix:<br />Targeted universalism<br />Coalition building<br />Transformative leadership<br />
  3. 3. Opportunity matters<br />Place and life outcomes<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes<br />4<br />“Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel.<br />Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:<br />High-quality education<br />Healthy and safe environment<br />Stable housing<br />Sustainable employment<br />Political empowerment<br />Outlets for wealth-building<br />Positive social networks<br />
  5. 5. Place Has a Profound Impact on Health, Well-Being, and Child Development<br />5<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Opportunity is Racialized<br /><ul><li>Structures and policies are not neutral. They unevenly distribute benefits and burdens.
  7. 7. Institutions can operate jointly to produce racialized outcomes.
  8. 8. This institutional uneven distribution & racial marking has negative consequences for all of us.</li></li></ul><li>7<br />Fiscal Policies<br />Health<br />Childcare<br />Employment<br />Housing<br />Education<br />Effective <br />Participation<br />Transportation<br />Place and Life Outcomes<br />Housing, in particular its location, is the primary mechanism for accessing opportunity in our society <br />For those living in high poverty neighborhoods, these factors can significantly inhibit life outcomes<br />
  9. 9. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity<br />8<br />High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing, and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes<br />A system of disadvantage<br />People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods & communities<br />
  10. 10. What are the implications of opportunity isolation? <br />9<br />
  11. 11. What are the costs of opportunity isolation?<br />10<br /><ul><li>Individual/family costs
  12. 12. Living in “concentrated disadvantage” reduces student IQ by 4 points, roughly the equivalent to missing one year of school (Sampson 2007)
  13. 13. Societal cost
  14. 14. Neighborhoods of concentrated poverty suppress property values by nearly 400 billion nationwide (Galster et al. 2007)</li></li></ul><li>Opportunity Mapping<br />11<br />Because opportunity is a spatial phenomenon, maps are an effective representation<br />Opportunity mapping is a research tool that allows us to understand the dynamics of opportunity<br />Maps are incredibly efficient, compacting volumes of data into single pictures that can be understood at a glance<br />Maps allow us to understand volumes of data at a glance through layering<br />
  15. 15. 12<br />Demand<br />Connection<br />Supply<br />Layering of Information<br />
  16. 16. Opportunity Mapping<br />13<br />The Kirwan Institute has performed opportunity mapping for a variety of areas, including:<br />Massachusetts<br />
  17. 17. Baltimore<br />14<br />
  18. 18. 15<br />Detroit: <br />African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit<br />
  19. 19. & closer to home.. Cuyahoga County<br />16<br />Subprime lending, race, and foreclosure<br />
  20. 20. Opportunity in Ohio<br />Darker shades are associated with higher levels of opportunity<br />17<br />
  21. 21. Northeast Ohio<br />Darker shades are associated with higher levels of opportunity<br />18<br />
  22. 22. Patterns of Racial and Economic Segregation<br />City of Warren<br />Mahoning Valley area<br />19<br />
  23. 23. Population Decline<br />20<br />http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/PopulationAndTrends.aspx<br />
  24. 24. City of Warren, OH – Demographic data<br />21<br />44,473 people<br />Median age: 36.8 years<br />Foreign born 1.1%<br />Data from 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates<br />
  25. 25. City of Warren, OH – Economic data<br />22<br />Median household income (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars): $33,122<br />Median family income (in 2007 inflation-adjusted dollars): $41,312<br />Families below poverty level: 22.1%<br />Individuals below poverty level: 24.9%<br />Data from 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates<br />
  26. 26. Index of Dissimilarity<br /><ul><li> Measures whether one particular group is distributed across census tracts in the metropolitan area in the same way as another group.
  27. 27. Range 0-100; Higher values = high degree of segregation
  28. 28. Interpretation: A value of 60 means that 60% of the members of one group would need to move to a different tract in order for the two groups to be equally distributed. </li></ul>23<br />City of Warren<br />Blacks and Hispanics are re-segregating.<br />http://mumford.albany.edu/census/WholePop/CitySegdata/3980892City.htm<br />
  29. 29. School Locations<br />Mahoning and Trumbull counties<br />Darker shades indicate higher percentages of non-whites<br />24<br />
  30. 30. School Poverty<br />Mahoning and Trumbull counties<br />25<br />
  31. 31. Lowest-Performing Schools are usually High-Poverty Schools.<br />26<br />
  32. 32. Index of Dissimilarity<br /><ul><li> Measures whether one particular group is distributed across census tracts in the metropolitan area in the same way as another group.
  33. 33. Range 0-100; Higher values = high degree of segregation
  34. 34. Interpretation: A value of 60 means that 60% of the members of one group would need to move to a different tract in order for the two groups to be equally distributed. </li></ul>27<br />Youngstown – Warren MSA<br />Between 1990 and 2000, segregation between all groups decreased.<br />http://mumford.albany.edu/census/WholePop/WPSegdata/9320msa.htm<br />
  35. 35. Racial Differences in Neighborhood CharacteristicsYoungstown-Warren, OH MSA<br />28<br />Data are provided for households, & households have been classified by the race/ethnicity of the household head. <br />http://mumford.albany.edu/census/SepUneq/PublicSepDataPages/9320msaSep.htm<br />
  36. 36. Unemployment: Youngstown-Warren MSA<br />29<br />http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/LocalEconomy/Unemployment.aspx<br />http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/Monthly%20EconomicIndicators.aspx<br />
  37. 37. Youngstown-Warren-Boardman MSA EMPLOYMENT<br />30<br />http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/FactsFigures/LocalEconomy/JobGrowth.aspx<br />
  38. 38. Organizing and Advocacy<br />Framing the issues<br />31<br />
  39. 39. Fragmentation, Regionalism, and Equity<br />32<br />Investing in equity builds the economy of the entire region, thus uplifting everyone<br />“…even controlling for the fact that growth itself probably lowers poverty and inequality, improvements in various equity measures are likely to improve regional performance and therefore benefit city dwellers and suburbanites alike.” (p. 98)<br />“But our research, both in Los Angeles and in the rest of the country, suggests that individuals and communities that are better connected to regional opportunities experience higher incomes and increased efficacy.” (p. 12)<br />Pastor, Manuel, et al. Regions that Work: How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together (University of Minnesota Press, 2000).<br />
  40. 40. Creating Empathetic Space<br />33<br />Everyone needs help now and then; we all want to do better<br />We share deep values, concerns, and hopes<br />Addressing the problems that have a racial footprint has implications and benefits for all members of society, not just marginalized groups – linked fate<br />It’s not “robbing Peter to pay Paul;” instead, everyone benefits<br />http://www.equaljusticesociety.org/2008/12/talking-about-race-in-the-obama-era/<br />
  41. 41. Framing Conversations<br />34<br />Lead with values:<br />Opportunity<br />“Everyone deserves a fair chance to achieve his/her potential.”<br />Security<br />“All people should have the tools & resources necessary to support themselves & their families.”<br />Mobility (moving forward)<br />“Everyone in our society should have the chance to move forward in economic and educational status, no matter where they started out.”<br />Talking Points: Opportunity and Economic Recovery (2009). Opportunity Agenda.<br />
  42. 42. Framing Conversations <br />35<br />Lead with values:<br />Community<br />“We are all in it together in our society and share interests and responsibilities for each other and the common good.”<br />Equality<br />“What we look like or where we come from should not determine the burdens, benefits, or responsibilities that we bear in society.”<br />Redemption<br />“People grow and change over time, and deserve a chance to start over after missteps or misfortune.”<br />Talking Points: Opportunity and Economic Recovery (2009). Opportunity Agenda.<br />
  43. 43. Organizing for Criminal Justice Reform<br />36<br />Seek analyses of successful efforts elsewhere<br />Gather data such as whether crime increased, feelings of public safety, etc.<br />Learn about how those efforts were conducted<br />Campaign strategies<br />Communication tactics<br />Compare the Warren area to the areas involved in other efforts<br />How does your community relate? <br />How does it differ?<br />
  44. 44. Crime in the Youngstown-Warren area<br />“The overall crime rate in the Youngstown-Warren area has improved in the last few years, making the area a safer place to be.<br />The U.S. average is 50. <br />An index of 100 is the least crime, thus the higher numbers are more attractive.”<br />Source: Editor and Publisher Market Guide 2008<br />37<br />http://www.regionalchamber.com/EconomicDevelopment/LivingInYoungstown/CrimeRates.aspx<br />
  45. 45. Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives<br />38<br />Ohio Justice and Policy Center (OJPC) in Cincinnati <br />In 2004 OJPC sued the Ohio Secretary of State and 21 boards of elections who had been erroneously advising felons that they could not vote. OJPC was co-counsel to two class action lawsuits against the Ohio Department of Youth Services (2007 & 2008), forcing the state to make major improvements to the existing system. Additionally in 2008 they filed a class action suit challenging residency restrictions for convicted sex-offenders.<br />
  46. 46. Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives<br />39<br />Voices for Ohio’s Children: Juvenile Justice Initiative (Columbus and Cleveland)<br />Earlier this year Voices partnered with nearly 20 other Ohio based organizations from across the state and created a work group to publish a report called: “Framework for Transforming the Juvenile Justice System.” This report provides a model Ohio Department of Youth Services (ODYS) care continuum. Although the report identifies sixteen attributes of a model ODYS, one of the center points of this vision is to reduce institutionalization by expanding effective community-based alternatives.<br />
  47. 47. Ohio Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives<br />40<br />ACLU of Ohio <br />The ACLU works on criminal justice reform issues specifically related to juvenile justice. They released a 2009 report card for Ohio’s Juvenile Justice System publicizing the ways that Ohio is failing its children, such as, permitting them to be routinely shackled, requiring them to be charged as adults for certain crimes, and waiving their right to an attorney. Defending children’s right to counsel and access to the courts is one of the ACLU’s main juvenile justice emphases. ACLU Ohio also offers a variety of informational and advocacy resources on their website including the “cradle to the prison pipeline,” juveniles’ rights, and pending legislative action.<br />
  48. 48. Reform on a National Level<br />41<br />Ban the Box<br />This campaign calls for the elimination of the questions about past convictions on initial public employment applications. This campaign challenges many “boxes” on a variety of applications (i.e. employment, housing, social services, etc.) we are required to check that supports structural discrimination against formerly-incarcerated people.<br />Banning the box on public employment applications will contribute to public safety because it will promote stable employment in our communities. People with jobs and stable community lives are much less likely to return committing crimes in order to survive.<br />Boston, San Francisco, Chicago and Minneapolis/St. Paul are among the cities that have removed the box from applications for government jobs. Boston’s ordinance extends to vendors with government contracts.<br />Partially quoted from: http://www.allofusornone.org/campaigns/ban-the-box<br />http://www.examiner.com/x-662-Strange-News-Examiner~y2009m1d10-Ban-the-box--exconvict-job-seekers-no-longer-required-to-disclose-criminal-past<br />
  49. 49. Reform on a National Level<br />42<br />The Justice Project – Opportunities for Reform<br />Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures<br />Expanding Post-Conviction DNA Testing<br />Improving Forensic Evidence Testing Procedures<br />Improving Standards for Admissibility of Accomplice and Snitch Testimony<br />Ensuring Proper Safeguards Against Prosecutorial Misconduct<br />Expanding Discovery in Criminal Cases<br />Electronic Recording of Custodial Interrogations<br />Ensuring Standards for the Appointment and Performance of Counsel in Capital Cases<br />
  50. 50. Reform on a National Level – The Justice Project’s Successes<br />43<br />Ensuring Passage of the Innocence Protection Act- TJPled a five-year campaign to pass the Innocence Protection Act (IPA), the first federal death penalty reform legislation to pass Congress and be signed into law. The IPA includes funding for the Kirk Bloodsworth Post-Conviction DNA Testing Program, which provides funding for DNA testing of individuals who may have been wrongfully convicted.<br />Leading the Campaign to End the Juvenile Death PenaltyOn March 1, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the juvenile death penalty in a landmark 5-4 decision in Roper v. Simmons. TJP coordinated a national campaign, “Kids Are Different,” to illustrate that kids are mentally, emotionally and physically different from adults and therefore less culpable for their actions.<br />Preserving Habeas CorpusThe Justice Project successfully fought legislation in the 109th Congress that would have effectively eliminated federal review of criminal cases and increased errors and injustice in the criminal justice system.<br />
  51. 51. How can we advocate for opportunity communities?<br />44<br />
  52. 52. Neighborhood Revitalization<br />45<br />A systems response<br />Where are your key leverage points?<br />What are the critical intervention points?<br />Equity focused<br />Creating a community for all (not a model of gentrification)<br />Emphasis on strategic collaboration<br />
  53. 53. Remedying Opportunity Isolation<br />46<br /><ul><li>Adopt strategies that open up access to levers of opportunity for marginalized individuals, families, and communities
  54. 54. Connect people to existing opportunities throughout the metropolitan region
  55. 55. Bring opportunities to opportunity-deprived areas
  56. 56. Invest in people, places, and linkages</li></li></ul><li>People, Places, & Linkages<br />47<br />
  57. 57. 48<br />Questions or Comments? For More Information, Visit Us On-Line:www.KirwanInstitute.org<br />
  58. 58. Appendix<br />49<br />
  59. 59. 50<br />Targeted Universalism<br />Targeted Universalism recognizes racial disparities and the importance of eradicating them, while acknowledging their presence within a larger inequitable, institutional framework<br />Targeted universalism is a common framework through which to pursue justice.<br />A model which recognizes our linked fate<br />A model where we all grow together<br />A model where we embrace collective solutions<br />
  60. 60. 51<br />Interconnectedness<br />Recognize the interconnectedness of our being and our fate<br />Develop and implement solutions that benefit ALL members of society<br />Reject the myth of scarcity <br />Strengthen our democracy<br />Collaborate and focus on coalition building<br />Interconnectedness provokes both political and spiritual questions.<br />
  61. 61. Coalition Building<br />52<br />We need to move from transactional level to a deeper transformative level<br />What would this look like?<br />What are the costs and consequences of this transition?<br />Coalition across groups, space, ideology<br />Ethics of connectedness and linked fate<br />Structures, policies, institutions actively disconnect us whereas they could proactively connect us <br />
  62. 62. 53<br />The Path to Transformation<br />Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires redefining the self in relation to others<br />Moving beyond the self: “In every major religious tradition the ideal is unity, and separation leads to suffering.” <br />* * * * * * * * * *<br />What interferes with building these transformational relationships?<br />What kind of leadership is required of us?<br />
  63. 63. Transactional v. Transformational Leadership<br />54<br />Transformational Leadership<br />Transformational leadership is about implementing new ideas<br />These individuals continually change themselves<br />They stay flexible and adaptable<br />They continually improve those around them<br />Transformational leaders have been written about for thousands of years--being both praised (Christ and Buddha) and cursed (Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan)<br />