PEOPLE, PLACE, &OPPORTUNITY                              Mapping Communities of                              Opportunity i...
Section 1Introduction   Today’s discussion     Opportunity   matters      (Christy)     Mapping opportunity      (Samir...
Section 2Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and LifeOutcomes   “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places indi...
Opportunity Matters:                    Neighborhoods & Access to                    Opportunity   Five decades of resear...
Which community would you choose?To be safe and have positive health outcomes? For your kids to receive a qualityeducation...
DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH ANDWELL BEING                      6
What are the implications ofopportunity isolation?   Individual       Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes...
Mapping Opportunity: Why and How   The Kirwan Institute has    conducted “opportunity    mapping” for states and    metro...
Section 3Mapping Opportunity: Why and HowInequality has a geographic footprintMaps can visually track the history and pres...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods    and Indicators   Three areas of    opportunity were    analyzed using GIS ...
Opportunity Mapping   Education Quality and Opportunity       Student Expenditures       Student Poverty Rate       Te...
Opportunity Mapping   Economic Health and Transportation       Unemployment Rates       Population on Public Assistance...
Opportunity Mapping   Neighborhood Stability and Health       Home Values       Neighborhood Vacancy Rates       Crime...
Comprehensive Opportunity Map
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
Access to Opportunity:Race, Ethnicity, and Class   Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of    opportunity is stunning ...
Access to Opportunity: Race   Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of    opportunity in Massachusetts:     More than ...
Access to Opportunity: Race
Access to Opportunity: Immigrants   Non-native born Africans and Latinos are    disproportionately concentrated in low-  ...
Access to Opportunity: Class   Racial isolation into low-opportunity    neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-    b...
Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity   Housing is a strategic intervention point into    opportunity and adva...
Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity       Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityOver half of the State’s estimated amount of high- cost HMDA loans, residential for...
Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityDistribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
Reflecting on these findings….   What does our analysis find and suggest?     Peopleof color are disproportionately     ...
What can opportunity maps beused for…..   Fair housing (Baltimore)   Counseling and advocacy (Chicago)   Regional colla...
Section 4Remedying Opportunity Isolation   Adopt strategies that open up access to levers    of opportunity for marginali...
People, Places and Linkages
Example: Neighborhood45      Revitalization     A   systems response        Where  are your key         leverage points?...
Example: Opportunity Based         Housing -46         Integration into Opportunity        Rethink fair housing…        ...
Section 5Intervention Strategies for Building OpportunityCommunities   Strategies for community-activists, policy-    mak...
Strategic Opportunities forChange   Design strategies that are sensitive to    the unique challenges and strategic    opp...
To access this report and other resources pleasevisit us on-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org                              ...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
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Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts

  1. 1. PEOPLE, PLACE, &OPPORTUNITY Mapping Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts May 29, 2009 Massachusetts State House Jason Reece AICP, Christy Rogers & Samir Gambhir The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity The Ohio State University Reece.35@osu.edu Funded by Massachusetts Legal Services Programs
  2. 2. Section 1Introduction Today’s discussion  Opportunity matters (Christy)  Mapping opportunity (Samir)  Why and how…  Opportunity mapping in MA (Jason  How do you remedy opportunity isolation (Jason)
  3. 3. Section 2Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and LifeOutcomes “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks
  4. 4. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations  Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities 4
  5. 5. Which community would you choose?To be safe and have positive health outcomes? For your kids to receive a qualityeducation? Which community would be better for employment and have a moresustainable tax base? 5
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH ANDWELL BEING 6
  7. 7. What are the implications ofopportunity isolation? Individual  Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development  Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime  Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks Community/Economy  High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges  Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation  Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects
  8. 8. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US Why identify the “State of Opportunity”  How are low-income groups situated in the State?  How are racial and ethnic groups situated?  What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape?
  9. 9. Section 3Mapping Opportunity: Why and HowInequality has a geographic footprintMaps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate peopleIdentifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity
  10. 10. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability:  Education Quality and Opportunity  Economic Health and Transportation  Neighborhood Stability and Health
  11. 11. Opportunity Mapping Education Quality and Opportunity  Student Expenditures  Student Poverty Rate  Test Scores for Schools  Graduation and Dropout Rates  Teacher Qualifications
  12. 12. Opportunity Mapping Economic Health and Transportation  Unemployment Rates  Population on Public Assistance  Proximity to Employment  Employment Change: 2000-2005  Mean Commute Time
  13. 13. Opportunity Mapping Neighborhood Stability and Health  Home Values  Neighborhood Vacancy Rates  Crime  Neighborhood Poverty  Home Ownership Rate  Proximity to Toxic Waste Sites  Superfund Sites
  14. 14. Comprehensive Opportunity Map
  15. 15. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
  16. 16. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
  17. 17. Access to Opportunity:Race, Ethnicity, and Class Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity is stunning in Massachusetts Immigrants from Africa and Latin America were found to be disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-based segregation into these communities
  18. 18. Access to Opportunity: Race Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity in Massachusetts:  More than 90% of African-American and Latino households in were isolated in the lowest opportunity neighborhoods in the State  Over 55% of Asian households were found in low- opportunity neighborhoods  By contrast, only 31% of White, Non-Latino households were found in low-opportunity neighborhoods
  19. 19. Access to Opportunity: Race
  20. 20. Access to Opportunity: Immigrants Non-native born Africans and Latinos are disproportionately concentrated in low- opportunity neighborhoods:  42% of European-born and 46% of Asian-born residents live in low-opportunity neighborhoods  By contrast, more 70% of non-native born African and Latin American residents live in low- opportunity neighborhoods
  21. 21. Access to Opportunity: Class Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class- based segregation into these communities  42% of low-income White households live in low- opportunity communities, while 33% live in high- opportunity community areas  By contrast, more than 95% of low-income Latinos, 93% of low-income African-Americans, and 71% of low-income Asians live in low-opportunity communities  Approximately 90% of high-income African-Americans and Latinos live in low-opportunity communities
  22. 22. Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity Housing is a strategic intervention point into opportunity and advancement  However, 100,000 (nearly 76%) subsidized housing units in the State is in low-opportunity communities  Only 17,000 units (roughly 12%) of subsidized housing are in high-opportunity communities
  23. 23. Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
  24. 24. Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityOver half of the State’s estimated amount of high- cost HMDA loans, residential foreclosures, and 90-day residential foreclosures were located in low-opportunity neighborhoodsThis data shows the strong relationship between poor lending practices, foreclosure, and vacancy, all of which have been disproportionately concentrated in low- opportunity neighborhoods
  25. 25. Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityDistribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
  26. 26. Reflecting on these findings…. What does our analysis find and suggest?  Peopleof color are disproportionately concentrated in opportunity deprived communities  Which places them within a system of disadvantage that ultimately impacts life outcomes  Creating both an individual and societal tragedy  Subsidized housing reinforces this opportunity isolation  Foreclosures will widen the “opportunity divide” in the State of Massachusetts What are the implications of this challenge and how can we formulate a response?
  27. 27. What can opportunity maps beused for….. Fair housing (Baltimore) Counseling and advocacy (Chicago) Regional collaboration on issues of education and housing (Austin) Assisting with grant making and targeting resources or programming
  28. 28. Section 4Remedying Opportunity Isolation Adopt strategies that open up access to levers of opportunity for marginalized individuals, families, and communities  Bring opportunities to opportunity-deprived areas  Connect people to existing opportunities throughout the metropolitan region  Invest in people, places, and linkages
  29. 29. People, Places and Linkages
  30. 30. Example: Neighborhood45 Revitalization A systems response  Where are your key leverage points?  What are the critical intervention points?  Equity focused  Creating a community for all (not a model of gentrification)  Emphasis on strategic collaboration
  31. 31. Example: Opportunity Based Housing -46 Integration into Opportunity  Rethink fair housing…  Not just integration but integration into opportunity  Inclusive fair housing means access to good schools, jobs, doctors, child care, transportation, parks, and the civic fabric
  32. 32. Section 5Intervention Strategies for Building OpportunityCommunities Strategies for community-activists, policy- makers, and researchers  Adopt an opportunity-based approach to community development  Adopt an opportunity-based approach to housing advocacy  Support both in-place and mobility-based strategies to affirmatively provide access to opportunity  Adopt a multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach to advocacy
  33. 33. Strategic Opportunities forChange Design strategies that are sensitive to the unique challenges and strategic opportunities of each community  e.g.strategies for an undercapitalized city might focus on vacant property while strategies in a hot market city might focus on regional affordable housing
  34. 34. To access this report and other resources pleasevisit us on-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org 49

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