Geography 686 Spring 2009                      Class presentation                            May 18, 2009                 ...
About Kirwan Institute   Mission & Vision    The central mission of the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnic...
Questions What do these maps show? What are these being used for? Do these maps tell a story? Are these effective in c...
Discussion   Why use maps?     Overlay multiple pieces of information     Tell a story     Good entry point to unite d...
Maps:Powerful Visual ToolsMaps are incredibly efficient compacting volumes of  data ability to convey  information in se...
Space and Social Equity   Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with    issues of equity?     Regional, racial ...
Neighborhood based data   Using neighborhood based data to assess    neighborhood opportunities and challenges is not    ...
Using Maps for Advocacy  Inour work we see mapping as   serving these primary advocacy   goals    Analysis     ○ Existin...
Analytical Examples Are minority businesses in areas of economic  opportunity? (Cleveland) Are hospital investments bene...
MBE and Projected Job Change 2000-2030
HospitalInvestments andAfrican AmericanNeighborhoods:Columbus
Where Should EITC Advocacy be Targeted?
Recent Job Growth 98-02 and Public Transit      Spatial Mismatch:         in the Baltimore Region                         ...
Narratives Examples Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing  segregation (Baltimore) Foreclosures in African American  ...
Conditions inBaltimore    Subsidized     housing     opportunities in     Baltimore are     generally     clustered in th...
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)    Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGE...
Looking at Issues Across Time and Space:The Growing Vacant Land Problem in Detroit                                        ...
Montclair School District, NJ
Opportunity Mapping:Combining Analysis with a StrongNarrative Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to  understand ...
The “Community of Opportunity”approach   Where you live is more important than what you live    in…     Housing -- in pa...
Framework   The “Communities of Opportunity” framework    is a model of fair housing and community    development   The ...
The web of opportunity   Opportunities in our society are geographically    distributed (and often clustered) throughout ...
BaltimoreOpportunity andSubsidizedHousing   Subsidized housing    opportunities in Baltimore    are generally clustered i...
Detroit Opportunity             and Race      African American men areisolated from neighborhoods of           opportunity...
Austin Opportunityand LinguisticIsolation Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated hous...
Methodology Identifying and selecting indicators of  opportunity Identifying sources of data Compiling list of indicato...
Methodology:Sources of Data   Federal Organizations       Census Bureau       County Business Patterns (ZIP Code Data) ...
Methodology:Indicator Categories Education     Student/Teacher ratio? Test scores? Student mobility?   Economic/Employm...
Methodology:Calculating Z Scores  Z Score – a statistical measure that quantifies the distance   (measured in standard de...
Austin MSA, TX
New Orleans MSA, LA
Baltimore MSA, MD
Massachusetts Opportunity Mapping, Boston area
Cleveland Area, OH
Follow-up Need more research on methodology The model needs to be made more  robust Critical analysis of all indicators...
Ongoing projects Connecticut Fair Housing and Opportunity Children well-being and policy guidance in  Massachusetts Flo...
Future projects   Online interactive maps     ArcGIS Server     ArcIMS     ○ http://128.146.162.230/Website/Baltimore/ ...
Questions or Comments?   Please visit us online at: www.kirwaninstitute.org
GIS in Social Sciences
GIS in Social Sciences
GIS in Social Sciences
GIS in Social Sciences
GIS in Social Sciences
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GIS in Social Sciences

  1. 1. Geography 686 Spring 2009 Class presentation May 18, 2009 SAMIR GAMBHIR Senior Research AssociateKirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity
  2. 2. About Kirwan Institute Mission & Vision The central mission of the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity is to contribute meaningfully to the field of research and scholarship on race, ethnicity and social justice, to assist in reframing the way that we talk about, think about and act on race and ethnicity, and to deepen the understanding of the causes and consequences of and solutions to racial and ethnic hierarchy and disparity so that we can envision and realize a society that is fair and just for all people, where opportunity is not limited by race, ethnicity, gender, or class, where democratic ideals inform social policy, and where all people recognize and embrace the universal responsibility that each person has for the welfare of every other person. From day to day we are concerned about the internal workings of the Institute, but the real measure of our success must be the impact of our work in bringing about this vision of a true democratic society. For this reason, all of our research and scholarship is intended to have an implicit or explicit impact on policies in the real world. By creating a research-based structural lens to look at racism, we are shifting not only the way that racism is conceptualized, but also the way we conceive of strategies to counteract its impact. In shifting the way we talk about, think about and act on race, we hope to give new meaning to the proposition that human destinies are intertwined.
  3. 3. Questions What do these maps show? What are these being used for? Do these maps tell a story? Are these effective in conveying what they are intended for?  www.healthcarethatworks.org
  4. 4. Discussion Why use maps?  Overlay multiple pieces of information  Tell a story  Good entry point to unite diverse coalitions or stakeholders Why is visual information important?  A picture is worth a thousand words  Provide spatial reference  “People are able to look at the information based on where they live or areas they are familiar with and obtain a better understating” Why are maps effective?  “people feel like they understand maps. Nobody will give you feedback on regression analysis”  Mapping is very effective at identifying strategic intervention points  Shared sense of value; builds mutual trust
  5. 5. Maps:Powerful Visual ToolsMaps are incredibly efficient compacting volumes of data ability to convey information in seconds tell a story or solve a problem  Research has shown that people can solve problems faster with map based information, than by looking at charts, tables or graphs
  6. 6. Space and Social Equity Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with issues of equity?  Regional, racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity  Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena  Maps give us the opportunity to look at our entire regions or states ○ Informing people about an issue at a scale they may not usually think of ○ linking communities sharing similar problems
  7. 7. Neighborhood based data Using neighborhood based data to assess neighborhood opportunities and challenges is not unprecedented is used in various sectors Examples  Business: Site selection analysis by firms such as Claritas  Community Development: Criteria used to identify areas for targeted investment or areas targeted for specific community development initiatives  Housing: Models that try to connect affordable housing to areas of job growth “work force housing initiatives”
  8. 8. Using Maps for Advocacy  Inour work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals  Analysis ○ Existing conditions, spatial trends, scenarios, optimization etc.  Storytelling ○ A narrative  Combination
  9. 9. Analytical Examples Are minority businesses in areas of economic opportunity? (Cleveland) Are hospital investments benefiting communities of color? (Columbus) How should EITC advocacy be tailored? (Columbus) Are job growth areas connected to transit? (Baltimore)
  10. 10. MBE and Projected Job Change 2000-2030
  11. 11. HospitalInvestments andAfrican AmericanNeighborhoods:Columbus
  12. 12. Where Should EITC Advocacy be Targeted?
  13. 13. Recent Job Growth 98-02 and Public Transit Spatial Mismatch: in the Baltimore Region Job Growth & Public Transit in Baltimore The following map illustrates the mismatch between job growth and transit in BaltimorePercent Change in Jobs Job Loss 0-5 5 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 66.6
  14. 14. Narratives Examples Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing segregation (Baltimore) Foreclosures in African American neighborhoods are due to subprime lending patterns (Cleveland) Vacant property problems are spreading, vacant property challenges are not just an inner city problem (Detroit) What if Montclair, NJ schools returned to neighborhood school system?
  15. 15. Conditions inBaltimore  Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s predominately African American neighborhoods
  16. 16. Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)
  17. 17. Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps) Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University
  18. 18. Looking at Issues Across Time and Space:The Growing Vacant Land Problem in Detroit N Growth of Vacant Housing Legend: W E in Detroit 1970-2000 S City of Detroit % of Homes Vacant (% Vacant Housing Highways 0-3 in 1970 and 2000) Counties 3 - 10 10 - 15 Prepared by: Kirwan Institute Source Data: U.S. Census Bureau 15 - 20 20 - 57.6 % Vacant % Vacant 1970 2000 8 0 8 16 Miles
  19. 19. Montclair School District, NJ
  20. 20. Opportunity Mapping:Combining Analysis with a StrongNarrative Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas The purpose of opportunity mapping is to illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities)  Also, to understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities
  21. 21. The “Community of Opportunity”approach Where you live is more important than what you live in…  Housing -- in particular its location -- is the primary mechanism for accessing opportunity in our society  Housing location determines ○ the quality of schools children attend, ○ the quality of public services they receive, ○ access to employment and transportation, ○ exposure to health risks, ○ access to health care, etc.  For those living in high poverty neighborhoods, these factors can significantly inhibit life outcomes
  22. 22. Framework The “Communities of Opportunity” framework is a model of fair housing and community development The model is based on the premises that  Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life  Affirmatively connecting people to opportunity creates positive, transformative change in communities
  23. 23. The web of opportunity Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed (and often clustered) throughout metropolitan areas  This creates “winner” and “loser” communities or “high” and “low” opportunity communities Your location within this “web of opportunity” plays a decisive role in your life potential and outcomes  Individual characteristics still matter…  …but so does access to opportunity, such as good schools, health care, child care, and job networks
  24. 24. BaltimoreOpportunity andSubsidizedHousing Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods
  25. 25. Detroit Opportunity and Race African American men areisolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit
  26. 26. Austin Opportunityand LinguisticIsolation Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated households
  27. 27. Methodology Identifying and selecting indicators of opportunity Identifying sources of data Compiling list of indicators (data matrix) Calculating Z scores Averaging these scores
  28. 28. Methodology:Sources of Data Federal Organizations  Census Bureau  County Business Patterns (ZIP Code Data)  Housing and Urban Development (HUD)  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) State and Local Governmental Organizations  Regional planning agencies  Education boards/school districts  Transportation agencies  County Auditor’s Office Other agencies (non-Profit and Private)  Schoolmatters.org  DataPlace.org  ESRI Business Analyst  Claritas
  29. 29. Methodology:Indicator Categories Education  Student/Teacher ratio? Test scores? Student mobility? Economic/Employment Indicators  Unemployment rate? Proximity to employment? Job creation? Neighborhood Quality  Median home values? Crime rate? Housing vacancy rate? Mobility/Transportation Indicators  Mean commute time? Access to public transit? Health & Environmental Indicators  Access to health care? Exposure to toxic waste? Proximity to parks or open space?
  30. 30. Methodology:Calculating Z Scores  Z Score – a statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) between data points and the mean Z Score = (Data point – Mean)/ Standard Deviation  Allows data for a geography (e.g. census tract) to be measured based on their relative distance from the average for the entire region  Raw z score performance  Mean value is always “zero” – z score indicates distance from the mean  Positive z score is always above the region’s mean, Negative z score is always below the region’s mean  Indicators with negative effect on opportunity should have all the z scores adjusted to reflect this phenomena
  31. 31. Austin MSA, TX
  32. 32. New Orleans MSA, LA
  33. 33. Baltimore MSA, MD
  34. 34. Massachusetts Opportunity Mapping, Boston area
  35. 35. Cleveland Area, OH
  36. 36. Follow-up Need more research on methodology The model needs to be made more robust Critical analysis of all indicators e.g. job mismatch, park access issues
  37. 37. Ongoing projects Connecticut Fair Housing and Opportunity Children well-being and policy guidance in Massachusetts Florida Opportunity Mapping and Economic stimulus money tracking Montclair, NJ school integration King County, Seattle Opportunity Mapping and Housing
  38. 38. Future projects Online interactive maps  ArcGIS Server  ArcIMS ○ http://128.146.162.230/Website/Baltimore/  Open source ○ http://www.gis.osu.edu/webgis-projects/opportunity/index.html Preparing a national model for Opportunity Mapping
  39. 39. Questions or Comments? Please visit us online at: www.kirwaninstitute.org
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