Geography 686 Spring 2009 Class presentation May 18, 2009 SAMIR GAMBHIR Senior Research AssociateKirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity
About Kirwan Institute Mission & Vision The central mission of the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity is to contribute meaningfully to the field of research and scholarship on race, ethnicity and social justice, to assist in reframing the way that we talk about, think about and act on race and ethnicity, and to deepen the understanding of the causes and consequences of and solutions to racial and ethnic hierarchy and disparity so that we can envision and realize a society that is fair and just for all people, where opportunity is not limited by race, ethnicity, gender, or class, where democratic ideals inform social policy, and where all people recognize and embrace the universal responsibility that each person has for the welfare of every other person. From day to day we are concerned about the internal workings of the Institute, but the real measure of our success must be the impact of our work in bringing about this vision of a true democratic society. For this reason, all of our research and scholarship is intended to have an implicit or explicit impact on policies in the real world. By creating a research-based structural lens to look at racism, we are shifting not only the way that racism is conceptualized, but also the way we conceive of strategies to counteract its impact. In shifting the way we talk about, think about and act on race, we hope to give new meaning to the proposition that human destinies are intertwined.
Questions What do these maps show? What are these being used for? Do these maps tell a story? Are these effective in conveying what they are intended for? www.healthcarethatworks.org
Discussion Why use maps? Overlay multiple pieces of information Tell a story Good entry point to unite diverse coalitions or stakeholders Why is visual information important? A picture is worth a thousand words Provide spatial reference “People are able to look at the information based on where they live or areas they are familiar with and obtain a better understating” Why are maps effective? “people feel like they understand maps. Nobody will give you feedback on regression analysis” Mapping is very effective at identifying strategic intervention points Shared sense of value; builds mutual trust
Maps:Powerful Visual ToolsMaps are incredibly efficient compacting volumes of data ability to convey information in seconds tell a story or solve a problem Research has shown that people can solve problems faster with map based information, than by looking at charts, tables or graphs
Space and Social Equity Why are maps particularly effective in dealing with issues of equity? Regional, racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena Maps give us the opportunity to look at our entire regions or states ○ Informing people about an issue at a scale they may not usually think of ○ linking communities sharing similar problems
Neighborhood based data Using neighborhood based data to assess neighborhood opportunities and challenges is not unprecedented is used in various sectors Examples Business: Site selection analysis by firms such as Claritas Community Development: Criteria used to identify areas for targeted investment or areas targeted for specific community development initiatives Housing: Models that try to connect affordable housing to areas of job growth “work force housing initiatives”
Using Maps for Advocacy Inour work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals Analysis ○ Existing conditions, spatial trends, scenarios, optimization etc. Storytelling ○ A narrative Combination
Analytical Examples Are minority businesses in areas of economic opportunity? (Cleveland) Are hospital investments benefiting communities of color? (Columbus) How should EITC advocacy be tailored? (Columbus) Are job growth areas connected to transit? (Baltimore)
Recent Job Growth 98-02 and Public Transit Spatial Mismatch: in the Baltimore Region Job Growth & Public Transit in Baltimore The following map illustrates the mismatch between job growth and transit in BaltimorePercent Change in Jobs Job Loss 0-5 5 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 66.6
Narratives Examples Subsidized housing policy is reinforcing segregation (Baltimore) Foreclosures in African American neighborhoods are due to subprime lending patterns (Cleveland) Vacant property problems are spreading, vacant property challenges are not just an inner city problem (Detroit) What if Montclair, NJ schools returned to neighborhood school system?
Conditions inBaltimore Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s predominately African American neighborhoods
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps)
Subprime Lending, Race and Foreclosure(Note: Not one of our maps) Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University
Looking at Issues Across Time and Space:The Growing Vacant Land Problem in Detroit N Growth of Vacant Housing Legend: W E in Detroit 1970-2000 S City of Detroit % of Homes Vacant (% Vacant Housing Highways 0-3 in 1970 and 2000) Counties 3 - 10 10 - 15 Prepared by: Kirwan Institute Source Data: U.S. Census Bureau 15 - 20 20 - 57.6 % Vacant % Vacant 1970 2000 8 0 8 16 Miles
Opportunity Mapping:Combining Analysis with a StrongNarrative Opportunity mapping is a research tool used to understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas The purpose of opportunity mapping is to illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities) Also, to understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities
The “Community of Opportunity”approach Where you live is more important than what you live in… Housing -- in particular its location -- is the primary mechanism for accessing opportunity in our society Housing location determines ○ the quality of schools children attend, ○ the quality of public services they receive, ○ access to employment and transportation, ○ exposure to health risks, ○ access to health care, etc. For those living in high poverty neighborhoods, these factors can significantly inhibit life outcomes
Framework The “Communities of Opportunity” framework is a model of fair housing and community development The model is based on the premises that Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life Affirmatively connecting people to opportunity creates positive, transformative change in communities
The web of opportunity Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed (and often clustered) throughout metropolitan areas This creates “winner” and “loser” communities or “high” and “low” opportunity communities Your location within this “web of opportunity” plays a decisive role in your life potential and outcomes Individual characteristics still matter… …but so does access to opportunity, such as good schools, health care, child care, and job networks
BaltimoreOpportunity andSubsidizedHousing Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods
Detroit Opportunity and Race African American men areisolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit
Austin Opportunityand LinguisticIsolation Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated households
Methodology Identifying and selecting indicators of opportunity Identifying sources of data Compiling list of indicators (data matrix) Calculating Z scores Averaging these scores
Methodology:Sources of Data Federal Organizations Census Bureau County Business Patterns (ZIP Code Data) Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) State and Local Governmental Organizations Regional planning agencies Education boards/school districts Transportation agencies County Auditor’s Office Other agencies (non-Profit and Private) Schoolmatters.org DataPlace.org ESRI Business Analyst Claritas
Methodology:Indicator Categories Education Student/Teacher ratio? Test scores? Student mobility? Economic/Employment Indicators Unemployment rate? Proximity to employment? Job creation? Neighborhood Quality Median home values? Crime rate? Housing vacancy rate? Mobility/Transportation Indicators Mean commute time? Access to public transit? Health & Environmental Indicators Access to health care? Exposure to toxic waste? Proximity to parks or open space?
Methodology:Calculating Z Scores Z Score – a statistical measure that quantifies the distance (measured in standard deviations) between data points and the mean Z Score = (Data point – Mean)/ Standard Deviation Allows data for a geography (e.g. census tract) to be measured based on their relative distance from the average for the entire region Raw z score performance Mean value is always “zero” – z score indicates distance from the mean Positive z score is always above the region’s mean, Negative z score is always below the region’s mean Indicators with negative effect on opportunity should have all the z scores adjusted to reflect this phenomena
Follow-up Need more research on methodology The model needs to be made more robust Critical analysis of all indicators e.g. job mismatch, park access issues
Ongoing projects Connecticut Fair Housing and Opportunity Children well-being and policy guidance in Massachusetts Florida Opportunity Mapping and Economic stimulus money tracking Montclair, NJ school integration King County, Seattle Opportunity Mapping and Housing
Future projects Online interactive maps ArcGIS Server ArcIMS ○ http://184.108.40.206/Website/Baltimore/ Open source ○ http://www.gis.osu.edu/webgis-projects/opportunity/index.html Preparing a national model for Opportunity Mapping
Questions or Comments? Please visit us online at: www.kirwaninstitute.org
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