THE GEOGRAPHY OF                        OPPORTUNITY                        Building Communities of                        ...
Section 1Introduction   Background on this project     Origins (SR symposium)     KI mapping and legal      services  ...
Section 2Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and LifeOutcomes   “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places indi...
Opportunity Matters:         Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity   Five decades of research    indicate that your envir...
Which community would you choose?To be safe and have positive health outcomes? For your kids to receive a qualityeducation...
What are the implications ofopportunity isolation?   Individual       Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes...
Section 3Mapping Opportunity: Why and HowInequality has a geographic footprintMaps can visually track the history and pres...
Mapping Opportunity: Why and How   The Kirwan Institute has    conducted “opportunity    mapping” for states and    metro...
Opportunity Mapping in Litigation:Thompson v. HUD (RemedialProposal)  Submitted expert reports in   both the liability an...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methodsand Indicators   How do you map opportunity?      Data representing community...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods    and Indicators   Three areas of    opportunity were    analyzed using GIS ...
Opportunity Mapping   Education Quality and Opportunity       Student Expenditures       Student Poverty Rate       Te...
Opportunity Mapping   Economic Health and Transportation       Unemployment Rates       Population on Public Assistance...
Opportunity Mapping   Neighborhood Stability and Health       Home Values       Neighborhood Vacancy Rates       Crime...
Comprehensive Opportunity Map
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
Access to Opportunity:Race, Ethnicity, and Class   Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of    opportunity is stunning ...
Access to Opportunity: Race   Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of    opportunity in Massachusetts:     More than ...
Access to Opportunity: Race
Access to Opportunity: Immigrants   Non-native born Africans and Latinos are    disproportionately concentrated in low-  ...
Access to Opportunity: Class   Racial isolation into low-opportunity    neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-    b...
Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity   Housing is a strategic intervention point into    opportunity and adva...
Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity       Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityOver half of the State’s estimated amount of high- cost HMDA loans, residential for...
Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityDistribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
Reflecting on these findings….   What does our analysis find and suggest?       People of color are disproportionately c...
To access this report and other resources pleasevisit us on-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org                              ...
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts
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Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts

  1. 1. THE GEOGRAPHY OF OPPORTUNITY Building Communities of Opportunity in Massachusetts February 26, 2009 Harvard Law School Cambridge, MA Jason Reece, AICP Senior Researcher The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity The Ohio State University Reece.35@osu.eduPresented by The Boston Lawyer Chapter of the American ConstitutionSociety and the Racial Justice Program of the American Civil Liberties Union
  2. 2. Section 1Introduction Background on this project  Origins (SR symposium)  KI mapping and legal services Today’s discussion  Opportunity matters  Mapping opportunity  Why and how…  Opportunity mapping in MA  Results  The intersection of opportunity race and class  Opportunity, housing and the foreclosure crisis
  3. 3. Section 2Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and LifeOutcomes “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks
  4. 4. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations  Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities 4
  5. 5. Which community would you choose?To be safe and have positive health outcomes? For your kids to receive a qualityeducation? Which community would be better for employment and have a moresustainable tax base?
  6. 6. What are the implications ofopportunity isolation? Individual  Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development  Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime  Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks Community/Economy  High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges  Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation  Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects
  7. 7. Section 3Mapping Opportunity: Why and HowInequality has a geographic footprintMaps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate peopleIdentifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity
  8. 8. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US Why identify the “State of Opportunity”  How are low-income groups situated in the State?  How are racial and ethnic groups situated?  What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape?
  9. 9. Opportunity Mapping in Litigation:Thompson v. HUD (RemedialProposal)  Submitted expert reports in both the liability and the remedy phases of the litigation, on behalf of plaintiffs  Used GIS to analyze current conditions of segregated public housing (liability phase) and frame solutions for desegregation (remedy phase) in a regional context
  10. 10. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methodsand Indicators How do you map opportunity?  Data representing community conditions was gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state  Data for all indicators of community conditions was aggregated to the Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the census tracts (neighborhoods) throughout the state  The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score  Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High
  11. 11. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability:  Education Quality and Opportunity  Economic Health and Transportation  Neighborhood Stability and Health
  12. 12. Opportunity Mapping Education Quality and Opportunity  Student Expenditures  Student Poverty Rate  Test Scores for Schools  Graduation and Dropout Rates  Teacher Qualifications
  13. 13. Opportunity Mapping Economic Health and Transportation  Unemployment Rates  Population on Public Assistance  Proximity to Employment  Employment Change: 2000-2005  Mean Commute Time
  14. 14. Opportunity Mapping Neighborhood Stability and Health  Home Values  Neighborhood Vacancy Rates  Crime  Neighborhood Poverty  Home Ownership Rate  Proximity to Toxic Waste Sites  Superfund Sites
  15. 15. Comprehensive Opportunity Map
  16. 16. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
  17. 17. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
  18. 18. Access to Opportunity:Race, Ethnicity, and Class Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity is stunning in Massachusetts Immigrants from Africa and Latin America were found to be disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-based segregation into these communities
  19. 19. Access to Opportunity: Race Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity in Massachusetts:  More than 90% of African-American and Latino households in were isolated in the lowest opportunity neighborhoods in the State  Over 55% of Asian households were found in low- opportunity neighborhoods  By contrast, only 31% of White, Non-Latino households were found in low-opportunity neighborhoods
  20. 20. Access to Opportunity: Race
  21. 21. Access to Opportunity: Immigrants Non-native born Africans and Latinos are disproportionately concentrated in low- opportunity neighborhoods:  42% of European-born and 46% of Asian-born residents live in low-opportunity neighborhoods  By contrast, more 70% of non-native born African and Latin American residents live in low- opportunity neighborhoods
  22. 22. Access to Opportunity: Class Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class- based segregation into these communities  42% of low-income White households live in low- opportunity communities, while 33% live in high- opportunity community areas  By contrast, more than 95% of low-income Latinos, 93% of low-income African-Americans, and 71% of low-income Asians live in low-opportunity communities  Approximately 90% of high-income African-Americans and Latinos live in low-opportunity communities
  23. 23. Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity Housing is a strategic intervention point into opportunity and advancement  However, 100,000 (nearly 76%) subsidized housing units in the State is in low-opportunity communities  Only 17,000 units (roughly 12%) of subsidized housing are in high-opportunity communities
  24. 24. Subsidized Housing and Communities ofOpportunity Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
  25. 25. Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityOver half of the State’s estimated amount of high- cost HMDA loans, residential foreclosures, and 90-day residential foreclosures were located in low-opportunity neighborhoodsThis data shows the strong relationship between poor lending practices, foreclosure, and vacancy, all of which have been disproportionately concentrated in low- opportunity neighborhoods
  26. 26. Residential Foreclosure and OpportunityDistribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
  27. 27. Reflecting on these findings…. What does our analysis find and suggest?  People of color are disproportionately concentrated in opportunity deprived communities  Which places them within a system of disadvantage that ultimately impacts life outcomes  Creating both an individual and societal tragedy  Subsidized housing reinforces this opportunity isolation  Foreclosures will widen the “opportunity divide” in the State of Massachusetts What are the implications of this challenge and how can we formulate a response?  Opportunity based model of social justice and community development  People, places and linkages
  28. 28. To access this report and other resources pleasevisit us on-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org 41
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