PEOPLE, PLACE, & OPPORTUNITY Planning for the Commonwealth’s Economic Rebound January 12, 2009 Massachusetts State House J...
Introduction <ul><li>Today’s discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping oppor...
Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes <ul><li>“ Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places indivi...
Opportunity Matters:  Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity <ul><li>Five decades of research indicate that your environmen...
Which school will children succeed in?
Which community has better economic prospects?
Which community is safer and supports positive health outcomes?
What are the implications of opportunity isolation?  <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor economic outcomes, lowe...
<ul><li>Inequality has a geographic footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Maps can visually track the history and presence of discri...
Mapping Opportunity: Why and How <ul><li>The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropoli...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>How do you map opportunity?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapp...
Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Education Quality and Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Expenditures </li></ul></ul><u...
Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Economic Health and Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rates </li></ul></ul><ul...
Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Neighborhood Stability and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Values  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Comprehensive Opportunity Map
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
 
 
 
Access to Opportunity:  Race, Ethnicity, and Class <ul><li>Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity is stunn...
Access to Opportunity: Race <ul><li>Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity in Massachusetts:  </li></ul><u...
Access to Opportunity: Race
 
 
 
 
 
Access to Opportunity: Immigrants <ul><li>Non-native born Africans and Latinos are disproportionately concentrated in low-...
Access to Opportunity: Class <ul><li>Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-bas...
 
Subsidized Housing and Communities of Opportunity <ul><li>Housing is a strategic intervention point into opportunity and a...
Subsidized Housing and Communities of Opportunity Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
 
Residential Foreclosure and Opportunity <ul><li>Over half of the State’s estimated amount of high-cost HMDA loans, residen...
Residential Foreclosure and Opportunity Distribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
 
 
 
 
 
Reflecting on these findings…. <ul><li>What does our analysis find and suggest? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of color are ...
To access this report and other resources please visit us on-line at:  www.kirwaninstitute.org
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Planning for the Commonwealth’s Economic Rebound

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  • Proportion of total number of federally subsidized housing project sites and total proportion of units found within the three opportunity categories for neighborhoods. Adapted from analysis of the 2000 HUD Picture of Subsidized Housing.
  • Planning for the Commonwealth’s Economic Rebound

    1. 1. PEOPLE, PLACE, & OPPORTUNITY Planning for the Commonwealth’s Economic Rebound January 12, 2009 Massachusetts State House Jason Reece, AICP Senior Researcher The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity The Ohio State University [email_address] Funded by Massachusetts Legal Services Programs
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Today’s discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why and how… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity mapping in MA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The intersection of opportunity race and class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity, housing and the foreclosure crisis </li></ul></ul></ul>Section 1
    3. 3. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes <ul><li>“ Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy and safe environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlets for wealth-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive social networks </li></ul></ul>Section 2
    4. 4. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity <ul><li>Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of disadvantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many manifestations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban, rural, suburban </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities </li></ul>
    5. 5. Which school will children succeed in?
    6. 6. Which community has better economic prospects?
    7. 7. Which community is safer and supports positive health outcomes?
    8. 8. What are the implications of opportunity isolation? <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor economic outcomes, lower educational outcomes, degraded asset development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor health conditions, higher exposure and risk from crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological distress, weak social and professional networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community/Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High social costs, distressed and stressed communities, fiscal challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened civic engagement and democratic participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped human capital, poor labor outlook, poor economic development prospects </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Inequality has a geographic footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Maps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate people </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity </li></ul>Section 3 Mapping Opportunity: Why and How
    10. 10. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How <ul><li>The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US </li></ul><ul><li>Why identify the “State of Opportunity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are low-income groups situated in the State? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are racial and ethnic groups situated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>How do you map opportunity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data representing community conditions was gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data for all indicators of community conditions was aggregated to the Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the census tracts (neighborhoods) throughout the state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education Quality and Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Health and Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Stability and Health </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Education Quality and Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Poverty Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Scores for Schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduation and Dropout Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Qualifications </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Economic Health and Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population on Public Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment Change: 2000-2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean Commute Time </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>Neighborhood Stability and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Vacancy Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Ownership Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to Toxic Waste Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superfund Sites </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Comprehensive Opportunity Map
    17. 17. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
    18. 18. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Northeastern Massachusetts
    19. 22. Access to Opportunity: Race, Ethnicity, and Class <ul><li>Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity is stunning in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants from Africa and Latin America were found to be disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-based segregation into these communities </li></ul>
    20. 23. Access to Opportunity: Race <ul><li>Racialized isolation from neighborhoods of opportunity in Massachusetts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 90% of African-American and Latino households in were isolated in the lowest opportunity neighborhoods in the State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 55% of Asian households were found in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By contrast, only 31% of White, Non-Latino households were found in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. Access to Opportunity: Race
    22. 30. Access to Opportunity: Immigrants <ul><li>Non-native born Africans and Latinos are disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of European-born and 46% of Asian-born residents live in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By contrast, more 70% of non-native born African and Latin American residents live in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>
    23. 31. Access to Opportunity: Class <ul><li>Racial isolation into low-opportunity neighborhoods is more pronounced than class-based segregation into these communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of low-income White households live in low-opportunity communities, while 33% live in high-opportunity community areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By contrast, more than 95% of low-income Latinos, 93% of low-income African-Americans, and 71% of low-income Asians live in low-opportunity communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 90% of high-income African-Americans and Latinos live in low-opportunity communities </li></ul></ul>
    24. 33. Subsidized Housing and Communities of Opportunity <ul><li>Housing is a strategic intervention point into opportunity and advancement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, 100,000 (nearly 76%) subsidized housing units in the State is in low-opportunity communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 17,000 units (roughly 12%) of subsidized housing are in high-opportunity communities </li></ul></ul>
    25. 34. Subsidized Housing and Communities of Opportunity Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Southeastern Massachusetts
    26. 36. Residential Foreclosure and Opportunity <ul><li>Over half of the State’s estimated amount of high-cost HMDA loans, residential foreclosures, and 90-day residential foreclosures were located in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>This data shows the strong relationship between poor lending practices, foreclosure, and vacancy, all of which have been disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul>
    27. 37. Residential Foreclosure and Opportunity Distribution of Residential Factors Across the Community Opportunity Spectrum
    28. 43. Reflecting on these findings…. <ul><li>What does our analysis find and suggest? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of color are disproportionately concentrated in opportunity deprived communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which places them within a system of disadvantage that ultimately impacts life outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating both an individual and societal tragedy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidized housing reinforces this opportunity isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreclosures will widen the “opportunity divide” in the State of Massachusetts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of this challenge and how can we formulate a response? </li></ul>
    29. 44. To access this report and other resources please visit us on-line at: www.kirwaninstitute.org
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