Michigan Voice Race and the Movement Work Group Unity and Vision Retreat April 12, 2008 john a. powell Director, Kirwan In...
Presentation Overview <ul><li>Thinking and Talking Transformatively about Race </li></ul><ul><li>Framing  </li></ul><ul><l...
Thinking and Talking about Race Transformatively
Defining Race <ul><li>As attacks on affirmative action increase, it is important to realize that how we conceptualize race...
The Role of Class <ul><li>Class is thought to be a good proxy for race.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between race an...
Hesitancy to Talk about Race <ul><li>Most people do not know how to talk about race in constructive and transformative way...
Why We Need to Talk about Race <ul><li>To not talk about race is to talk about race. </li></ul><ul><li>Race plays a critic...
Consequences of Not Talking about Race <ul><li>Racial disparities are masked </li></ul><ul><li>Misperceptions about equali...
Framing
Framing <ul><li>How messages are framed affects how they are perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations about race and div...
Our Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>What do the words below say? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GQMMIINLTX DFUFIQ B MFNT </li></ul></ul>
Our Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>Are you sure it says community development? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GQMMIINLTX DFUFIQ B MFN...
Implicit Assumptions, Frames & Race
Implicit Assumptions, Frames & Race <ul><li>Katrina: What we were told </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White’s were “looking for foo...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>1) Minimize the existence of disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: ...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>2)   Blame culture for racial inequality rather than societal structu...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>3) Racial phenomena is “natural” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></u...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>4) Focusing on individuals and their traits, assuming that we all sta...
Challenging These Frames <ul><li>These frames are not easy to challenge, especially those that draw upon our national valu...
Other Semantic Moves <ul><li>“ I am not racist, but….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I kind of support and oppose….” (views on affir...
Thinking Transformatively about Race <ul><li>Transactional  vs.  Transformative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action i...
The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed and often clustered throughout ...
Connection Between  Housing and Schools High Opportunity Low Opportunity
The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Where you are situated within this web of opportunity plays a tremendous role in your life ...
Understanding of Disparities Present Extreme Persisting Absent Minimal Declining Explanations for Disparities Structural H...
Ex: Affirmative Action
Background <ul><li>Current affirmative action bans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California: Proposition 209 (1996) </li></ul></u...
The Role of Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses racial disparities  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>“ Helps students avoid or overcome stereotypes by providing a range of experiences and viewpoints within a particu...
Impact of the Bans <ul><li>Need to move fast to preclude the devastating consequences of similar initiatives in California...
Impact of the Bans
Framing Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action is complex; how it is framed impacts support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Dissonance between ideas and practices <ul><li>The idea of affirmative action is gaining support, but it is losing in the ...
The Implementation Gap <ul><li>A 1999 survey explored the racial attitudes of young Americans (ages  18 - 29)  </li></ul><...
Implicit Bias <ul><li>Data are complex, but so are people. </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously think about race even when w...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky  </li></ul></ul><u...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><u...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green   </li></ul></ul...
Implicit Bias <ul><li>https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is well known that people d...
Priming <ul><li>Our environment affects our unconscious networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Priming activates mental associations....
Next Steps Prescriptive Approaches
Next Steps <ul><li>The passing of amendments and initiatives that ban affirmative action sets potentially dangerous preced...
A Transformative Agenda <ul><li>Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in t...
Linked Fates… Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconne...
Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>In talking about race, we cannot focus solely on disparities.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>We need to talk about race by talking about race  </li></ul><ul><li>We need to start...
Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>The final step in successful race talk must counter the perception that social justi...
Linked Fates…Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconnec...
Questions or Comments?  For More Information Visit Us Online: www.KirwanInstitute.org
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Michigan Voice Race and the Movement Work Group Unity and Vision Retreat

  1. 1. Michigan Voice Race and the Movement Work Group Unity and Vision Retreat April 12, 2008 john a. powell Director, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity Williams Chair in Civil Right & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Thinking and Talking Transformatively about Race </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current bans and their impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing affirmative action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation gap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit bias / unconscious networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Next Steps </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thinking and Talking about Race Transformatively
  4. 4. Defining Race <ul><li>As attacks on affirmative action increase, it is important to realize that how we conceptualize race is being contested. </li></ul><ul><li>Race is a scientific fiction; it is a social construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Race-based interventions are seen as unfair because race is thought of as phenotype alone. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Role of Class <ul><li>Class is thought to be a good proxy for race. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between race and class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less controversial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class is complex and multidimensional. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to define yet must be understood to be utilized most effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The polarity is false—A class analysis cannot do the work of a race analysis alone . We need to understand the relationship between race and class to understand either one. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hesitancy to Talk about Race <ul><li>Most people do not know how to talk about race in constructive and transformative ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for the hesitancy include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of stigmatizing groups and creating self-fulfilling prophecies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern about reinforcing negative stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of stimulating frames that create resistance to social-justice policy and encourage inter-group conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignoring similar stresses of whites </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why We Need to Talk about Race <ul><li>To not talk about race is to talk about race. </li></ul><ul><li>Race plays a critical role in the creation and perpetuation of many social, political, and organizational structures that control the distribution of opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Race affects all aspects of our lives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we live, who our children’s friends are, what social programs we support, how we vote, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must address race to understand the history of our nation’s democracy and the future well-being of its people. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consequences of Not Talking about Race <ul><li>Racial disparities are masked </li></ul><ul><li>Misperceptions about equality are reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>Support for equitable interventions is decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity becomes less valued </li></ul><ul><li>“ Color-blindness” gains salience </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate proxies, such as class, become more visible </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of “linked fate” is weakened (we fail to see that institutional arrangements are functioning poorly for everyone) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Framing
  10. 10. Framing <ul><li>How messages are framed affects how they are perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations about race and diversity must be honed to ensure that messages are effective. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to start from the assumption that an awareness of racial disparities is fundamental to fostering race-conscious approaches to social justice policy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the first step in proactively achieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and maintaining diversity in our public institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Our Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>What do the words below say? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GQMMIINLTX DFUFIQ B MFNT </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Our Implicit Assumptions <ul><li>Are you sure it says community development? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GQMMIINLTX DFUFIQ B MFNT </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Implicit Assumptions, Frames & Race
  14. 14. Implicit Assumptions, Frames & Race <ul><li>Katrina: What we were told </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White’s were “looking for food” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black’s were “looting and stealing” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific frames often create implicit bias toward people of color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Personal responsibility frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This frame causes individuals to blame the problems facing people on personal decisions and not on forms of discrimination of unequal access to opportunity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>1) Minimize the existence of disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Things may not be entirely equal, but it’s not nearly as bad as it used to be.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The racial ‘playing field’ is level.” </li></ul></ul>Source: Bonilla-Silva (2003) Racism Without Racists & Mazzocco (May 2006) “The Dangers of Not Talking About Race.”
  16. 16. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>2) Blame culture for racial inequality rather than societal structures or white privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Blacks are lazy and lack motivation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We get what we deserve in life. If some racial groups aren’t doing as well as others, people just need to work harder.” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>3) Racial phenomena is “natural” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Racial segregation in housing is natural. After all, they prefer to live by themselves instead of interacting with us.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They’d rather be with their ‘own kind’ anyway.” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>4) Focusing on individuals and their traits, assuming that we all start from the same “position” in society </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We should all be judged as individuals based on our personal merits. No one should receive special privileges. It’s not fair.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People like Tiger Woods, George Lopez, and Oprah Winfrey are proof that anyone can be successful in America.” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Challenging These Frames <ul><li>These frames are not easy to challenge, especially those that draw upon our national values of meritocracy and individuality. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to confront all four of these frames at the same time; otherwise, people tend to just switch to a different frame rather than change their understanding of race. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Other Semantic Moves <ul><li>“ I am not racist, but….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I kind of support and oppose….” (views on affirmative action, interracial marriage, and other topics) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thinking Transformatively about Race <ul><li>Transactional vs. Transformative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action is predicated on a transactional approach. It assists individuals but does not alter the larger system of structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A transformative perspective changes the arrangement of societal structures and consequently alters relations to opportunity. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed and often clustered throughout metropolitan areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This creates “winner” and “loser” communities, or “high” and “low” opportunity communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair access to these opportunity structures is limited by various spatial arrangements and policies, such as sprawl, exclusionary zoning, and fragmentation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Connection Between Housing and Schools High Opportunity Low Opportunity
  24. 24. The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Where you are situated within this web of opportunity plays a tremendous role in your life chances and outcomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you live affects where you go to school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you attend school affects the quality of the education you receive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of your education influences your ability to attain higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of education you receive affects what job you will work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your job determines the amount of income you earn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your income affects where you live </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Understanding of Disparities Present Extreme Persisting Absent Minimal Declining Explanations for Disparities Structural Historical Abnormal Individual Cultural Normal Solutions to Disparities Color-Conscious Color-Blind OPPOSE AA SUPPORT AA Color-blind/ Color-conscious Racism
  26. 26. Ex: Affirmative Action
  27. 27. Background <ul><li>Current affirmative action bans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California: Proposition 209 (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington: Proposition I-200 (1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michigan: Proposition 2 (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States with proposed affirmative action bans anticipated for the November 2008 ballot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Role of Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses racial disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupts the cycle of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to inequalities that stem from historical injustices and present-day structural impediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures national security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a diverse and culturally competent workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates more democratic institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works toward a legitimate democracy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>“ Helps students avoid or overcome stereotypes by providing a range of experiences and viewpoints within a particular racial or ethnic group; </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cross-cultural understanding and helps students develop interpersonal skills for a multiracial world </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares students for a racially diverse workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Trains and educates a diverse group of leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to better decision making on issues affecting our multicultural society </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters diversity among civic and business leaders” </li></ul>The Benefits of Racial Diversity in Education Source: “Preserving Diversity in Higher Education: A Manual on Admissions Policies and Procedures After the University of Michigan Decisions.” Compiled by the firms of Bingham McCutcheon, Morrison & Foerster, and Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe. Equal Justice Society, 2004. <www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual>
  30. 30. Impact of the Bans <ul><li>Need to move fast to preclude the devastating consequences of similar initiatives in California, Washington, and Michigan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the passage 209 in California, African Americans at UCLA and Berkeley Law programs plummeted 80%. Latinos dropped by 50% at Berkeley, and 25% at UCLA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCLA saw the lowest levels of incoming African American freshman since 1973. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Killing Affirmative Action: Would it Really Result in a a better, more perfect union. Available online at: http://www.justicejournalism.org/images/cose/Affirm_Final_PDF.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Impact of the Bans
  32. 32. Framing Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action is complex; how it is framed impacts support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action has gained support over past 10 years. In 1995, 58% supported it. In 2003, 63% did. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, 42% felt it was unfair, and when the words ‘preferential treatment’ were used, 72% felt we should not “make every effort to improve the position of blacks.” </li></ul></ul>Source: Pew Research Center. Conflicted Views of Affirmative Action. Online: http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=184
  33. 33. Dissonance between ideas and practices <ul><li>The idea of affirmative action is gaining support, but it is losing in the electoral contests. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation gap: supporting an idea, but not the actual implementation of the idea </li></ul>Support of affirmative action programs Support for the idea of affirmative action GAP
  34. 34. The Implementation Gap <ul><li>A 1999 survey explored the racial attitudes of young Americans (ages 18 - 29) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A majority (54.5 percent) said that it was unlikely that the United States would elect a black president in the near future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast, in the 1996 General Social Survey, 93.5 percent of those under the age of 30 said that they would vote for a black presidential candidate nominated by their party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This might suggest that while young Americans express rhetorical support for a black president, they know that their own attitudes and those of other Americans make such an eventuality unlikely.” </li></ul></ul>http://www.hamilton.edu/news/polls/racesurvey/default.html
  35. 35. Implicit Bias <ul><li>Data are complex, but so are people. </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously think about race even when we do not explicitly discuss it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit thoughts can overpower our explicit positions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People have multiple networks that may be activated without our awareness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on the situation, one network becomes dominant over the others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even though we may fight them, implicit biases reside within us. </li></ul><ul><li>Often these biases are socially unacceptable or embarrassing, so we try to hide them. Nevertheless, our unconscious networks are still operating… </li></ul>
  36. 36. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cvur zxyq brrm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vhrn wwte zytn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xoc jbni oew mne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zre ytu vee mkp </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunshine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Implicit Bias <ul><li>https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is well known that people don't always 'speak their minds', and it is suspected that people don't always 'know their minds'. Understanding such divergences is important to scientific psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This web site presents a method that demonstrates the conscious-unconscious divergences much more convincingly than has been possible with previous methods. This new method is called the Implicit Association Test, or IAT for short.” </li></ul></ul>Source: Project Implicit, https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/
  42. 42. Priming <ul><li>Our environment affects our unconscious networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Priming activates mental associations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telling someone a scary story activates a frame of fear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claude Steele’s “stereotype threat”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, tell students about to take a test that Asian students tend to do better than whites, the whites will perform significantly worse than if they had not been primed to think of themselves as less capable than Asians. </li></ul></ul>http://www.eaop.ucla.edu/0405/Ed185%20-Spring05/Week_6_May9_2005.pdf
  43. 43. Next Steps Prescriptive Approaches
  44. 44. Next Steps <ul><li>The passing of amendments and initiatives that ban affirmative action sets potentially dangerous precedents for other states. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to embrace the opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act on race in transformative ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual merit  Democratic merit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This broad discussion is more challenging, but more fruitful. </li></ul>
  45. 45. A Transformative Agenda <ul><li>Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in three areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking about race: Understanding how language and messages shape reality and the perception of reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about race: Understanding how framing and priming impact information processing in both the explicit and the implicit mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking these understandings to the way that we act on race and how we arrange our institutions and policies. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Linked Fates… Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconnected (especially through the categories of class, race, gender, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need socially constructed “bridges” to transform our society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceive of an individual as connected to—instead of isolated from—“thy neighbor” </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>In talking about race, we cannot focus solely on disparities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The disparity model is limiting when talking about the racialization of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stress of poor white middle class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fear of (white) middle class that welfare programs might be disadvantageous for them (that feeling of 'what about us?') </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The poor should not be isolated from the non-poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poverty programs to serve the poor to guide them to &quot;the pathways out of the poverty&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>We need to talk about race by talking about race </li></ul><ul><li>We need to start from the assumption that an awareness of racial disparities is fundamental to fostering race conscious approaches to social justice policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To the extent that disparities are seen as absent, trivial, or declining, support for color-conscious policies will wane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness of racial disparities may not be sufficient to change attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is also necessary to foster the proper explanations for racial disparities </li></ul>
  49. 49. Change How We Talk about Race <ul><li>The final step in successful race talk must counter the perception that social justice programs that take race into account are somehow inconsistent with treasured American ideals such as egalitarianism and meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story with everyone in it </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted universalism </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about our values </li></ul>
  50. 50. Linked Fates…Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconnected, especially through the categories of class, race, gender, nationality, region… </li></ul>
  51. 51. Questions or Comments? For More Information Visit Us Online: www.KirwanInstitute.org

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