john a. powell Director, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity  Williams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Libe...
Presentation Overview <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about race transformatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Thinking & Talking About Race Transformatively
Defining Race <ul><li>As attacks on affirmative action increase, it is important to realize that how we conceptualize race...
The Role of Class <ul><li>Class is thought to be a good proxy for race.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between race an...
Hesitancy to Talk about Race <ul><li>Most people do not know how to talk about race in constructive and transformative way...
Why We Need to Talk about Race <ul><li>To not talk about race is to talk about race. </li></ul><ul><li>Race plays a critic...
Consequences of Not Talking about Race <ul><li>Racial disparities are masked </li></ul><ul><li>Misperceptions about equali...
Framing <ul><li>How messages are framed affects how they are perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations about race and div...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>1) Minimize the existence of disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: ...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>2) Blame culture for racial inequality rather than societal structure...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>3) Racial phenomena is “natural” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></u...
4 Frames Commonly Used  When Discussing Race <ul><li>4) Focusing on individuals and their traits, assuming that we all sta...
Challenging These Frames <ul><li>These frames are not easy to challenge, especially those that draw upon our national valu...
Other Semantic Moves <ul><li>“ I am not racist, but….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I kind of support and oppose….” (views on affir...
Thinking Transformatively about Race <ul><li>Transactional  vs.  Transformative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action i...
The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed and often clustered throughout ...
Connection Between  Housing and Schools High Opportunity Low Opportunity
The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Where you are situated within this web of opportunity plays a tremendous role in your life ...
Understanding of Disparities Present Extreme Persisting Absent Minimal Declining Explanations for Disparities Structural H...
Poverty
Linked Fate <ul><li>Racialized structures and policies have created the extreme correlation of race and poverty in our urb...
<ul><li>Economic Segregation and Racial Segregation in Public Schools: </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland & Akron, OH </li></ul><...
Poverty Data <ul><li>35% of the people in poverty in the U.S. are children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2004, approximately 15...
Poverty Data <ul><li>Over 3.1 million African Americans lived in Concentrated Poverty Neighborhoods in 2000, Blacks and La...
Poverty Data Jargowsky, Paul A.  &quot;Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems:  The Dramatic Decline of Concentrated Poverty i...
Poverty Data
Conditions for Change <ul><li>Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires  structural change: </li...
Conditions for Change <ul><li>Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires  adjusting the poverty l...
Plan for Action <ul><li>To alleviate poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move discourse away from individualistic framing </li>...
Affirmative Action
Background <ul><li>Current affirmative action bans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California: Proposition 209 (1996) </li></ul></u...
The Role of Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses racial disparities  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>“ Helps students avoid or overcome stereotypes by providing a range of experiences and viewpoints within a particu...
Impact of the Bans <ul><li>Need to move fast to preclude the devastating consequences of similar initiatives in California...
Impact of the Bans
Framing Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action is complex; how it is framed impacts support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Dissonance between ideas and practices <ul><li>The idea of affirmative action is gaining support, but it is losing in the ...
The Implementation Gap <ul><li>A 1999 survey explored the racial attitudes of young Americans (ages  18 - 29)  </li></ul><...
Implicit Bias <ul><li>Data are complex, but so are people. </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously think about race even when w...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky  </li></ul></ul><u...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><u...
Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green   </li></ul></ul...
Priming <ul><li>Our environment affects our unconscious networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Priming activates mental associations....
Race and Class in Higher Ed.
Admissions <ul><li>Higher education currently relies on  meritocracy , using indicators such as GPA and SAT scores to quan...
Racialization of  Standardized Measurements <ul><li>This is problematic because these measurements are racialized. </li></...
Aligning Missions and Admissions <ul><li>Instead schools should start with their goals and work backwards to achieve them....
<ul><li>The way merit is currently used is  individualistic . </li></ul><ul><li>This is problematic because cumulative dis...
<ul><li>Rather than awarding past achievements, democratic merit invests in the  democratic potential  of individuals. </l...
Aligning Missions  and Admissions <ul><li>The matter of who should get into any institution cannot be separated from the q...
<ul><li>Caution must be taken with admissions policies because many are thought to do the work of race, but fall short. </...
<ul><li>Class fails to account for the cumulative effect of factors that act as gatekeepers for people of color: </li></ul...
Summary
Next Steps <ul><li>The passing of amendments and initiatives that ban affirmative action sets potentially dangerous preced...
A Transformative Agenda <ul><li>Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in t...
Linked Fates… Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconne...
Questions or Comments?  For More Information Visit Us On-Line: www.KirwanInstitute.org
Appendix
Understanding Disparities ~ The Miner’s Canary
Causes and  Perpetuation of Disparities <ul><li>Historical factors. Discrimination through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery ...
Model for Disparate Outcomes Disparate  Outcomes Biased  Structures Disparate  Outcomes De Jure Neutral Structures What is...
<ul><li>Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defective culture </li></ul><...
Illustration of Cumulative Causation –  Higher Education <ul><li>The present paradigm of “bad apples” leads many to believ...
The Role of Housing <ul><li>At the core of these issues is housing  </li></ul><ul><li>Housing is  critical  in determining...
Racialization of Poverty <ul><li>African Americans are disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods </...
The Link between Racial & Economic Segregation  <ul><li>Strong correlation: nearly all schools with a majority of students...
But isn’t it getting better? <ul><li>Many feel that this racialization of concentrated poverty has improved in recent year...
Effect of Disparities: Contradict American Ideals   <ul><li>REPRESENTATION: Public institutions do not reflect their const...
Moving Forward:  The Impact on Higher Education
Moving Forward in the Social/Political Environment <ul><li>Although not an ideal social/political climate, this is a uniqu...
<ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act quickly to develop policies that ensure a racially diverse campus  </li></ul>...
Looking Ahead in Higher Education <ul><li>There are four primary areas for higher education to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Outreach <ul><li>To ensure a highly qualified and diverse applicant pool, higher education must increase outreach efforts ...
Recruitment <ul><li>After Initiative 200, the percentage of African Americans at the University of Washington decreased as...
Retention <ul><li>The work of creating a diverse institution does not stop with the demographic composition of the student...
 
 
 
 
Alternative Approaches Source: Created from Rose, S.J., Carnevale, A.P. (2003). Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and ...
Alternative Admissions Policies <ul><li>Cooper, K. J. (1999). Admissions models for inclusion.  Black Issues in Higher Edu...
Merit <ul><li>Baez, B. (2006). Merit and difference.  Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 996-1016. </li></ul><ul><li>Guinie...
Benefits of Diversity <ul><li>Astin, A. Diversity and multiculturalism on the campus: How are students affected?  Change ....
Talking About Race <ul><li>Center for Social Inclusion. 2005. Thinking Change: Race, Framing and the Public Conversation o...
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Equity and Access: Thinking Transformatively about Race, Opportunity, & Social Justice

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Equity and Access: Thinking Transformatively about Race, Opportunity, & Social Justice

  1. 1. john a. powell Director, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity Williams Chair in Civil Rights & Civil Liberties, Moritz College of Law Presentation at Social Justice Resource Center, University of Wyoming Monday, April 7, 2008 Equity and Access: Thinking Transformatively about Race, Opportunity, & Social Justice
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about race transformatively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking about race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 common frames </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions for change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current bans and their impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing affirmative action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation gap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit bias / unconscious networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Race, Class, and Affirmative Action in Higher Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning missions and admissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new way to measure merit </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Thinking & Talking About Race Transformatively
  4. 4. Defining Race <ul><li>As attacks on affirmative action increase, it is important to realize that how we conceptualize race is being contested. </li></ul><ul><li>Race is a scientific fiction; it is a social construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Race-based interventions are seen as unfair because race is thought of as phenotype alone. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Role of Class <ul><li>Class is thought to be a good proxy for race. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation between race and class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less controversial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class is complex and multidimensional. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to define yet must be understood to be utilized most effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The polarity is false—A class analysis cannot do the work of a race analysis alone . We need to understand the relationship between race and class to understand either one. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hesitancy to Talk about Race <ul><li>Most people do not know how to talk about race in constructive and transformative ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for the hesitancy include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of stigmatizing groups and creating self-fulfilling prophecies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern about reinforcing negative stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of stimulating frames that create resistance to social-justice policy and encourage inter-group conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignoring similar stresses of whites </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why We Need to Talk about Race <ul><li>To not talk about race is to talk about race. </li></ul><ul><li>Race plays a critical role in the creation and perpetuation of many social, political, and organizational structures that control the distribution of opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Race affects all aspects of our lives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we live, who our children’s friends are, what social programs we support, how we vote, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must address race to understand the history of our nation’s democracy and the future well-being of its people. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consequences of Not Talking about Race <ul><li>Racial disparities are masked </li></ul><ul><li>Misperceptions about equality are reinforced </li></ul><ul><li>Support for equitable interventions is decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity becomes less valued </li></ul><ul><li>“Color-blindness” gains salience </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate proxies, such as class, become more visible </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of “linked fate” is weakened (we fail to see that institutional arrangements are functioning poorly for everyone) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Framing <ul><li>How messages are framed affects how they are perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations about race and diversity must be honed to ensure that messages are effective. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to start from the assumption that an awareness of racial disparities is fundamental to fostering race-conscious approaches to social justice policy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the first step in proactively achieving and maintaining diversity in our public institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>1) Minimize the existence of disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Things may not be entirely equal, but it’s not nearly as bad as it used to be.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The racial ‘playing field’ is level.” </li></ul></ul>Source: Bonilla-Silva (2003) Racism Without Racists & Mazzocco (May 2006) “The Dangers of Not Talking About Race.”
  11. 11. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>2) Blame culture for racial inequality rather than societal structures or white privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Blacks are lazy and lack motivation.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We get what we deserve in life. If some racial groups aren’t doing as well as others, people just need to work harder.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>3) Racial phenomena is “natural” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Racial segregation in housing is natural. After all, they prefer to live by themselves instead of interacting with us.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ They’d rather be with their ‘own kind’ anyway.” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 4 Frames Commonly Used When Discussing Race <ul><li>4) Focusing on individuals and their traits, assuming that we all start from the same “position” in society </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We should all be judged as individuals based on our personal merits. No one should receive special privileges. It’s not fair.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People like Tiger Woods, George Lopez, and Oprah Winfrey are proof that anyone can be successful in America.” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Challenging These Frames <ul><li>These frames are not easy to challenge, especially those that draw upon our national values of meritocracy and individuality. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to confront all four of these frames at the same time; otherwise, people tend to just switch to a different frame rather than change their understanding of race. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other Semantic Moves <ul><li>“ I am not racist, but….” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I kind of support and oppose….” (views on affirmative action, interracial marriage, and other topics) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thinking Transformatively about Race <ul><li>Transactional vs. Transformative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action is predicated on a transactional approach. It assists individuals but does not alter the larger system of structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A transformative perspective changes the arrangement of societal structures and consequently alters relations to opportunity. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Opportunities in our society are geographically distributed and often clustered throughout metropolitan areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This creates “winner” and “loser” communities, or “high” and “low” opportunity communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair access to these opportunity structures is limited by various spatial arrangements and policies, such as sprawl, exclusionary zoning, and fragmentation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Connection Between Housing and Schools High Opportunity Low Opportunity
  19. 19. The Web of Opportunity <ul><li>Where you are situated within this web of opportunity plays a tremendous role in your life chances and outcomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you live affects where you go to school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you attend school affects the quality of the education you receive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of your education influences your ability to attain higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of education you receive affects what job you will work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your job determines the amount of income you earn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your income affects where you live </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Understanding of Disparities Present Extreme Persisting Absent Minimal Declining Explanations for Disparities Structural Historical Abnormal Individual Cultural Normal Solutions to Disparities Color-Conscious Color-Blind OPPOSE AA SUPPORT AA Color-blind/ Color-conscious Racism
  21. 21. Poverty
  22. 22. Linked Fate <ul><li>Racialized structures and policies have created the extreme correlation of race and poverty in our urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, it is assumed that those harmed or isolated by poverty are only people of color. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, these effects are far reaching and impact everyone – this is “linked fate.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites living in opportunity poor communities are also affected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty creates regional distress; this harms everyone in the region, including elites. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Economic Segregation and Racial Segregation in Public Schools: </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland & Akron, OH </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty schools (Red and Yellow) are concentrated in African American neighborhoods (Areas in Gray) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Poverty Data <ul><li>35% of the people in poverty in the U.S. are children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2004, approximately 15% of white children (under age 18) lived in poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The numbers for Blacks and Hispanics were 33% and 29%, respectively – roughly double that of whites. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty rates are highest for families headed by single women </li></ul><ul><li>13.3% of the US population living in poverty in 2006 (38.8 million people) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution by race (2006): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White (non-Hispanic): 17.9 million in poverty, 9.3% poverty rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black: 9.0 million in poverty, 25.3% poverty rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian: 1.4 million in poverty, 10.7% poverty rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latino (all Latinos): 9.3 million in poverty, 21.5% poverty rate </li></ul></ul>CDF , The State of America’s Children 2005 , page 5 (chart). & “The poverty rate for people in households headed by single women is significantly higher than the overall poverty rate.” National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan. http://www.npc.umich.edu/poverty/
  25. 25. Poverty Data <ul><li>Over 3.1 million African Americans lived in Concentrated Poverty Neighborhoods in 2000, Blacks and Latinos represent nearly 3 out of 4 residents in these neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 1 out of 10 Blacks lived in a concentrated poverty neighborhood in 1999, compared to 1 out of 100 Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Whites only make 30% of people living in high poverty neighborhoods, although they represent 55% of the total population living in poverty </li></ul>NLIHC, “Rental Costs Continue to Climb, Pricing Millions of Working Americans Out of Their Own Housing Markets.” December 12, 2006. www.nlihc.org/detail/article.cfm?article_id=3711&id=48 The National Low Income Housing Coalition reported in 2006 that “minimum wage earners are unable to afford even a one-bedroom home anywhere in the country, and 88% of renters in cities live in areas where the FMR [fair market rent] for a two-bedroom rental is not affordable even with two minimum wage jobs.”
  26. 26. Poverty Data Jargowsky, Paul A.  &quot;Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems:  The Dramatic Decline of Concentrated Poverty in the 1990s.&quot;  Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.  The Brookings Institution.  May 2003. 
  27. 27. Poverty Data
  28. 28. Conditions for Change <ul><li>Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires structural change: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions should allow for participation and dissent of individuals in a democratic society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For those in poverty, this participation is denied as they lack access to power, influence, and choice; thus, poverty is maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structures act as filters, creating cumulative barriers to opportunity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization of institutions to encourage the “emergence of differences” is one example of transformative thinking </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Conditions for Change <ul><li>Moving from a transactional to a transformational paradigm requires adjusting the poverty lens : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-define, re-think, and re-frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-define: from an “income-to-needs” ratio to “Human Development Index” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-think: unconscious vs. conscious racism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our emotional responses to poverty determine our willingness to help </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-frame: from a “welfare and charity” approach to an “opportunity for all” approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Plan for Action <ul><li>To alleviate poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move discourse away from individualistic framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight poverty’s structural causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frame poverty as the result of a structural deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on our shared connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and marginalization do not harm just the poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity isolation harms the entire community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the need for strategies that expand access to opportunities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Affirmative Action
  32. 32. Background <ul><li>Current affirmative action bans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California: Proposition 209 (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington: Proposition I-200 (1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michigan: Proposition 2 (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States with proposed affirmative action bans anticipated for the November 2008 ballot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Role of Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses racial disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupts the cycle of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to inequalities that stem from historical injustices and present-day structural impediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures national security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a diverse and culturally competent workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates more democratic institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works toward a legitimate democracy </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>“ Helps students avoid or overcome stereotypes by providing a range of experiences and viewpoints within a particular racial or ethnic group; </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cross-cultural understanding and helps students develop interpersonal skills for a multiracial world </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares students for a racially diverse workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Trains and educates a diverse group of leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to better decision making on issues affecting our multicultural society </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters diversity among civic and business leaders” </li></ul>The Benefits of Racial Diversity in Education Source: “Preserving Diversity in Higher Education: A Manual on Admissions Policies and Procedures After the University of Michigan Decisions.” Compiled by the firms of Bingham McCutcheon, Morrison & Foerster, and Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe. Equal Justice Society, 2004. <www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual>
  35. 35. Impact of the Bans <ul><li>Need to move fast to preclude the devastating consequences of similar initiatives in California, Washington, and Michigan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the passage 209 in California, African Americans at UCLA and Berkeley Law programs plummeted 80%. Latinos dropped by 50% at Berkeley, and 25% at UCLA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCLA saw the lowest levels of incoming African American freshman since 1973. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Killing Affirmative Action: Would it Really Result in a a better, more perfect union. Available online at: http://www.justicejournalism.org/images/cose/Affirm_Final_PDF.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Impact of the Bans
  37. 37. Framing Affirmative Action <ul><li>Affirmative action is complex; how it is framed impacts support. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action has gained support over past 10 years. In 1995, 58% supported it. In 2003, 63% did. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, 42% felt it was unfair, and when the words ‘preferential treatment’ were used, 72% felt we should not “make every effort to improve the position of blacks.” </li></ul></ul>Source: Pew Research Center. Conflicted Views of Affirmative Action. Online: http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=184
  38. 38. Dissonance between ideas and practices <ul><li>The idea of affirmative action is gaining support, but it is losing in the electoral contests. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation gap: supporting an idea, but not the actual implementation of the idea </li></ul>Support of affirmative action programs Support for the idea of affirmative action GAP
  39. 39. The Implementation Gap <ul><li>A 1999 survey explored the racial attitudes of young Americans (ages 18 - 29) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A majority (54.5 percent) said that it was unlikely that the United States would elect a black president in the near future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast, in the 1996 General Social Survey, 93.5 percent of those under the age of 30 said that they would vote for a black presidential candidate nominated by their party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This might suggest that while young Americans express rhetorical support for a black president, they know that their own attitudes and those of other Americans make such an eventuality unlikely .” </li></ul></ul>http://www.hamilton.edu/news/polls/racesurvey/default.html
  40. 40. Implicit Bias <ul><li>Data are complex, but so are people. </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously think about race even when we do not explicitly discuss it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit thoughts can overpower our explicit positions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People have multiple networks that may be activated without our awareness. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on the situation, one network becomes dominant over the others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even though we may fight them, implicit biases reside within us. </li></ul><ul><li>Often these biases are socially unacceptable or embarrassing, so we try to hide them. Nevertheless, our unconscious networks are still operating… </li></ul>
  41. 41. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cvur zxyq brrm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vhrn wwte zytn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xoc jbni oew mne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zre ytu vee mkp </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunshine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Our Unconscious Networks <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Priming <ul><li>Our environment affects our unconscious networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Priming activates mental associations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telling someone a scary story activates a frame of fear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claude Steele’s “stereotype threat”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, tell students about to take a test that Asian students tend to do better than whites, the whites will perform significantly worse than if they had not been primed to think of themselves as less capable than Asians. </li></ul></ul>http://www.eaop.ucla.edu/0405/Ed185%20-Spring05/Week_6_May9_2005.pdf
  47. 47. Race and Class in Higher Ed.
  48. 48. Admissions <ul><li>Higher education currently relies on meritocracy , using indicators such as GPA and SAT scores to quantify individual ability and predict potential </li></ul><ul><li>This is predominantly accepted as being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Racialization of Standardized Measurements <ul><li>This is problematic because these measurements are racialized. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPA depends on school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AP/5.0 classes are predominantly in middle-class, white schools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAT results are racially disparate - stronger predictor of family income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is also a hidden assumption that these measurements are aligned with a college’s greater goals and objectives. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Aligning Missions and Admissions <ul><li>Instead schools should start with their goals and work backwards to achieve them. </li></ul><ul><li>What constitutes a good student? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career success? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree to which their career is financially or emotionally rewarding? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether they give back to their alma mater and/or the greater community? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If merit is based on what we value, what does the way we measure merit say about our values? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we value standardized test performance, or democracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is given the most weight in admissions? Curriculum? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is individual success more important than group? Can both be achieved? </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>The way merit is currently used is individualistic . </li></ul><ul><li>This is problematic because cumulative disadvantage is based upon group identity - race. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of individualistic merit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces myth of the ‘American dream’ (hard work  success) and stigmatizes those who do not succeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalized groups do not benefit from a few members being given preference - need interventions that lift up groups collectively </li></ul></ul>Transitioning from Individualistic Merit
  52. 52. <ul><li>Rather than awarding past achievements, democratic merit invests in the democratic potential of individuals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissions practices must confer rewards to those who will create a more just, more democratic society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional: It involves the alignment of the “doing” of democracy with the creation of democratic citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive and diverse schools create bonds between individuals and the larger community that encourage democratic participation. </li></ul>Democratic Merit
  53. 53. Aligning Missions and Admissions <ul><li>The matter of who should get into any institution cannot be separated from the question of what that institution hopes to accomplish – what is its mission? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “core purpose” of the University of Texas – Austin is “to transform lives for the benefit of society.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UC-Berkeley : Among the admissions criteria, evaluators look for students who will “make a special contribution to our society and culture.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If diversity and citizenship are goals, consider alternatives to achieve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic/citizenship merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana 21st Century Scholars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward those who will give back to the community </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Caution must be taken with admissions policies because many are thought to do the work of race, but fall short. </li></ul><ul><li>When using class as a proxy, the number of students of color drops. Explanations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-income threshold set too high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous beneficiaries of affirmative action may not have been low income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty is experienced differently depending on race: low-income white students significantly outperform Black and Latino/a students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household income may not be the best measure of economic disadvantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Already reduced applicant pool </li></ul></ul>Aligning Missions and Admissions
  55. 55. <ul><li>Class fails to account for the cumulative effect of factors that act as gatekeepers for people of color: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated in high-poverty, low performing schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher drop/push out rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less willing to go into debt with school loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate/little assistance in application process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racialized admissions policies </li></ul></ul>Aligning Missions and Admissions
  56. 56. Summary
  57. 57. Next Steps <ul><li>The passing of amendments and initiatives that ban affirmative action sets potentially dangerous precedents for other states. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to embrace the opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act on race in transformative ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual merit  Democratic merit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This broad discussion is more challenging, but more fruitful. </li></ul>
  58. 58. A Transformative Agenda <ul><li>Transformative change in the racial paradigm in the U.S. requires substantive efforts in three areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking about race: Understanding how language and messages shape reality and the perception of reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about race: Understanding how framing and priming impact information processing in both the explicit and the implicit mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking these understandings to the way that we act on race and how we arrange our institutions and policies. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Linked Fates… Transformative Change <ul><li>Our fates are linked, yet our fates have been socially constructed as disconnected (especially through the categories of class, race, gender, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need socially constructed “bridges” to transform our society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceive of an individual as connected to—instead of isolated from—“thy neighbor” </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Questions or Comments? For More Information Visit Us On-Line: www.KirwanInstitute.org
  61. 61. Appendix
  62. 62. Understanding Disparities ~ The Miner’s Canary
  63. 63. Causes and Perpetuation of Disparities <ul><li>Historical factors. Discrimination through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crowe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>de jure segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redlining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Deal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present day factors. Disparities in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime & criminal justice </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Model for Disparate Outcomes Disparate Outcomes Biased Structures Disparate Outcomes De Jure Neutral Structures What is occurring here to replicate the outcomes today? Historically Today Individuals/ Culture Structures/ Opportunity Biology
  65. 65. <ul><li>Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defective culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Racism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlooks policies and </li></ul><ul><li>arrangements: “diseased tree” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative causation </li></ul></ul>Attribution of disparities
  66. 66. Illustration of Cumulative Causation – Higher Education <ul><li>The present paradigm of “bad apples” leads many to believe that higher education is equally accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>External factors that affect access to higher education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability and quality of healthcare throughout childhood, extending back to prenatal care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood effects: lead, asthma, high-stress environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood resources: libraries, community centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources available to the public school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School’s concentration of high-poverty students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These combined institutions create a web of oppression that is more than the sum of the individual parts </li></ul>
  67. 67. The Role of Housing <ul><li>At the core of these issues is housing </li></ul><ul><li>Housing is critical in determining access to opportunity </li></ul>Fiscal Policies Housing Childcare Employment Education Health Transportation Effective Participation
  68. 68. Racialization of Poverty <ul><li>African Americans are disproportionately concentrated in low-opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>The racial composition of neighborhoods determines the racial balance in schools, hence segregation </li></ul><ul><li>School segregation has been steadily increasing in the ’90s 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of all African American students attend a central city district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1 in 6 white students does </li></ul></ul>Source: 1. Determinants of Residential Location Choice: How Important Are Local Public Goods in Attracting Homeowners to Central City Locations?* Isaac Bayoh, Elena G. Irwin, Timothy Haab 2. David Rusk. Trends in School Segregation in Divided we Fail: Coming Together through Public School Choice. The Report of the Century Foundation Task Force on the Common School. 2002.
  69. 69. The Link between Racial & Economic Segregation <ul><li>Strong correlation: nearly all schools with a majority of students of color are high poverty </li></ul><ul><li>The average White student attends a school with student poverty ranging from 23-30% </li></ul><ul><li>For the average African American student, school poverty ranges from 61-78% </li></ul><ul><li>The level of concentrated poverty is associated with the quality of the school </li></ul>
  70. 70. But isn’t it getting better? <ul><li>Many feel that this racialization of concentrated poverty has improved in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960, African-American families in poverty were 3.8 times more likely to be concentrated in high-poverty neighborhoods than poor whites. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, they were 7.3 times more likely. </li></ul>Fact Sheet from the Opportunity Agenda, Housing Neighborhoods and Opportunity. www.opportunityagenda.org/site/ c.mwL5KkN0LvH/b.1433711/k.B7BA/Housing_Fact_Sheet.htm
  71. 71. Effect of Disparities: Contradict American Ideals <ul><li>REPRESENTATION: Public institutions do not reflect their constituents </li></ul><ul><li>EQUALITY: A race-based social hierarchy predominates </li></ul><ul><li>NON-DISCRIMINATION: Unresolved tensions between the public ideal (colorblindness) and reality (disparities) </li></ul><ul><li>CITIZENSHIP: Membership in society conferred unequally </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITY: Dominant ideologies in America such as open opportunity and individualism are hollow </li></ul><ul><li>FREEDOM: People in poverty cannot fully exercise their freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOCRACY: Cumulatively these represent an ILLEGITIMATE DEMOCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>These contradictions must be communicated to the public </li></ul>
  72. 72. Moving Forward: The Impact on Higher Education
  73. 73. Moving Forward in the Social/Political Environment <ul><li>Although not an ideal social/political climate, this is a unique opportunity for higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges and universities have been defending diversity for decades, but not enough has been done for race or socioeconomic bases </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks on affirmative action/diversity provide an opportunity to shift from a reactive to a proactive agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Need short, medium and long term strategies </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act quickly to develop policies that ensure a racially diverse campus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue building public support for diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet & collaborate with universities/states/stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium & Long Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ongoing research and data collection plans to understand the full effects of these bans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden and challenge the meaning of merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisit the university’s vision and mission, and ensure policies and practices are in alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakke and societal discrimination/racial justice </li></ul></ul>Short, Medium, & Long Term Strategies
  75. 75. Looking Ahead in Higher Education <ul><li>There are four primary areas for higher education to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Outreach <ul><li>To ensure a highly qualified and diverse applicant pool, higher education must increase outreach efforts to high-poverty schools and communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating or expanding mentoring/tutoring support and summer programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing support to and partnering with community organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocating for education reform and working to build a more equitable P-12 system </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Recruitment <ul><li>After Initiative 200, the percentage of African Americans at the University of Washington decreased as a result in a decline in application rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must prepare for being perceived as an unwelcoming, exclusive environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “discouragement effect” (Weirzbicki and Hirschman) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools should be proactive about emphasizing their commitment to inclusion and diversity, particularly when doing outreach to potential students. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised admissions policies could also counteract this chilling effect. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Retention <ul><li>The work of creating a diverse institution does not stop with the demographic composition of the student body. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity is a transformative goal, not solely a numerical one. </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessing the genuine benefits of diversity within and across an institution is a challenge. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers, administrators and staff must share the goal and be culturally competent. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must have the skills and knowledge to create a safe, supportive, and inclusive space. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 83. Alternative Approaches Source: Created from Rose, S.J., Carnevale, A.P. (2003). Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Selective College Admissions. Available online at: http://www.tcf.org/Publications/Education/carnevale_rose.pdf Share in the pool compared to enrollment indicates possible decrease Decreases Slightly smaller pool, little change No effect Reduces # of qualified African Americans and Hispanics RACIAL/ETHNIC DIVERSITY Supported: 63% say low-income should be admitted over comparable high-income peer Support increases over class rank alone Majority of the public supports Approx 83% disagree Widespread support PUBLIC APPROVAL 4% increase in graduation rate Decreases Class rank with minimum academic qualifications May be under-prepared Substantial Increase Class rank 4% increase in graduation rate Greatest increase. >10% increase Academically qualified, low-SES students Reduced graduation rates, lower standards Substantial increase Lottery with minimal academic qualifications 4% increase in graduation rate Increase Highest Grades, test scores, teacher recommendations and demonstrated leadership COLLEGE PERFORMANCE SES DIVERSITY APPROACH
  80. 84. Alternative Admissions Policies <ul><li>Cooper, K. J. (1999). Admissions models for inclusion. Black Issues in Higher Education, 16 (18), 34–35. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, T. (January 26, 2007). Colleges Regroup After Voters Ban Race Preferences. New York Times. </li></ul><ul><li>Moses, M.S., Marin, P. (2006). Informing the Debate on Race Conscious Education Policy. Educational Researcher 35, no.1. 3-5. </li></ul><ul><li>Rose, S.J., Carnevale, A.P. (2003). Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Selective College Admissions. Available online at: http://www.tcf.org/Publications/Education/carnevale_rose.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Schmidt, P. (November 2, 2006) Educational Testing Service Accused Of Suppressing Research On An Alternative Affirmative Action. The Chronicle of Higher Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg, R. (2005). Accomplishing the Goals of Affirmative Action With or Without Affirmative Action. Change. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education. Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/edlite-raceneutralreport.html </li></ul>
  81. 85. Merit <ul><li>Baez, B. (2006). Merit and difference. Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 996-1016. </li></ul><ul><li>Guinier, L. (2003). Admissions rituals as political acts: Guardians at the gates of our democratic ideals. Harvard Law Review, 117, 113. </li></ul><ul><li>Hendrickson, R. (2001). Rethinking affirmative action: Redefining compelling state interest and merit in admission. Peabody Journal of Education, 76 (1). </li></ul><ul><li>Simpson, E., Wendling, K. (2005). Equality and Merit: A Merit-based argument for Equity Policies in Higher Education. Educational Theory. 55(4). 385-398. </li></ul><ul><li>St. John, E. P., Simmons, A. B., & Musoba, G. D. (2002). Merit-aware admissions in public universities: Increasing diversity. Thought & Action, 17(2), 35-46. </li></ul>
  82. 86. Benefits of Diversity <ul><li>Astin, A. Diversity and multiculturalism on the campus: How are students affected? Change . v25 n2 p44-49 Mar-Apr 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Chang, M.J. & Astin, A.W. (1997). Who benefits from racial diversity in higher education? Diversity Digest , 1 (2),13,16. </li></ul><ul><li>Chang, M. J., Whitt, D., Jones, J., & Hakuta, K. (2003). Compelling interest: Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universities. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gurin, P. Y. (1998). Expert witness report of Patricia Y. Gurin, in Gratz et al. v. Bollinger et al., No. 97–75321 (E.D. Mich) . Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. </li></ul><ul><li>Gurin, P., Dey, E. L., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 (3), 330–366. </li></ul><ul><li>Moses, M.S. & Chang, M.J. (2006), Toward a deeper understanding of the diversity rationale, Educational Researcher, 35(1), January/ February, American Educational Research Association (AERA), Washington DC. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Preserving Diversity in Higher Education: A Manual on Admissions Policies and Procedures After the University of Michigan Decisions.” Compiled by the firms of Bingham McCutcheon, Morrison & Foerster, and Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe. Equal Justice Society, 2004. <www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual> </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, A. S., & Crain, R. L. (1994). Perpetuation theory and the long-term effects of school desegregation. Review of Educational Research, 64, 531–556. </li></ul><ul><li>Yun, J.T. & Kurlaender, M. (2004). School Racial Composition and Student Educational Aspirations: A Question of Equity in a Multiracial Society. Journal for Students Placed at Risk. 9( 2). 143-168. </li></ul>
  83. 87. Talking About Race <ul><li>Center for Social Inclusion. 2005. Thinking Change: Race, Framing and the Public Conversation on Diversity. What Social Science Tells Advocates About Winning Support for Racial Justice Policies. The Diversity Advancement Project. Available online: http://www.diversityadvancementproject.org/media/ThinkingChange.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kirwan Institute UPdate. Fall 2006/Winter 2007. Available online: http://www.kirwaninstitute.org/publications/newsletters/Kirwan_Update_au06wi07.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Mazzocco, P.J. (2006). The Dangers of Not Speaking about Race: A summary of research affirming the merits of a color-conscious approach to racial communication and equity. Available from the Kirwan Institute. </li></ul><ul><li>Mazzocco, P.J. & Newhart, D.W. (2006). Color-blind racism and opposition to progressive racial policy: A new scale and supportive findings . Unpublished manuscript (available upon request). </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Research Center for People and the Press. 2003. Conflicted Views of Affirmative Action. Online: http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=184 </li></ul>

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