CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT OFLEADERSHIP – FRED FIEDLER
Fiedler‟s Contingency Theory shows the relationship betweenthe leader‟s orientation or style and group performance underdiffering situational conditions. The theory is based on determining theorientation of the leader (relationship or task), the elements ofthe situation (leader-member relations, task structure, andleader position power), and the leader orientation that wasfound to be most effective as the situation changed from lowto moderate to high control. Fiedler found that task oriented leaders weremore effective in low and moderate control situations andrelationship oriented managers were more effective inmoderate control situations.
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL “This theory attempts to predict how style ofleadership, leader member relations, the power vested in theposition of leader, and the structure of the job or taskharmonize to determine the leader‟s ability to achieveproductive output”. (McKenna, 1994). According to this model , if an organizationattempts to achieve group effectiveness through leadership,then there is a need to assess the leader according to anunderlying trait, assess the situation faced by the leader, andconstruct a proper match between the two.
Fiedler’s model assumes that groupperformance depends on – Leadership style, described in terms of taskmotivation and relationship motivation. Situational favourableness , determined by threefactors:1)Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader isaccepted and supported by the group members.2)Task structure- Extent to which the task is structured anddefined, with clear goals and procedures.3) Position power - The ability of a leader to controlsubordinates through reward and punishment.
LEADER’S TRAIT In order to assess the attitudes of the leader, Fiedlerdeveloped the „least preferred co-worker‟ (LPC) scale inwhich the leaders are asked about the person with whomthey least like to work. The scale is a questionnaireconsisting of 16 items used to reflect a leader‟s underlyingdisposition toward others.
The items in the LPC scale are1. pleasant / unpleasant2.friendly / unfriendly3. rejecting / accepting4. unenthusiastic / enthusiastic5. tense / relaxed6. cold / warm7.helpful / frustrating8.cooperative / uncooperative9.supportive / hostile10.quarrelsome / harmonious11. efficient / inefficient12. gloomy / cheerful13. distant / close14.boring / interesting15.self-assured / hesitant16.open / guarded. Each item in the scale is given a single ranking of between one and eight points,with eight points indicating the most favorable rating
THANK YOU !! presented by – Kirti Choukikar 12040141020