Eliminating The Odd An Introduction to Interface Design Concepts October 26, 2009 BAWorld Vancouver Kirk Bridger McKesson ...
Learning  Points <ul><li>Describe a number of interface design concepts
Relate interface design concepts to business analysis activities
Discuss the relationship between usability requirements and interface design </li></ul>
What is an Odd Interface? Motorola Razr Clippy the Office Assistant
Session Outline <ul>Interface Design Concepts <ul><li>8 Golden Rules </li></ul>Business Analysis and Usability <ul><li>Wha...
3 Key Considerations </li></ul>Usability And UI Design <ul><li>Software Requirements
Usability Testing </li></ul></ul>
8 Golden Rules of Interface Design Strive for consistency Reduce short-term memory load Support internal locus of control ...
Strive For Consistency <ul><li>Similar situations = consistent sequences of actions
Leverage user's pre-existing knowledge
Internal consistency </li><ul><li>Terminology used throughout  product
Consistent text attributes throughout interface </li></ul><li>External consistency </li><ul><li>Across products/applicatio...
 
GIMP Image Editor Evolution Mail Client External Consistency Closing with unsaved data GThumb Image Viewer Interface desig...
Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint External Consistency Microsoft Office’s Ribbon Interface Why doesn’t e...
Enable Frequent Users to Use Shortcuts <ul><li>As frequency of use increases, users desire to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce...
Increase pace of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basically break some Golden Rules for the elite users </li></ul>2 Inte...
Examples of Shortcuts <ul><li>Winkey+D = Show Desktop
Winkey+L = Lock screen
Sticky Keys (Shift x5) </li></ul><ul><li>A ccelerators
Tab order in web forms
MS Excel's magic lasso </li></ul>Interface design concepts
Informative Feedback <ul><li>Inform user their action was received
Include feedback when something is complete
Make sure the feedback is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative
Clear
Concise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale degree of feedback based on action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency
Importance </li></ul></ul>3 Interface design concepts
Examples of Feedback <ul><li>Audible clue
Spinners
Hourglass cursor
Visible changes to interface elements </li></ul><ul><li>Progress bar </li></ul>Interface design concepts
GThumb Image Viewer GIMP Image Editor Evolution Mail Client Degree of Feedback Closing with unsaved data Interface design ...
Design  Dialogues  to Yield Closure <ul><li>Organize sequences of actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning
Middle
End </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure user knows when a “conversation” or task is at an end </li><ul><li>They feel it is compl...
Allows them to drop contingency plans
Puts them at ease </li></ul></ul>4 Interface design concepts
Examples of Closure <ul><li>Delivery Information is done </li><ul><li>Then Payment Information </li><ul><li>Then Confirmat...
Error Prevention and Handling <ul><li>Prevent errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid serious error possibilities
Opportunity to make your system look smart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handle errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, constructive...
Error Handling What Not To Do Interface design concepts
Tension Between People and Errors <ul>“ A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolp...
Focus on serious errors </li></ul></ul><ul>“ No user action should be considered an error that is beyond the ability of th...
Permit Easy Reversal of Actions <ul><li>Reduce anxiety of user via undo option
Ensure appropriate units of reversibility
Encourage exploration of interface </li><ul><li>Helps user become an expert
Provides “Wow” opportunities
“ To err is human, but to really foul things up requires a computer.”
Farmer's Almanac, 1978 </li></ul></ul>6 Interface design concepts
Example of Reversal <ul><li>Photo editing application's undo options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbnail
Action description
Instant access </li></ul></ul>Interface design concepts
Support an Internal Locus of Control <ul><li>Experienced users want to be in charge
Avoid tension and dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising system actions
Tedious data entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make users the initiators of actions rather than responders.
Allow interruptions
“ People are just as happy as they make up their minds to be.”
Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>7 Interface design concepts
Examples of Internal Locus of Control  <ul><li>Budget and Avis are going 100% smoke free!
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Eliminating the Odd

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  • Motorola Razr http://my.opera.com/usability/blog/show.dml/169470 Meant to be used in conjunction with phone Forces same interface limitations on user If buttons were sufficient on phone, wouldn&apos;t need application phones are designed for calling ppl, not interacting with phone specifics Subtle and unexpected differences in buttons Different results when inputting via same interface Some buttons are nonfunctional (no consistency) Some new buttons Unnecessary display of phone interface (no benefits) Slide-out doesn&apos;t exist on phone, but provides most of the functionality Icons are difficult to understand Large amount of screen space wasted on non-functional interface Clippy http://xenon.stanford.edu/~lswartz/paperclip/paperclip.pdf Designed for basic users, but basic users don&apos;t use software to help them Often found to be intrusive, useless, and entertainment vs. useful
  • Links for fleshing out explanations http://www.ja-sig.org/wiki/display/UPC/Usability+Heuristics Professor Shneiderman’s rules were chosen: Applicability across mediums and technology His desire to include context in design Universal usability Conducted fundamental research in field of human-computer interaction http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Shneiderman
  • Internal consistency Screen layout from one screen to another operations behave the same way External consistency From one application to another Terminology used throughout product Prompts Menus Help screens Documentation Consistent text attributes throughout interface color , Layout Capitalization fonts
  • Screenshot by Brandon Walkin http://www.brandonwalkin.com/blog/2009/08/10/managing-ui-complexity/
  • http://www.actsofvolition.com/include/savealerts/screenshots.html (2005) Bad: Button icon variety Options are different Dialogue icon different Good Order of buttons
  • http://www.usabilitypost.com/2009/04/15/8-characteristics-of-successful-user-interfaces/
  • Increase the pace of interaction Abbreviations Special keys Hidden commands Macros
  • http://www.actsofvolition.com/include/savealerts/screenshots.html (2005) GThumb No cancel No title in window Unclear what the checkbox does – just this image or for ever?
  • Disallowing input will typically conflict with giving the user the locus of control, particularly expert users http://ethics.csc.ncsu.edu/risks/safety/killer_robot/killer_news5.html Opportunity to make your system look smart Data selection rather than typing Autocomplete Disallow alphabetic characters in numeric data fields Directive text associated with date entry fields E.g. Credit card: do not enter dashes Caps lock notice when typing in hidden field
  • UI Hall of Shame (oldie but a goodie) - http:// homepage.mac.com/bradster/iarchitect/shame.htm
  • http://ethics.csc.ncsu.edu/risks/safety/killer_robot/killer_news5.html Reduces anxiety of user, as they know anything can be undone if they make a mistake. Units of reversibility could be single action, data entry, or complete group of actions
  • Avoid tension and dissatisfaction: Surprising system actions e.g. stealing focus unexpectedly Tedious data entry Inability or difficulty in obtaining necessary information Inability to produce action desired
  • http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/Usability http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/sep00.asp http://www.webword.com/moving/memory.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Magical_Number_Seven,_Plus_or_Minus_Two Human mind can typically recall 7 +/- 2 items in short term memory don’t design with this assumption (Miller’s “Magic 7” paper from 1956) recent research shows more like 2 to 4 “chunks” Focus of attention = short term memory Find the most important ideas and present those to the user Look for chunks of familiarity that leverage recognition not recall (familiarity and uniformity) (e.g. phone numbers prefix) Design to facilitate recognition rather than recall memory Begs the question – what will they recognize? Answer with mental models, metaphors Provide a means to drill down to further-nested ideas Visible options, dropdown menus, etc Take into account the ability to reduce memory load via proper training and practice
  • http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/wiki/Usability http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/sep00.asp http://www.webword.com/moving/memory.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Magical_Number_Seven,_Plus_or_Minus_Two Human mind can typically recall 7 +/- 2 items in short term memory don’t design with this assumption (Miller’s “Magic 7” paper from 1956) recent research shows more like 2 to 4 “chunks” Focus of attention = short term memory Find the most important ideas and present those to the user Look for chunks of familiarity that leverage recognition not recall (familiarity and uniformity) (e.g. phone numbers prefix) Design to facilitate recognition rather than recall memory Begs the question – what will they recognize? Answer with mental models, metaphors Provide a means to drill down to further-nested ideas Visible options, dropdown menus, etc Take into account the ability to reduce memory load via proper training and practice
  • http://www.webword.com/moving/memory.html Bad: Pagination Splitting content across multiple pages Consider cross-page recall annoying, purpose is ad revenue does not work if have to recall info from other pages Makes printing difficult Makes finding/searching/scanning difficult Possibly dilutes SEO incoming links Avoid forcing users to memorize passwords Uses a chunk up Browsers can do this unless explicitly not allowed to by site (banks etc) Search engines shift recall to recognition Link colour (blue unvisited, purple visited) – population stereotype. Purple is a memory cue. Present list of available files rather than ask them to type in the filename. Auto completion. Gallery’s add items list of recently used folders?
  • No need to recall website addresses Suggestions provide for tangential or indirect recall If searching documents, no need to recall location or title
  • Consistency does not exist between icons, both in appearance, visual style, as well as in metaphors used Colour usage may come up – the colour is not relied upon to deliver the message though. Discussed later.
  • Jacob Nielsen - http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html Usability - Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usability Usability testing – Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usability_testing UCD – Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_design
  • e) – UI Design – Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interface_design
  • Golden Rules – how many broken? Consistency Shortcuts Informative feedback Yield closure Error prevention and handling Easy reversal of actions Internal locus of control Reduce short-term memory load Also involved: The application used to display it User’s expectation for how presentation slides work and are typically presented The setting large enough to see only one screen visible at a time The nature of the interactions between the “user” and the “system” 1 slide on a screen at a time Requiring people to remember items without giving them time to memorize or advance notice The number of items was too large to remember them, and they weren&apos;t clearly different
  • Red/Green Blue/yellow Monochromacy Colour blindness Inability to differentiate specific colours Genetic basis Design impact: Do not rely on colour coding alone Maybe the world is gray Motion blindness Perception of motion as a series of frames instead of fluid motion Not genetic, caused by brain injury Design impact: Motion is a very powerful visual attractant Do not assume full motion is visible Note: slow computers can result in a similar effect
  • The colours here are not imperative to using Google The point though is that colour should not be solely relied upon as it is not a constant across all users, particularly in emergent situations. Deuteranope (red/green deficit) Tritanope (blue/yellow deficit)
  • The colour is not relied upon to deliver the message. Therefore is can be considered supplementary to the message. So essential question is about design choices.
  • What do they need or want to do? How much training is needed? Can users easily accomplish their tasks Can users recover from errors or does someone die? What and how many errors do users make when interacting with the product or product to be replaced/improved?
  • http://www.defibtech.com/products/index.html
  • What is the user&apos;s context? Supporting materials available What has to be left to the machine Interactions with other systems Criticality of use How important is it to have it work right the first time? All the time? Physical influences Portability Temperatures Environment
  • Small Arms for the 1980s – intended to be standard issue for British Armed Forces Gun designed without field tests and consideration for how and where it would be used Gun design began in 1960s, prototypes trialed in mid 70’s, production completed in 1994. Over 30 years in development and over 470 million pounds spent on design alone. Quiz: what do these people all have in common? Stationary – ammunition clip typically caught on clothing and fell out while soldier was running (e.g. during testing the full ammunition clip was only inserted once gun was at firing range) Shooting from right side of body – hot clips firing out one side of the gun made it impossible to shoot from the left shoulder Other issues: Plastic would swell in rain, jamming safety switch on/off Lubrication did not work in sandy conditions, causing jams Went off when dropped Safety catch broke when trigger pulled hard Sent back for redesign – rifles must be dependable and safe
  • Eliminating the Odd

    1. 1. Eliminating The Odd An Introduction to Interface Design Concepts October 26, 2009 BAWorld Vancouver Kirk Bridger McKesson Medical Imaging
    2. 2. Learning Points <ul><li>Describe a number of interface design concepts
    3. 3. Relate interface design concepts to business analysis activities
    4. 4. Discuss the relationship between usability requirements and interface design </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is an Odd Interface? Motorola Razr Clippy the Office Assistant
    6. 6. Session Outline <ul>Interface Design Concepts <ul><li>8 Golden Rules </li></ul>Business Analysis and Usability <ul><li>What Is Usability
    7. 7. 3 Key Considerations </li></ul>Usability And UI Design <ul><li>Software Requirements
    8. 8. Usability Testing </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 8 Golden Rules of Interface Design Strive for consistency Reduce short-term memory load Support internal locus of control Permit easy reversal of actions Offer error prevention and simple error handling Design dialogues to yield closure Offer informative feedback Enable frequent users to use shortcuts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Interface design concepts
    10. 10. Strive For Consistency <ul><li>Similar situations = consistent sequences of actions
    11. 11. Leverage user's pre-existing knowledge
    12. 12. Internal consistency </li><ul><li>Terminology used throughout product
    13. 13. Consistent text attributes throughout interface </li></ul><li>External consistency </li><ul><li>Across products/applications </li></ul></ul>1 Interface design concepts
    14. 15. GIMP Image Editor Evolution Mail Client External Consistency Closing with unsaved data GThumb Image Viewer Interface design concepts
    15. 16. Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft PowerPoint External Consistency Microsoft Office’s Ribbon Interface Why doesn’t everyone like it? Internal consistency? Interface design concepts
    16. 17. Enable Frequent Users to Use Shortcuts <ul><li>As frequency of use increases, users desire to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce number of interactions
    17. 18. Increase pace of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basically break some Golden Rules for the elite users </li></ul>2 Interface design concepts
    18. 19. Examples of Shortcuts <ul><li>Winkey+D = Show Desktop
    19. 20. Winkey+L = Lock screen
    20. 21. Sticky Keys (Shift x5) </li></ul><ul><li>A ccelerators
    21. 22. Tab order in web forms
    22. 23. MS Excel's magic lasso </li></ul>Interface design concepts
    23. 24. Informative Feedback <ul><li>Inform user their action was received
    24. 25. Include feedback when something is complete
    25. 26. Make sure the feedback is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative
    26. 27. Clear
    27. 28. Concise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale degree of feedback based on action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency
    28. 29. Importance </li></ul></ul>3 Interface design concepts
    29. 30. Examples of Feedback <ul><li>Audible clue
    30. 31. Spinners
    31. 32. Hourglass cursor
    32. 33. Visible changes to interface elements </li></ul><ul><li>Progress bar </li></ul>Interface design concepts
    33. 34. GThumb Image Viewer GIMP Image Editor Evolution Mail Client Degree of Feedback Closing with unsaved data Interface design concepts
    34. 35. Design Dialogues to Yield Closure <ul><li>Organize sequences of actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning
    35. 36. Middle
    36. 37. End </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure user knows when a “conversation” or task is at an end </li><ul><li>They feel it is complete
    37. 38. Allows them to drop contingency plans
    38. 39. Puts them at ease </li></ul></ul>4 Interface design concepts
    39. 40. Examples of Closure <ul><li>Delivery Information is done </li><ul><li>Then Payment Information </li><ul><li>Then Confirmation </li></ul></ul></ul>Interface design concepts
    40. 41. Error Prevention and Handling <ul><li>Prevent errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid serious error possibilities
    41. 42. Opportunity to make your system look smart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handle errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, constructive and specific instructions for recovery </li></ul></ul>5 Interface design concepts
    42. 43. Error Handling What Not To Do Interface design concepts
    43. 44. Tension Between People and Errors <ul>“ A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.” Douglas Adams </ul><ul><ul><li>Examine error context
    44. 45. Focus on serious errors </li></ul></ul><ul>“ No user action should be considered an error that is beyond the ability of the system to manage.” Dr. Horace Gritty </ul>Interface design concepts
    45. 46. Permit Easy Reversal of Actions <ul><li>Reduce anxiety of user via undo option
    46. 47. Ensure appropriate units of reversibility
    47. 48. Encourage exploration of interface </li><ul><li>Helps user become an expert
    48. 49. Provides “Wow” opportunities
    49. 50. “ To err is human, but to really foul things up requires a computer.”
    50. 51. Farmer's Almanac, 1978 </li></ul></ul>6 Interface design concepts
    51. 52. Example of Reversal <ul><li>Photo editing application's undo options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbnail
    52. 53. Action description
    53. 54. Instant access </li></ul></ul>Interface design concepts
    54. 55. Support an Internal Locus of Control <ul><li>Experienced users want to be in charge
    55. 56. Avoid tension and dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprising system actions
    56. 57. Tedious data entry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make users the initiators of actions rather than responders.
    57. 58. Allow interruptions
    58. 59. “ People are just as happy as they make up their minds to be.”
    59. 60. Abraham Lincoln </li></ul>7 Interface design concepts
    60. 61. Examples of Internal Locus of Control <ul><li>Budget and Avis are going 100% smoke free!
    61. 62. Feedback form online
    62. 63. Auto-fill does not behave as expected </li></ul>Error Dialogue – how can I cancel here? Interface design concepts
    63. 64. Reduce Short-term Memory Load <ul><li>Focus of attention = short term memory
    64. 65. Who's heard of the 7 +/- 2 rule? </li><ul><li>George Miller's “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”
    65. 66. Published in Psychology Review in 1956 </li></ul></ul>8 Interface design concepts
    66. 67. Back in 1956 Interface design concepts
    67. 68. Short-term Memory Load (cont) <ul><li>Users tend to “Chunk” </li><ul><li>Group related items
    68. 69. Recode information </li></ul><li>Recent research shows more like 2 – 4 “chunks”
    69. 70. Present the most important ideas to the user
    70. 71. Provide a means to drill down to further-nested ideas
    71. 72. Look for chunks of familiarity that leverage recognition not recall </li><ul><li>Familiarity
    72. 73. Uniformity </li></ul></ul>8 Interface design concepts
    73. 74. Examples of Reducing Memory Load <ul><li>Population stereotypes can be cues </li><ul><li>Link colour ( unvisited , visited ) </li></ul><li>Think twice about passwords </li><ul><li>Uses a chunk up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pagination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can make long articles easier to digest, reference
    74. 75. Consider cross-page recall
    75. 76. Makes finding, searching, scanning difficult
    76. 77. Hard to print or save </li></ul></ul>Interface design concepts
    77. 78. A Very Powerful Recognition Tool Interface design concepts
    78. 79. Golden Rule Caveats <ul><li>Schneiderman's 8 Golden Rules are widely-used
    79. 80. This is merely an introduction </li><ul><li>Broadly applicable
    80. 81. Fairly intuitive
    81. 82. Memorable </li></ul><li>Other “rules” and “lists” exist </li></ul>Interface design concepts
    82. 83. Session Outline <ul>Interface Design Concepts <ul><li>8 Golden Rules </li></ul>Business Analysis and Usability <ul><li>What Is Usability
    83. 84. 3 Key Considerations </li></ul></ul>Usability And UI Design <ul><ul><li>Software Requirements
    84. 85. Usability Testing </li></ul></ul>
    85. 86. <ul>How do we apply the design rules we've chosen to adhere to or use? </ul>Business Analysis And Usability Business Analysis Usability Analysis B.A. & Usability
    86. 87. Usability A Hot Topic <ul>Do you “Do It”? </ul>B.A. & Usability
    87. 88. Pop Quiz Are any Golden Rules broken here? B.A. & Usability
    88. 89. What Is Usability? It depends <ul><li>Who’s asking?
    89. 90. Who’s answering?
    90. 91. My usability is not your usability
    91. 92. Let’s define it for this session </li></ul>B.A. & Usability
    92. 93. Usability Is … <ul><li>A quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use.
    93. 94. The study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance.
    94. 95. A technique used to evaluate a product by testing it on users.
    95. 96. A design philosophy rooted in the idea that users must take center-stage in the design of any computer system. </li></ul>B.A. & Usability
    96. 97. Usability Is … (cont) <ul><li>A technique meant to make the user's interaction as simple and efficient as possible.
    97. 98. 1) and 5)
    98. 99. All of the above, excluding 4) </li></ul>B.A. & Usability
    99. 100. Was That Poll Usable? <ul><li>Not just the screen layout, widgets, font size, colours,etc
    100. 101. Also involved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application used to display it
    101. 102. Context of use
    102. 103. Nature of the interactions between the “user” and the “system”
    103. 104. Number of items
    104. 105. Complexity of each item
    105. 106. Item descriptions are difficult to differentiate </li></ul></ul>B.A. & Usability
    106. 107. Reflection <ul><li>Usability is not (just) about widgets on the screen
    107. 108. Usability incorporates the user, their environment, other tools and systems, workflow, and their goals/tasks. </li></ul>B.A. & Usability
    108. 109. Usability Our Definition The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. ISO 9241-11 B.A. & Usability
    109. 110. <ul><li>Business Analysis typically incorporates elements of Usability Analysis
    110. 111. Usability Analysis should focus on 3 general considerations </li><ul><li>Users
    111. 112. Tasks
    112. 113. Context </li></ul></ul>Business Analysis And Usability B.A. & Usability
    113. 114. Understand Your Users <ul><li>Who are the users? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General background
    114. 115. What do they know? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can they realistically learn?
    115. 116. Cognitive approach considerations
    116. 117. Physical ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul>B.A. & Usability - Users
    117. 118. Examples of Accessibility <ul><li>Colour blindness </li><ul><li>Inability to differentiate specific colours
    118. 119. Genetic basis
    119. 120. Design impact </li><ul><li>Do not rely on colour coding alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Motion blindness </li><ul><li>Motion perceived as a series of frames
    120. 121. Caused by brain injury
    121. 122. Design impact </li><ul><li>Do not assume motion is visible </li></ul><li>Note: slow computers can result in a similar effect </li></ul></ul>B.A. & Usability - Users
    122. 123. Beware of Colour Assumptions A ubiq uit ous logo Which letter(s) is/are red? Which letter(s) is/are green? Red/green deficit Blue/yellow deficit B.A. & Usability - Users
    123. 124. Pop Quiz Are there problems with these colours? B.A. & Usability - Users
    124. 125. Capturing User Information <ul><li>“ If” is more important than “How” </li><ul><li>Personas
    125. 126. Actor definitions
    126. 127. User definitions
    127. 128. Demographic summaries
    128. 129. ... </li></ul></ul>B.A. & Usability - Users
    129. 130. Usability Our Definition The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. ISO 9241-11 B.A. & Usability
    130. 131. Understand The Tasks <ul><li>What do they need or want to do? </li><ul><li>Not a simple question </li></ul><li>How much training is needed?
    131. 132. Can users easily accomplish their tasks?
    132. 133. Can users recover from errors?
    133. 134. What and how many errors do users make? </li></ul>B.A. & Usability - Tasks
    134. 135. Example of Tasks Cardiac defibrillator <ul><li>Layman user
    135. 136. No training
    136. 137. Error recovery
    137. 138. Emergency situation </li></ul>B.A. & Usability - Tasks
    138. 139. Usability Our Definition The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficien cy and satisfaction in a specified context of use . ISO 9241-11 B.A. & Usability
    139. 140. Understand The Context <ul><li>What is the user's context?
    140. 141. Supporting materials available
    141. 142. What has to be left to the machine
    142. 143. Criticality of use
    143. 144. Physical influences </li></ul>B.A. & Usability - Context
    144. 145. Example of Context SA80 Rifle B.A. & Usability - Context
    145. 146. Well-Designed Interfaces <ul><li>Reflect the user's </li><ul><li>Capabilities
    146. 147. Needs
    147. 148. Tasks </li></ul><li>Incorporate any physical constraints imposed by hardware and context of use
    148. 149. Achieve the business objectives of the system for which it is designed </li></ul>Design with Usability in mind B.A. & Usability
    149. 150. Session Outline <ul>Interface Design Concepts <ul><li>8 Golden Rules </li></ul>Business Analysis and Usability <ul><li>What Is Usability
    150. 151. 3 Key Considerations </li></ul>Usability And UI Design <ul><li>Software Requirements
    151. 152. Usability Testing </li></ul></ul>
    152. 153. Usability And Software Requirements <ul><li>Can usability be captured in software requirements? </li><ul><li>Business requirements seem too high level
    153. 154. User requirements seem too esoteric </li></ul><li>What about software/system requirements? </li></ul>User Interface Design! Usability & UI Design
    154. 155. Interface Design And Usability <ul><li>Embed usability analysis/knowledge into every aspect of your system design </li><ul><li>Prototyping
    155. 156. Wireframes
    156. 157. UI Specs & Rationale
    157. 158. Information architecture
    158. 159. Layout, templates
    159. 160. Impact assessments of change requests
    160. 161. Etc </li></ul></ul>Usability & UI Design
    161. 162. Usability Testing <ul><li>UI Design can be tested </li><ul><li>Prototypes
    162. 163. Formal and informal usability testing </li></ul><li>Usability Analysis feeds these activities </li><ul><li>User selection
    163. 164. Test goals
    164. 165. Success criteria
    165. 166. Determine areas of focus </li></ul></ul>Usability & UI Design
    166. 167. Don’t Design In The Dark <ul><li>Business analysis -> usability information
    167. 168. Usability information -> software specifications
    168. 169. Usability information -> usability testing </li><ul><li>Q: How do you create a successful design without usability information? </li></ul><ul><li>A: You don't, or you end up with something a little “Odd” </li></ul></ul>Usability & UI Design
    169. 170. Learning Points <ul><li>Describe a number of interface design concepts
    170. 171. Relate interface design concepts to business analysis activities
    171. 172. Discuss the relationship between usability requirements and interface design </li></ul>
    172. 173. Speaker Tool Handout <ul>User Experience Honeycomb ( Peter Morville ) </ul>Design and User Experience Approach Links <ul><li>Design @ IBM
    173. 174. User Experience Design at Google
    174. 175. Microsoft User Experience Interaction Guidelines
    175. 176. Apple Human Interface Guidelines
    176. 177. Gnome Human Interface Guidelines
    177. 178. KDE Development Guidelines
    178. 179. Jacob Nielsen's Ten Usability Heuristics </li></ul>
    179. 180. Conclusions <ul><li>Design Concepts exist and are useful in Business Analysis
    180. 181. Business analysis typically involves Usability analysis
    181. 182. Usability analysis results are an important part of your interface design </li></ul>
    182. 183. Thank You & Questions OK/Cancel - “Cultural Sensibilities”
    183. 184. Resources <ul><li>VisCheck - Colour Blindness Website Filter </li></ul>

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