A collection of individuals, the
members accept a common task,
become interdependent in their
performance, and interact with
one another to promote its
Harold H. Kelley
Normative views describes how a
group is to be organized and how its
activities are to be carried out.
Group dynamics consists of a set of
Regarding internal nature of groups.
Theory of Propinquity – People associate
with one another due to geographical
Balance Theory – People who have similar
attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend
to form a group.
Exchange Theory – The reward-cost
outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for
These groups are formed by the organization
to carry out specific tasks.
It includes two types – command group and
Represented in the organization chart.
Permanent in nature.
Members report to common supervisors.
Functional reporting relationship exists.
Formed to carry out specific tasks.
Temporary in nature
Informal groups are formed by the employees
themselves.Hence they are not formally
They are two types:
Only a few members.
Face-to-face interaction and
better communication is
Members is very high.
Personal interaction is not
It is made up of members who have similar
and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship
towards each other.
They share same values and beliefs, but
because of the size of the group, they do not
interact often with each other
They are created by members for a specific
purposed and do not have a formal structure.
They are the groups to which individual
It is actually the groups to which an
individual would like to belong.
The five-Stage Model:
Completion, ending or evolution
Achieving the purpose
Agreeing purpose and conduct
Initial meeting together
Temporary groups go
between inertia and
Sequence of actions:
1. Setting group direction
2. First phase of inertia
3. Half-way point transition
4. Major changes
5. Second phase of inertia
6. Accelerated activity
It helps shape the behavior of its
members, predict the behavior and
guide the performance of the group as
Set of behavior pattern which an
individual occupying a certain position in
society is expected to display.
Dimensions of role are:
Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group
that are shared by the group’s members.
Norms pertaining to performance related process
Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements
Norms that regulate the allocation of resources
Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best
elements of both small and large groups.
The tendency for individuals to expend
less effort when working collectively than
when working individually.
Most group activities require a
variety of skills and knowledge.
Research studies show that
heterogeneous groups are likely
to perform more effectively.
The processes that go on within a work
group e.g. communication patterns, group
decision processes, leader behaviour, power
dynamics, conflict interactions etc.
Prevent organizational changes
Increased scope for rumor
Pressure to conform to group norms