Types of business reports


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  • So far we have seen two broad categories of reports that Are …. Informational Reports. They present data but does not analyze that data or makes any conclusions. Analytical reports not only provides data but also analyze’s that data and draw conclusions. I would be presenting on Yardstick and research reports
  • Think for a while about the term yardstick Yardstick >> is a stick that is about 3 feet long. It is basically a measuring tool that is used in making measurements or comparision. Same is the case here with yard stcik reports Look at the picture When ever we measure some thing we have to use a standard unit This unit becomes the criteria of measeurement.
  • Used by higher level management in order to compare, measure different alternative solutions
  • Lets Take a look at the definition of yardstick reports. A yardstick report is a type of report that Discusses a problem statement Provide one or more alternate solutions to the problem Each of the alternative solution is measured or weighed against the criteria. Writer then provides conclusions and make recommendations. What diffrentiates yardstick reports from other reports is the The Consistency that it provides in comparing various alternative Solutions.
  • Assume your company decides to buy an equipment from a manufacturer you have to compare or evaluate different manufactures. One critera of comparison might be the cost of equipment that is provide by different manufacuters
  • A typical Format of Yardstick report is given below. Report starts with the introduction This sections describes the purpose of report and provides an overview of the organization of report. Discuss the problem briefly with a little background information. This section discusses the multiple solutions and alternates that are available. Writer then tells how he has established different criteria's that he is using to evaluate alternatives. This is the main part of yard stick report where writer performs the comparison between each of the Solution and alternatives In this section the writer highlights the differences or similarities between the solutions we can use tabular format to summarize complex data Writer then provide the conclusion and gives his recommendation with an obvious reason .
  • Are used by different business organizations in order to conduct a thorough studies of a particular problem. They uses a scientific approach to solve a particular problem
  • Research reports discusses a problem statement or purpose statement Suggest ways on how to solve that problem. Present data that has been collected during the research leading to conclusions. Analyze that data Draw conclusions and make recommendations.
  • They guide the reader through out the report so that the conclusions seems rational to the reader.
  • Types of business reports

    1. 1. Typical Business Reports
    2. 2. <ul><li>Business Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter – 13 </li></ul><ul><li>“ TYPICAL BUSINESS REPORTS” </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Why we are here: </li></ul><ul><li>It attempts to provide a moral justification, rationale or even establish clear rules as to “What is the Purpose of Writing a Business Report and how we give you more ideas & comprehensive business report compiling. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of the </li></ul><ul><li>Business Report </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Audience : When writing the report, you need to consider the audience you are writing for, whether it is the CEO or will the report be available to all staff concerned? </li></ul><ul><li>Research : The true value of the research may be assessed through a report since the written report may be the &quot;only tangible product of hundreds of hours of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Compiling: Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues. </li></ul>Audience Research Compiling Basic Strategies
    5. 5. Brilliant report, Kimble. I can’t tell where the facts end and the fiction begins.”                             &quot; A Report Judges An Organization &quot;   “ Good report Morton, work on it a little more until it sounds like one of mine.” ” Nice work on this report, Carlton. With this information we can easily lay-off fifty percent of our employees. Unfortunately you’ll be the first to go.”
    6. 6. <ul><li>Writing Informational Report </li></ul><ul><li>Informational report is to provide required data/information to wish to know about the things in a specific and complete form. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the seriousness, they may have to be discussed later on.. Once you have this list, it will be easy for you to contact someone to clarify any information. </li></ul>Informational Report
    7. 7. Methodology 1- Analyze Topic 2- Brainstorm 3- Plan 4- Construct Rough Plan 5 - Research 6 - Revise 7- Start Sorting 8 - Make Draft & Proofread Submit your Work Informational Report
    8. 8. <ul><li>Gather and Complete Report </li></ul><ul><li>Reports can cover a wide range of topics, but usually focus on transmitting information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. Good reports are documents that are accurate, objective and complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Such reports are prepared for information purposes only and do NOT include Institute recommendations on the course of action or the preferred application of the data contained therein. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of reports are Informational Reports when the management wish to know about the new company, products, operations, new policies or starting a business for mutual benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Business Informational Report </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Business Information Report to give you the insight you need to evaluate a firm’s operations, profitability, and stability. Also use it to evaluate the experience of the business and business background of its principals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Business Information Report includes valuable information that can help you make better business decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Report is packed with information, analysis, and interpretations to enhance your decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Information includes payment records, public, filings, financial information, banking commentary, business background of principals and a description of the firm’s operation. </li></ul>Informational Report
    9. 9. Informational Report Trade / Market Summary Operation Production Analysis Finance Evaluate Comprehensive to transmit Information Special Events
    10. 10. Situational Periodic Progress & Interim Convention & Conference Types of Reports Investigative Compliance Analytical Justification & Recommendation Feasibility Yardstick Typical Business Reports (Chapter # 13)
    11. 11. <ul><li>Periodic Report </li></ul><ul><li>This section is traditionally allocated the most marks, so it is well worth your investment in time to do it thoroughly. The Periodic report is to help the Management to make their policies, procedures, operation, products according to the consumer requirement and by this report management can decide how to develop their organization for more mutual benefits. </li></ul>
    12. 12. How it is Enhancing Using Periodic Report’s will help you <ul><li>Make daily credit </li></ul><ul><li>decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Limit your risk </li></ul><ul><li>exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the </li></ul><ul><li>stability of new or </li></ul><ul><li>existing customers </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for sales calls </li></ul><ul><li>Find out about </li></ul><ul><li>changes that can </li></ul><ul><li>impact credit </li></ul><ul><li>relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate potential </li></ul><ul><li>vendors and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Check the background of </li></ul><ul><li>new clients </li></ul><ul><li>Identify corporate </li></ul><ul><li>relationships and potential </li></ul><ul><li>conflicts of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Provide business details </li></ul><ul><li>for research needs </li></ul>
    13. 13. Significance Statement of Management Arrangement Statement of Integrity Factors affecting the Co. Property Monitoring Main conclusion re values Conclusions Periodic Reports – Typical Elements
    14. 14. Subject Value Factors affecting products values Management Actions Possible Periodic Report Format - matrix Due date & comments Lead agency (& others involved) Priority & scale Monitoring Criteria for Organisation listing
    15. 15. Specimen Reports Take a Momentary Look Periodic Report Informational Report
    16. 16. Situational Reports <ul><li>Reports that are targeted to nonrecurring situations .i.e. unlike periodic reports, situations that don’t have a definite pattern of occurrence. e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Convention & Conference reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reports </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Situational Reports <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Written like Memos </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Follow an informal tone </li></ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><li>Usually Short. Could vary on authorizer expectation </li></ul>
    18. 18. Situational Reports <ul><li>Trip, Convention & Conference </li></ul><ul><li>reports </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted by employees when they return from a business trip, convention or a conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep organizations informed how well their money was spent. </li></ul><ul><li>Also inform management about new procedures, equipment and laws and supply information affecting products operations and service. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Situational Reports <ul><li>Format of Trip, Convention & Conference reports </li></ul><ul><li>Begin With </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the event , mention the topics to be discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Three to five important points, carefully selected. </li></ul><ul><li>Expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Include your expenses on a separate sheet on request. </li></ul><ul><li>End With </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of appreciation, synthesizing value of the event. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Situational Reports <ul><li>Example : Trip, Convention & Conference reports </li></ul><ul><li>Training Conference on Employment Interviewing </li></ul>
    21. 21. Situational Reports <ul><li>Things to be kept in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>There could be lots and lots of information. You should be selective. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using chronological order (First X happened then Y), organizing by importance is a good idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Select topics, the reader might be most interested in. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Situational Reports <ul><li>Explain continuing projects, including work completed, work in progress, future activities, and completion date . </li></ul><ul><li>Describes the projects status and progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps the management informed whether the project is going in the right direction. </li></ul>Progress and Interim reports
    23. 23. Situational Reports <ul><li>Format of Progress reports </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with </li></ul><ul><li> Purpose & nature of project. </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide background information if audience require. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the work completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current progress of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems and possible remedies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End With </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of future activities and completion date. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Situational Reports <ul><li>Example : Progress reports </li></ul><ul><li>Progress on research on location for a telefilm scene </li></ul>
    25. 25. Situational Reports <ul><li>Things to be kept in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the audience in mind. E.g. Include background information for your director as he/she might not tend to remember the project specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hesitate to include the problems faced in the project. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Investigative Reports <ul><li>Investigative reports are generally assigned reports which focus on examining a situation or problem . e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on doing business with and Australian company. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Investigative Reports <ul><li>Format of Investigative Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with </li></ul><ul><li> Introducing the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts, findings, discussion etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End With </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul>
    28. 28. Compliance Reports <ul><li>Compliance Reports present data in compliance with local, state and federal laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulating agencies require organizations to submit reports verifying compliance with laws </li></ul><ul><li>Usually answer the questions to how much profit, the organization earned and the taxes owed. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Compliance Reports <ul><li>Format of compliance reports </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview of major sections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Content. Data, figures etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End With </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of report objective </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Compliance Reports <ul><li>Example : Compliance reports </li></ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Trucking Company Safety Compliance Report </li></ul>
    31. 31. Compliance Reports <ul><li>Things to be kept in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Correctness of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of data. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Analytical Reports
    33. 33. <ul><li>Major components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul>Writing Analytical Reports
    34. 34. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Introduction <ul><ul><li>Explain why the report is being written. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview the report’s organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the conclusions and recommendations ( for receptive audiences) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Findings <ul><ul><li>Discuss the pros and cons of each alternative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish criteria to evaluate alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the findings with evidence(: facts, statistics, expert opinion, survey data, and other proof) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use headings, enumerations, lists, tables, and graphics to focus attention. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Conclusion <ul><ul><li>Develop reasonable conclusion that answer the research question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justify the conclusion with highlights from the finding </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Writing Analytical Reports (contd..) Recommendations <ul><ul><li>Make recommendations, if asked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use action verbs. Explain needed action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must based on the findings </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><ul><li>Justification/recommendation reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yardstick reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research reports </li></ul></ul>Typical Business Analytical Reports
    39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make recommendations to management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide data to solve problems and make decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buying equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing a procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring an employee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem/Need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion (pros & cons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Justification Report </li></ul></ul></ul>Justification/Recommendation Reports
    40. 40. <ul><li>Indirect Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul>Justification/Recommendation Reports (contd..) Organizing Report Data
    41. 41. <ul><li>Direct approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive/Open-minded audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsensitive Topic (e.g. justifying a purchase) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeptical/Hostile audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive Topic (e.g. justifying ways for employees to quit smoking) </li></ul></ul>Justification/Recommendation Reports (contd..) Choosing Approach
    42. 42. <ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze problems and predict whether alternatives will be practical or advisable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help in decision making (among alternatives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should we move to another part of the country? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should we rent, lease or buy? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the best location for our company? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time frame for implementing the solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Feasibility Report </li></ul></ul></ul>Feasibility Reports
    43. 43. <ul><li>Informational Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative and compliance Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justification/Recommendation Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yardstick Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Reports </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Yardstick Reports
    45. 45. Yardstick Reports <ul><li>The term &quot;yardstick&quot; is used in reference to anything which serves as a test or standard of measurement, comparison or judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of Yardstick Reports. </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Yardstick reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish criteria's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of different manufactures for buying a piece of equipment </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Format of Yardstick Reports <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purpose & overview. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>background. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions & Alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Established criteria's </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Table or grid . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion & Recommendations </li></ul>
    49. 49. Sample Yardstick Report <ul><li>A popular cellular network company </li></ul><ul><li>(Mobilink) is planning to open their new franchise at the NWFP Province of Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample Report </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Research Studies </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Research Studies Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations (optional) </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Research Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Follows Indirect Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts with Problem discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore possible solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason for selecting a particular solution </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>Format of Research Studies Report </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sources & Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results of Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>Sources and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, journals etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>Results of Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize colleted data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Example of Research Report </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample Report </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative and compliance Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justification/Recommendation Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yardstick Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Reports </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><ul><li>Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication :Process and Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.glan-hafren.ac.uk/LearnCent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.homepages.wmich.edu/rpttypes </li></ul></ul>References
    60. 60. Thank You ! Thank you very much for your kind consideration