This evaluation also plays a part in career development,as it serves as a process of obtaining, analyzing, and recoding information about the worth of an employee to theorganization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employees personal strength and weaknesses, its achievements in terms of successful projects and no of failed projects, it also helps the manager determine the employees prospect for promotion and the need for employees training and development (Archer North & Associatiates:1998). It has the following benefits:1. Feedback:Performance appraisals helps in providingfeedback to its employees regarding their performances on yearly or interim basis. This leads to increased productivity , reduced errors and waste, improved quality as well as high levels of employee motivation, commitment and a sense of ownership.2. Goal Setting: Another key benefit of performance appraisal is goal setting. Appraisal sessions tend to provide the potential employees of the organization, a chance to sit and discuss their goals and objectives. Employees not only comes to term with their personal goals this way but also get motivated to align their personal goals with that of the organization. Its helps both the management and the employee to set achievable targets, and as the employees are involved in deciding their own targets they are tend to be more motivated. 3. Career Management:Appraisal sessions in an organization are also a means of providing the employees a chance to discover the importance of training and development within their particular field of expertise. Hence opening doors to progress and better opportunities for them.4.Objective Assessment: This simply states that the measures taken in order to conduct performance appraisals of employees are uniform throughout the organization. Thus eliminating any likely chances of biasness and serving as a fair and valid basis for rewarding an individual’s performances.5. Legal Protection:One of the most crucial benefits of following a standardized means of performance appraisal system is to avoid any lawsuits for discrimination and wrongful termination. Hence organizations tend to follow a standardized means of performance appraisal system in order to legally protect itself from any legal issues that may arise in the future.6. Improved Performance: appraisal systems have the capability to influence employee behavior which leads to improved organizational performance. As it helps the employee and management identify their current level of performance they identify the areas of improvement and it helps the employees identify their true potential (Terrence H. Murphy:2004).
Planning: this is key to effective appraisal. it is important that the person concerned for appraisal should well plan it, that is appraisal meetings should be planned at least a few weeks before the actual appraisal.Documentation: all pre appraisal documentations should reach employees weeks before the appraisal with clear instructions and also a draft of agenda must be included.Review of past appraisals: this is very important, as it will help the employee and the manager identify the employees current performance with its previous performance, it will help to determine weather the productivity has improved or not and which areas still needs improvements.Work Standards: it is important to identify the work standards, that is what level of productivity is required by the employees. A benchmark must be there.Communicating the system: if an appraisal system is well communicated to employees it will motivate them, also in the development of the appraisal system the employees must be involved their commitment is important (Antonioni David).
Post appraisal meetings: after conducting the appraisal it is important to meet the employee regarding the performance and set the new targets and identify the areas of improvements where training is required (Olson, Richard F :1991).Communicating performance: the appraisal should be verbally provided to the employee, as it will help an employee to question any areas of confusion. This will also help in increase the level of motivation.Planning: manager and employee must plan after the appraisal on how to improve performance and increase the level of productivity.Setting new targets: new goals must be set after analyzing the performance of the employee and identifying the employees potential. Targets should be achievable and realistic. Un achievable targets will lead to de motivation of employees.
IF the employees will know their level of productivity is low then this feedback can lead to dissatisfaction and employees may feel that no matter how hard they try they wont be able to make their supervisors happy. Which can then lower their morale and make them feel incompetent. In some organizations the supervisors can be biased when appraising the performance and may at times give the feedback in a negative way to the employees (Edwards, Mark. R., and Ann J. Ewen:1996).
Working together with the employees on career development is an integral part of strategic human resource management as it will not only help the organization align its goals with the employees goals, but will also provide input for the entire range of HRM activities. And for employees it will provide feedback which is essential to good performance (Hammer, Leslie B., and Karen M. Barbera:1997).
Change is the key element for the organizations today as they are operating in the dynamic environment. Effective teams helps an organization to adapt to such changes that the environment requires. When people are working together it not only improves the quality of work but it also keeps them motivated. They serve to be an asset to the organization as it provides opportunities for continuous improvement.If teams are effectively managed they help in identifying various issues related to low productivity and also helps in solving those problems.
Management By Objective is a good strategy to assess team performance as it is one of the most effective tools in evaluating performance. It is a strategic system that begins with setting organizational goals. This tool is concerned with the accomplishment of goals not how it will be accomplishes. That is the end result matters rather than the process (Koziel, Mark J :2000).
Employees prefer being evaluated on individual basis. as in teams their individual efforts are not much appreciated and recognized, which leads to de motivation and employees loose their confidence as their individual efforts are not recognized and the whole team gets credit for the work done (Olson, Richard F :1991). Those people in teams who don’t work much also get the credit and reward for completion of the task. However individual performance evaluation is more accurate and everyone is rated on the basis of their own performance and level of productivity. And those who have performed well they only get the credits and rewards for it which increases their level of motivation and eventually their level of productivity increases (Myers, Joel:2001).
Organizations typically establish replacement charts showing key positions with a number of possible replacements listed for each, however if organizations develop a pool of talent that is ready and able to fill higher position as required, this approach should be competency based (Alan Nankervis : 1992). Individuals should have the right to self nominate and be considered for development along with any nominees of senior management. it is a process of ensuring availability of competent employees to take over a higher position so that the business keeps on running smoothly . It requires a good understanding of the challenges that a company might face in the future and the Knowledge, skills and abilities required to overcome those challenges (Heidrick & Struggles:2010).
It is an important factor when organization use succession planning to determine whether the suitable employee will be from within the organization or will be newly hired. Both the options will have their own benefits and drawbacks, but the risks involved with hirering someone from outside will be higher as that employee will not be aware of the culture of the organization and might be difficult for him to adapt and adjust to the environment, however an employee from within will have no such issues (Miles, Stephen A. & Bennett, Nathan :2001)Rotation in different departments, cross training are important for development of employees for succession planning. Mentoring is another factor which helps. A good succession planning involves periodic evaluation of its effectiveness and making necessary changes to the resources applies.It is important to keep the competent employee ready for the need as and when required by the organization. The employee should be ready in terms of skills and competencies to take over the higher position.
The purpose of succession planning is to identify employees at different level that has the capacity to learn new skills and has the potential to excel in higher positions. That is identifying key employees that will have an impact on the stability and productivity.Developing an exit strategy would help in minimizing the risks involved when an existing employee at the higher position leaves or retires under any circumstances.Key KSA should be identified as it will help in developing the potential candidate.It is important to continue the training and development of the employee until they have eventually taken over the position (Michele McDonough :2011).Adoption of succession planning best practices can help companies implement an effective succession planning strategy to avoid any critical lapses.
Management- HR 13<br />
Performance Appraisal Systems- defined<br />Performance appraisal system is a method <br />by which an employees job performance <br />is evaluated in terms of quality, quantity, <br />cost and time, this is usually conducted by <br />a manager or supervisor. This system has the following benefits; Feedback, Goal Setting, Career Management, Objective Assessment, Legal Protection and Improved Performance (Terrence H. Murphy:2004). <br />
Pre-Appraisal Activities and their benefits<br />Planning.<br />Documentation.<br />Review of past appraisals.<br />Work standards.<br />Communicating the system.<br />
Post-Appraisal Activities and their benefits<br />Post appraisal Meeting.<br />Communicating Performance.<br />Planning.<br />Setting new targets.<br />
Feedbacks<br /><ul><li>Feedback on the employee appraisal </li></ul>can lead to dissatisfaction in them. <br /><ul><li>It can lower the morale of employees.
The employees can reject the appraisal criteria.
Performance judgment can be biased.</li></li></ul><li>Benefit of working with employees <br />It is important for companies to work with employees on career development, because it will help the organization to align the goals of individual workers and the overall goals of the organization. <br />
Team Performance<br /><ul><li>Teams initiate change
Effective teams serves as an asset to the organization.
It can identify problems and solve it.</li></li></ul><li>Strategy to assess team performance<br />Management By Objective<br />
Difference Between evaluating Team Performance and Individual Performance<br />Employees prefer being evaluated on individual basis.<br />Employees loose confidence.<br />Individual efforts are not recognized.<br />Free riders in teams take advantage as they also get the reward of completing the task.<br />Individual performance is more accurate.<br />Employee is rated on the basis of their own performance and level of productivity.<br />They alone get the credit for the work done.<br />
Adopting Succession Planning<br />Succession planning refers to creating logical management progression.<br />Forecasting future employee need.<br />Ensuring availability of competent people to take over a higher position.<br />It decreases the instability in the organization.<br />
How succession planning can be used<br />The choice of candidate.<br />Development<br />Timings<br />
Succession Planning Process<br />Identify Key positions.<br />Develop an exit strategy.<br />Develop a list of KSA required.<br />Identify two employees that have shown success.<br />Determine if the employees would like to participate in succession planning.<br />Schedule time for succession planning development.<br />Identify specific development and training opportunities. <br />
Conclusion<br />This presentation covered the following objectives:<br /><ul><li>What is a Performance Appraisal System
Steps in delivering a performance appraisal for optimal value.
Benefits of working with employees to further their career goals.</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations<br /><ul><li>A strong evaluation system must be incorporated in the organization for performance appraisals.
Proper positive feedback must be given to employees in order to improve their productivity.
Rewards and Promotions should be based on performance.
Organization should work towards employees career development.
Effective teams must be formed and their performance must be evaluated effectively.
Proper Succession planning is crucial for an organization to meet future needs and prepare employees to be future leaders of the company.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Archer North & Associate (1998) : Introduction to Performance appraisal.<br />Antonioni, David: Improve the performance management process before discontinuing performance appraisals.<br /><ul><li> Olson, Richard F (1991): A Guide to Greater Productivity.
Edwards, Mark. R., and Ann J. Ewen (1996): 360 Degree Feedback: The Powerful New Model for Employee Assessment & Performance Improvement.
Hammer, Leslie B., and Karen M. Barbera (1997):Toward an Integration of Alternative Work.
Koziel, Mark J.(2000):Giving and Receiving Performance Evaluations.
Myers, Joel(2001):How to Evaluate Your Evaluation System.