Human Resource Management Unit 1 – Managing People
Human Resource Management Defined   <ul><li>Explain the role of personnel in the recruitment and selection of staff </li><...
Introduction <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): provides the following definition of Human Resource Management: HRM.  </li></ul><ul...
Intro’ continued <ul><li>Importantly Armstrong identifies that the people of an organization will operate both individuall...
HRM Its Purpose <ul><li>  It meets the need for a strategic approach to human resource management </li></ul><ul><li>  A co...
The HRM Concept   <ul><li>Human resource Management is a distinctive approach to employment management, which seeks to ach...
The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The role of the personnel department, now more accurately termed the human resources de...
The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The system is derived from three essential and linked stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy...
The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The main factors that the HRM would consider are described below: </li></ul><ul><li>Mar...
The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>It is important to consider that the Human Resource Management of an Organization parti...
3.1 Job Specification   <ul><li>The purpose of selection is to match people to work. It is the most important element in a...
Introduction   <ul><li>Over the last fifty years there has been a steady decline in traditional manufacture and labour int...
Introduction <ul><li>In turn this has brought about a significant extent of automation and thus labour force downsizing.  ...
Introduction <ul><li>In this the 21 st  Century the focus has moved to selecting people who offer the multiple skills that...
Introduction <ul><li>Mintzberg : identifies the selection of these people as an alignment to a  Total Quality Approach .  ...
Introduction <ul><li>Roberts: (2002) identifies this as the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. With the follow...
Diagram 1  -  Selection Process Flow-Chart 28/06/11   08:00 AM     Job Specification | Analyze the Role  (Job description)...
3.1.1 Job Specification   <ul><li>The term  job description  may innocently mislead the potential candidate and therefore ...
3.1.1 Job Specification <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): provides a rich explanation within the job analysis and role description...
Job Analysis   <ul><li>Job Analysis : The process of amassing information relevant to the content of the job currently and...
Role Analysis <ul><li>Role Analysis : defines the process of collecting and analysing data specifically related to the rol...
3.1.2 Job Description   <ul><li>The job description should be accurately derived from the job analysis employed. It should...
Analysis cont’d <ul><li>Further to these two aspects of analysis is the effective recognition as to the current needs for ...
3.1.3 Person Specification 1 <ul><li>Person specification by very nature is biased toward a  personal  view. Effective ass...
3.1.3 Person Specification 1   <ul><li>Roberts (2001): identifies the following Acronym: </li></ul><ul><li>  PERSON-Specif...
3.1.3 Person Specification 1   <ul><li>It is imperative to prevent against discrimination within the process of person spe...
  3.1.3 Person Specification 1   <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): Identifies the following similar key attributes: Not to be conf...
Person specification analysis   <ul><li>Person specification: is concerned with the measurable competences specific to the...
3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>The selection process itself will be wholly reliant upon the target audience of the calib...
3.2 Selection Procedures   <ul><li>Roberts (2001): identifies a two way process of matching people to roles. Therefore enc...
3.2 Selection Procedures   <ul><li>The targeting of an appropriate audience is therefore vital in attracting the suitable ...
3.2 Selection Procedures   <ul><li>The overall aim therefore of the recruitment and selection process is to provide at the...
3.2 Selection Procedures   <ul><li>Armstrong defines three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>1.        Define requirements: </li><...
3.2.1 Application forms 2   <ul><li>In response to a vacancy being presented through the media format it will attract both...
  3.2.1 Application forms 2   <ul><li>Almost imperative to any job application will be the completion of an orthodox appli...
Group Activity :   <ul><li>Discuss application forms: working in your groups draft or source an application form for a job...
Group Activity :   <ul><li>Discuss the opportunities to the organization and any advantages or disadvantages your group ma...
3.2.2 Short listing   <ul><li>The screening of applications is required to be conducted to rational and recognized criteri...
  3.2.2 Short listing   <ul><li>Roberts (2001): suggests the use of a competencies framework from which a structured scree...
Rating an application through the weighted competencies method   28/06/11   08:00 AM 3 2 2 3 10 7 2 2 2 1 70% 50% 66% 100%...
Group Activity :   <ul><li>Draw up a competency rating method grid and score system for a vacancy you, as a  Service Manag...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques   <ul><li>Within the UK the main testing or selection techniques for ALL jobs are focused upon: <...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The justification to the use of testing is to establish a true representation of a person...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The British Psychological Society outlines these as follows:  </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly m...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Secondly are those designed to measure maximum performance.  </li></ul><ul><li>These are ...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Psychometrics: mental measurement. Their purpose is to provide  objective  means by which...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): Identifies the following characteristics of a good test:  </li></ul><ul...
3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The main test types are in the following categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li>...
3.2.4 Interviews   <ul><li>As previously referenced the Interview is the most popular choice of selection techniques. Howe...
3.2.4 Interviews   <ul><li>The objectives to the Interview process are to enable a mutually beneficial opportunity for the...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Planning a structured interview ensure an objective outcome to the selection process. It is impor...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Under no circumstance should an Interview be based upon a random selection of questions.  </li></...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Armstrong: appoints a five point plan to a structured Interview: </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome and ne...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Interview structure and style: </li></ul><ul><li>Person specification: this provides a sound basi...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Structured Situational Interviews focus upon how the candidate might best resolve a situation tha...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Structured Behavioural Interview technique focuses upon the techniques a candidate would employ i...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Interview techniques: it is important during the interview process to respect the position of the...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Conclusion: the conclusion drawn from an interview should be considered against the criteria of t...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Snap judgements : here the Interviewer develops a predetermined mental picture and the Interview ...
3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>The following outline the usual formalities to the arrangement needs of a successful Interview pr...
3.3 Processes of Staff Management   <ul><li>Staff management is a component of the organizational management. A framework ...
3.3 Processes of Staff Management <ul><li>Within the key component of leadership are the discipline elements of responsibi...
3.3 Processes of Staff Management <ul><li>As previously realized people are the most valuable asset in all senses of enric...
Leadership as a role has two clear role aims:   <ul><li>Task achievement within the requirements set </li></ul><ul><li>Mai...
The components to these aims are: <ul><li>Task needs : leadership maintains perspective upon the common aim and the recogn...
Leadership and Motivation   <ul><li>The nature of motivation is complex and extensive not least reflected by the volumes o...
Motivation theories   <ul><li>These fall broadly into three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Content theories </li></ul><ul><...
Motivation <ul><li>The content theory is focused to the achievement of  natural drives  within our make-up these are seen ...
Content theories <ul><li>Perhaps the greatest theorist of the content theory is  Abraham Maslow  who identified the follow...
Process Theories <ul><li>The process theories consider motivation as a conscious decision made by an individual through wh...
Process Theories <ul><li>The context of these three theories is not fundamentally different. Significantly they all rely u...
Social process theory <ul><li>The third group of motivational theories are in essence centred to  Frederick Herzberg : ali...
Social process theory; job enrichment 28/06/11   08:00 AM Motivation Factors (Content) Hygiene Factors (Context) Achieveme...
Social process theory; job enrichment <ul><li>The concept behind the theory relies upon the satisfaction of the hygiene fa...
Group Activity:   <ul><li>Working within your groups discuss the component part that pay plays and the component part that...
Leadership and team management   <ul><li>Within the context of organizational behaviour team management is a component par...
Leadership and team management <ul><li>Forming:   An initialising situation where unrelated individuals brought together w...
Teamwork   <ul><li>“ A team is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose, p...
Teamwork <ul><li>Perhaps the most acknowledged exponent of team role is R. Meredith Belbin. The identity of a team being b...
Activity <ul><li>Using the activity sheet develop a profile outcome of yourself as a team player. This   activity is align...
Leadership <ul><li>To effect appropriate harmonization between individual and related needs the leadership role must maint...
Team management   <ul><li>The term team management may portray a hierarchical situation of an authoritarian leadership rol...
Performance Monitoring <ul><li>Team performance may be measured in a similar way to a workforce, although on a smaller sca...
Labour Efficiency Example This example incorporates a quality element in that it factors in any reworks
Monitoring Individual Performance <ul><li>Deming carried out experiments on rating systems </li></ul><ul><li>He says  “Rat...
<ul><li>Deming found that people are inconsistent by nature and therefore performance will fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>In ...
<ul><li>A company decided to fire employees instead of closing down a failing plant based on a rating system </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The process failed because the problem with the operation was in its’ system and not with its’ people. </li></ul><...
Staff Appraisal: the process
4.1.1. Introduction   <ul><li>“ Appraising performance is not a precise measurement but a subjective judgement. It has a l...
4.1.1. Introduction <ul><li>It is important to realize before considering the process of appraisal that there is considera...
4.1.2. Approaches   <ul><li>Torrington Hall (1998): Identify two primary categories of appraisal process. </li></ul><ul><l...
4.1.2. Management Control Approach <ul><li>Management control appraisal is centred to a bureaucratic control process the p...
4.1.2. Development Approach <ul><li>Alternatively is the development approach. This style focuses upon the individual and ...
Activity 4.1   <ul><li>Discuss within your groups the advantages and disadvantages perceived by you in the use of either s...
4.1.3.The Process   <ul><li>Considering the mutually exclusive characteristics of the previewed approaches it is reasonabl...
4.1.4.The Preparation   <ul><li>The appraiser should clearly communicate the brief of the appraisal process with the appra...
4.1.5.Interview  <ul><li>The situation of appraisal interview has a high probability of being conducted by a personnel or ...
4.1.5.Interview  <ul><li>The following provides a rudimentary framework from which an appraisal interview should be based ...
4.1.5.Interview Framework Pt 1 <ul><li>Establish the purpose of the appraisal interview process and agree the objectives, ...
4.1.5.Interview Framework Pt 1I <ul><li>6. Appraiser qualifies comments with supporting measurement of own perspective and...
4.1.6.Appraisal Process  Summary   <ul><li>An ideal condition to appraisal processes would include not only valid training...
Group Activity 4.2 <ul><li>Working within your groups, construct an appraisal form appropriate for use within the complete...
4.2.Discipline: Processes and Procedures   <ul><li>4.2.1.Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The need to in...
4.2.1.Introduction   <ul><li>Approach to achieving this requires clarity in documentation of the company policy and proced...
Approach <ul><li>A reasonable approach should be focused upon the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals shou...
Standardized Approach <ul><li>Informal warning; oral (It is usual to record the incident on the individuals personal recor...
Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications   <ul><li>The legal framework of employment is provided for by statute laws. Speci...
Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications <ul><li>The law provides an employee with a limited job property right, which affo...
Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications <ul><li>However where grounds for unfair dismissal are suspected arbitration servi...
Definition of Dismissal   <ul><li>Legitimate dismissal is effective when: either the employer terminates the contract, wit...
Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>This second situation is legally termed Constructive Dismissal and may consist of a seriou...
Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>Some Indicative examples of constructive dismissal are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Issue...
Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>For dismissal to be reasonable it must exhibit two characteristics: Of fair and reasonable...
Review and discussion 28/06/11   08:00 AM
We will now watch a video about holding meetings “ Meetings Bloody Meetings ” with John Cleese
 
The management of team briefing <ul><li>Organizational objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify organizational strategic pro...
Operational objectives:   <ul><li>Identify participating people and their job role within the task or project. </li></ul><...
Group objectives:   <ul><li>All relevant minutes should be formally cascaded to the team members promptly. </li></ul><ul><...
Team Meetings <ul><li>The structured approach to team meetings is imperative to the success of any task or project. The co...
The Management of Meetings
The Management Of Meetings <ul><li>- Describe process for managing the facilitating, chairing and participation of meeting...
Preparing For A Meeting <ul><li>Selecting the right people to attend </li></ul><ul><li>Many people will be obvious partici...
Business Communication Systems <ul><li>Others may be able to contribute specific skills or advice. Invite individuals whos...
Evaluating Contributions <ul><li>When you have made an initial list of participants, pinpoint the potential contribution o...
Evaluating Contributions <ul><li>Do they have information to share </li></ul><ul><li>- For example, a sales manager or ser...
Notifying Attendees <ul><li>One of the hardest parts of organizing a meeting is finding an appropriate time to suit all th...
Notifying Attendees <ul><li>If you find that someone cannot make the proposed date, consider whether it is feasible to hol...
Preparing An Agenda <ul><li>The best way to ensure that those attending a meeting are sure about its purpose is to send th...
Compiling Agendas <ul><li>An agenda for a meeting is essentially a list of items or issues that have to be raised and deba...
Compiling Agendas <ul><li>If there are many issues to discuss, assign a time limit to each to help ensure that you do not ...
Agenda 28/06/11
Distributing the Agenda <ul><li>Once you have drafted an agenda, send it to the other participants for comments, additions...
Distributing the Agenda <ul><li>They will be more likely to agree to a deletion than an addition, unless they have a parti...
Structuring an Agenda <ul><li>When you come to compile your meeting's agenda, try to order topics logically and group simi...
Structuring an Agenda <ul><li>The next items covered at the meeting should be current issues - for example, the latest fin...
Locating A Meeting <ul><li>The choice of venue is vitally important to the success of a meeting. It is not only a question...
Choosing the Site <ul><li>If you are arranging a meeting that requires the hire of rooms and other facilities, shop around...
Choosing the Site <ul><li>Locations in the centres of large cities may be convenient for most attendees, and well served b...
Choosing the Site <ul><li>On the other hand, the amenities of a city may help to entice people to a meeting lasting severa...
Recognizing the Needs <ul><li>Try to match the location of a meeting to its aims. If one of the objectives of the meeting ...
Assessing the Environment <ul><li>Physical factors play an important part in any type of meeting. Whatever the occasion, a...
Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>There are a number of reasons - some obvious, some less so - why a venue may turn out to be a ba...
Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>When you are inspecting and booking your venue, try to anticipate and avoid the following common...
Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>- Technical difficulties arise because the light switches and plugs in the meeting room are not ...
Acoustics and Auditory Matters <ul><li>A well-structured meeting room does not guarantee of a good meeting, but it can inc...
Preparing Practicalities <ul><li>The success of most meetings greatly depends on advance preparation and organization. Thi...
Communicating and Audio Aids <ul><li>Audio-visual (AV) aids are used more and more in large meetings, presentations, and c...
Organising the Venue <ul><li>At your venue, you may only have a limited amount of time available to check out the faciliti...
Providing Writing Materials for Note Taking <ul><li>The need for speed or accuracy when taking notes at a meeting and the ...
Attending A Meeting <ul><li>It is the responsibility of each participant at a meeting to ensure that it attains its object...
Attending A Meeting <ul><li>As a participant in a meeting, it is vital to be well briefed. Focus on the alms of the meetin...
Gathering Information <ul><li>Carry out some basic but thorough background research before a meeting to help you to make a...
Points To Remember  <ul><li>- Background research is essential for any contribution </li></ul><ul><li>- Contacting other p...
Taking Minutes <ul><li>The minutes of a meeting the meeting’s secretary as a written record of what was discussed takes -s...
Writing Minutes <ul><li>In the minutes you should record the time and place of the meeting, the names of attendees (where ...
Writing Minutes <ul><li>During the course of a meeting, make notes from which to write the minutes in full later. Make sur...
Distribution of the Minutes <ul><li>Once the minutes are complete, make sure that they are distributed quickly to all the ...
Distribution of the Minutes <ul><li>Minutes should indicate clearly the deadlines agreed on for any projects, and who is r...
Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>The following is a simple rank order checklist of how you see yourself. </l...
Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q I allow others to finish what they are saying before I speak </li></ul><u...
Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q My body language suggests self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>q I dress app...
Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q I an careful to review the minutes of a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>q I res...
Analysis <ul><li>12 – 24: Your skills need all-round attention </li></ul><ul><li>25 – 36: you are a reasonable performer <...
Chairing A Meeting <ul><li>Every meeting needs a chairperson to direct the proceedings. As chairperson, you must fulfil th...
Using Personal Skills <ul><li>The ideal chairperson should have a wide range of personal skills. Brush up on these essenti...
Points to Remember: <ul><li>q A chairperson is responsible for ensuring that any discussion is relevant to the points on a...
Chairing an Informal Meeting <ul><li>Not all informal meetings have an &quot;official&quot; chairperson, those that do usu...
Chairing an Informal Meeting <ul><li>However, the chairperson can still exert considerable influence over the outcome of a...
Chairing a Formal Meeting <ul><li>A number of different rules govern the selection of a chairperson for a formal meeting. ...
Chairing a Formal Meeting <ul><li>A government committee, however, will select its chairperson in accordance with statutor...
Pacing A Meeting <ul><li>Pacing a meeting correctly is an important part of the role of chairperson. Always make sure that...
Starting on Time <ul><li>Always make a point of starting meetings on time. When you are chairing a meeting, arrive at the ...
Keeping to the Agenda <ul><li>It is important to allocate an overall time limit to complete a meetings agenda. Research sh...
Using Time Effectively <ul><li>It is vital that the chairperson keeps a meeting's purpose clearly in each participant's mi...
Providing Breaks and Refreshments <ul><li>Time for breaks and refreshments should always be built into the agenda of a lon...
Closing A Meeting <ul><li>When all the items on an agenda have been discussed, and any necessary action agreed, it is the ...
Dealing With Any Other Business <ul><li>The final item on the agenda of most meetings is Any Other Business (AOB). This gi...
Dealing With Any Other Business <ul><li>Participants sometimes use AOB tactically to raise controversial issues or to intr...
Summarising <ul><li>Once participants in a meeting have considered the final item of business, recap on each decision reac...
Concluding a Meeting <ul><li>After summarizing the business of a meeting, decide whether you need to meet again, and set a...
Role Play 1 <ul><li>Elect a Chairperson </li></ul><ul><li>Elect someone to take minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Agenda...
Role Play 2 28/06/11 <ul><li>Produce a presentation of upgrades based  </li></ul><ul><li>on your meeting </li></ul><ul><li...
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Managing people unit 1 v2

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  • Managing people unit 1 v2

    1. 1. Human Resource Management Unit 1 – Managing People
    2. 2. Human Resource Management Defined <ul><li>Explain the role of personnel in the recruitment and selection of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the features of a job specification </li></ul><ul><li>Explain staff selection </li></ul><ul><li>Explain staff management </li></ul><ul><li>Describe importance of team management </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): provides the following definition of Human Resource Management: HRM. </li></ul><ul><li>HRM can be defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets: the people of the organization. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    4. 4. Intro’ continued <ul><li>Importantly Armstrong identifies that the people of an organization will operate both individually and collectively in accomplishing the objectives set by the organization strategic management in order to achieve the aim. </li></ul><ul><li>The overall purpose of HRM is to enable the organization to achieve success through its people. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    5. 5. HRM Its Purpose <ul><li>  It meets the need for a strategic approach to human resource management </li></ul><ul><li>  A coherent approach to mutual employment and HR policies and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>  HRM identifies with the organization’s mission statement * commitment-orientated. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are recognized as assets (Human capital) of the organization. Investment of this asset includes: learning and development within a culture of a learning organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource is recognized as a source of competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>The approach to employee relation is unitarist not pluralist. The culture focus is upon a common aim and interest of employer and employee. </li></ul><ul><li>HRM is a line management responsibility </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    6. 6. The HRM Concept <ul><li>Human resource Management is a distinctive approach to employment management, which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Storey (1995:5) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    7. 7. The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The role of the personnel department, now more accurately termed the human resources department, is to provide a system of method, people and processes to effect efficient recruitment and hence successful selection of people to the organization. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    8. 8. The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The system is derived from three essential and linked stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy the needs for an effective evaluation of both the job and the person specification. Appropriate consideration should be given to the overall objective of the job role and its part within the organization’s strategic plan. </li></ul><ul><li>An effective choice of selection processes should be legitimately evaluated. Procedural requirements should be established and appointed. </li></ul><ul><li>An effective selection process including material and human resources should be prepared and communication system established. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate time and cost scales should be identified and agreement with the organization owners confirmed. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    9. 9. The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>The main factors that the HRM would consider are described below: </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing of advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Method of placement: Internet, media, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Resources co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment methods/centres </li></ul><ul><li>Selection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment </li></ul><ul><li>Induction/mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    10. 10. The role of HRM: selection <ul><li>It is important to consider that the Human Resource Management of an Organization participates at a broad range within the Hierarchy of an organization and decision-making is weighted by multiple considerations of consequences and outcomes in both the interest of the owners and the employees. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    11. 11. 3.1 Job Specification <ul><li>The purpose of selection is to match people to work. It is the most important element in any organization’s management of people simply because it is not possible to optimise the effectiveness of Human resources, by whatever method, if there is a less than adequate match. </li></ul><ul><li>Gareth Roberts: (2002) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>Over the last fifty years there has been a steady decline in traditional manufacture and labour intensive industry. A significant driver of this change has been the technological developments within Information and Communication Technology founded upon the platform of solid state electronic operating and control mechanisms. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    13. 13. Introduction <ul><li>In turn this has brought about a significant extent of automation and thus labour force downsizing. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result we have moved from a traditional employment of fulltime male dominance operated within a culture of single ‘skilling’ and rigid organizational structure: (Mechanistic), to a much less structured and more flattened hierarchical framework sometimes termed organic or matrix structures. (Mintzberg: 1995). </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    14. 14. Introduction <ul><li>In this the 21 st Century the focus has moved to selecting people who offer the multiple skills that are the best suited to the operating roles of the organization. But in accompaniment to this is the desire to nurture a unitarist culture that of all working in a harmony to a set target or group of objectives. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    15. 15. Introduction <ul><li>Mintzberg : identifies the selection of these people as an alignment to a Total Quality Approach . </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative is the specification of the role, it should be clear and identify all activities. Anything brought about by this role as it participates within the complete business function of the organization should be transparent. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    16. 16. Introduction <ul><li>Roberts: (2002) identifies this as the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. With the following as the key elements of person selection: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A clear and precise specification of the role </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of multiple techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of redundant processes </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation, review and continuous improvement </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    17. 17. Diagram 1 - Selection Process Flow-Chart 28/06/11 08:00 AM     Job Specification | Analyze the Role (Job description) | Person Specification | Job Description | Screening Applicants | Develop an effective selection process | Implement selection process | Evaluate
    18. 18. 3.1.1 Job Specification <ul><li>The term job description may innocently mislead the potential candidate and therefore in harmony with the HR culture of modern organization the term role specification may be more appropriate as role identifies more with the multiple role functionality of today’s organizational flexible frameworks. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    19. 19. 3.1.1 Job Specification <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): provides a rich explanation within the job analysis and role description. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>An important HRM function within the recruitment process needs to provide: the job description, role definitions, personal learning needs and development objectives. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    20. 20. Job Analysis <ul><li>Job Analysis : The process of amassing information relevant to the content of the job currently and appropriate to providing a suitable and realistic description. As the analysis should be focused upon expectations of the holder it is important to reference to measurement or evaluation techniques associated to the job function. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    21. 21. Role Analysis <ul><li>Role Analysis : defines the process of collecting and analysing data specifically related to the role of the participating people. Role analysis almost precludes the content of the job with the concentration upon the behavioural aspects expected of the role holder. </li></ul><ul><li>These would include : working within groups or where project focused; teams, flexibility, motivation, management and leadership qualities. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    22. 22. 3.1.2 Job Description <ul><li>The job description should be accurately derived from the job analysis employed. It should provide the foundation information specific to the function of the job and outline with clarity the responsibilities and limitation or extent of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>In support of the specified evaluation and accountability policies should be a defined outline of expected qualification and competence requirements. Behavioural competencies should be reflected as the performance related enhancers qualified as necessary to the role. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    23. 23. Analysis cont’d <ul><li>Further to these two aspects of analysis is the effective recognition as to the current needs for the actual role itself and how it fits overall with the organizations objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>At this point opportunity to review specification against the organizations future objectives should be considered prior to the implementation of the next stage of the process. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    24. 24. 3.1.3 Person Specification 1 <ul><li>Person specification by very nature is biased toward a personal view. Effective assessment of specifications and there attributable value to the job are vital within the selection process. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore it is imperative to establish a robust and appropriate measured approach. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    25. 25. 3.1.3 Person Specification 1 <ul><li>Roberts (2001): identifies the following Acronym: </li></ul><ul><li>  PERSON-Specification </li></ul><ul><li>P ersonal qualities and attributes; traits </li></ul><ul><li>E xperience </li></ul><ul><li>R ecord of achievements </li></ul><ul><li>S kills or qualifications necessary to the execution of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>O rganization-match; personal attributes outside of discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>N eeds: candidate expectations </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    26. 26. 3.1.3 Person Specification 1 <ul><li>It is imperative to prevent against discrimination within the process of person specification that an appropriate understanding of the law and current practices should be developed. Specifically the law currently protects against: G. Roberts (2001:41) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Disability discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>In addition discrimination may be direct or indirect and to promote either; intentionally or innocently is an offence. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    27. 27.   3.1.3 Person Specification 1 <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): Identifies the following similar key attributes: Not to be confused with the term Job specification is an explicit definition of the qualities in competences (learned) and competencies (traits). The following provide outline of requirement areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Competences and competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications: academic and professional </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Formalities </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    28. 28. Person specification analysis <ul><li>Person specification: is concerned with the measurable competences specific to the demands of the job specification and the necessary competencies required to enhance performance vs. those that impede. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    29. 29. 3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>The selection process itself will be wholly reliant upon the target audience of the calibre of applicant attracted. And as important is the cost incurred within the recruitment process through advertising, agency and marketing costs and additionally the operational costs of the key staff drawn into the process that also provide a productive role within the organization. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    30. 30. 3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>Roberts (2001): identifies a two way process of matching people to roles. Therefore encouraging an element of self-selection within the applicants’ evaluation of his/her own suitability provides a productive contribution in reduced speculative applications. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    31. 31. 3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>The targeting of an appropriate audience is therefore vital in attracting the suitable applicant. If we consider the opportunity for the position of Finance director for a large Automotive Group it may be most appropriate to place a professional advertisement through an agency within the professional journals of the accounting practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Further it may be considered appropriate to rely upon the expertise of a recruitment agency that might actively head hunt an appropriate executive level candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise operational supervisors and managers may be advertised for within specific journals such as the Motor Industry Management Journal . </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    32. 32. 3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>The overall aim therefore of the recruitment and selection process is to provide at the minimal cost the appropriate quality and range of candidates to provide for the optimum selection criteria. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    33. 33. 3.2 Selection Procedures <ul><li>Armstrong defines three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>1.       Define requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>a.       Prepare job description and specification </li></ul><ul><li>b.       Decide terms, conditions and policy of employment </li></ul><ul><li>2.       Attract candidates: </li></ul><ul><li>a.       Review and evaluate alternative sources of candidates </li></ul><ul><li>b.       Consider internal and external posting </li></ul><ul><li>3.       Selection: sift applications through: </li></ul><ul><li>a.       Interview </li></ul><ul><li>b.       Testing </li></ul><ul><li>c.       Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>d.       Assessment centres </li></ul><ul><li>e. References </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    34. 34. 3.2.1 Application forms 2 <ul><li>In response to a vacancy being presented through the media format it will attract both orthodox and non-orthodox responses. These will require an initial sample and selection process to sift the appropriate candidates. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    35. 35.   3.2.1 Application forms 2 <ul><li>Almost imperative to any job application will be the completion of an orthodox application form. </li></ul><ul><li>This formality enables the contractual nature of the relationship of applicant and potential employer to be engaged without ambiguity but with integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition these form the basis of personal records and pertinent details. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    36. 36. Group Activity : <ul><li>Discuss application forms: working in your groups draft or source an application form for a job of your choosing. Provide a rationale for the function of the application form: </li></ul><ul><li>How does it support the employer? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it support the Candidate? </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    37. 37. Group Activity : <ul><li>Discuss the opportunities to the organization and any advantages or disadvantages your group may associate with </li></ul><ul><li>Internal post offer </li></ul><ul><li>External post offer </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    38. 38. 3.2.2 Short listing <ul><li>The screening of applications is required to be conducted to rational and recognized criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>If we refer to our person specification it is possible now to correctly identify the competences and competencies that are the criteria to effective job performance. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    39. 39.   3.2.2 Short listing <ul><li>Roberts (2001): suggests the use of a competencies framework from which a structured screening or short-listing can be achieved. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    40. 40. Rating an application through the weighted competencies method 28/06/11 08:00 AM 3 2 2 3 10 7 2 2 2 1 70% 50% 66% 100% 66% Competency Weighting Rating Score Technical Knowledge       Business Knowledge       Results       People experience       Total      
    41. 41. Group Activity : <ul><li>Draw up a competency rating method grid and score system for a vacancy you, as a Service Manager , have for your after-sales department for the position of Customer Service Advisor . </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any particular traits and skills you consider appropriate to have a high mark. </li></ul><ul><li>State the benefits or disadvantage of a personal CV in support of an application to this position. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    42. 42. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Within the UK the main testing or selection techniques for ALL jobs are focused upon: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Test Type Percentage of use (approximation) </li></ul><ul><li>►     Literacy/Numeric tests 9% </li></ul><ul><li>►     Personality questionnaires 8% </li></ul><ul><li>►     Ability and aptitude tests 14% </li></ul><ul><li>►     CV’s 39% </li></ul><ul><li>►     Application forms 72% </li></ul><ul><li>►     Interviews 96% </li></ul><ul><li>IRS: (1997) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM Note the overall total exceeds 100%, as many organizations will use more than one single testing process.
    43. 43. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The justification to the use of testing is to establish a true representation of a person’s ability and aptitude. In essence ability testing is definable in to two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Principal categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Personality value assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive value assessments. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    44. 44. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The British Psychological Society outlines these as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly measures of typical performance. These are tests designed to assess personal qualities such as personality, beliefs, values and interests: and in addition motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Administered with no time limit the responses represent the respondent’s feelings or beliefs at that time. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    45. 45. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Secondly are those designed to measure maximum performance. </li></ul><ul><li>These are termed cognitive or ability tests, usually administered with a specific time limit and have a single specific correct answer option. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Typical terminologies for these types of test are: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    46. 46. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Psychometrics: mental measurement. Their purpose is to provide objective means by which to measure individual abilities and traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Importantly the selection and measurement using psychometric testing relies upon competent and suitably trained personnel. This particular discipline within testing is a weakness, appropriate orthodox practices are obtainable from the agency provider or from such institutes as The British Psychological Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Further inappropriate application of this type of testing produces inaccurate and variable responses. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    47. 47. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>Armstrong (2001): Identifies the following characteristics of a good test: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to discriminate well between candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized to provide a representative sample of the population of candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable in consistently measuring the same values to the same degree </li></ul><ul><li>Valid by measuring only those values that the test is designed to and precluding irrelevant information and data. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    48. 48. 3.2.3 Testing Techniques <ul><li>The main test types are in the following categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Attainment (achievement) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    49. 49. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>As previously referenced the Interview is the most popular choice of selection techniques. However it should be remembered that the Interview generally constitutes only one part of several. E.g. Interview, testing, application form, references, etc,… </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    50. 50. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>The objectives to the Interview process are to enable a mutually beneficial opportunity for the candidate and the prospective employer to establish an understanding of the needs and attributes of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>This may include one of the following structured types: </li></ul><ul><li>►     Individual Interviewer </li></ul><ul><li>►     Interview Panel </li></ul><ul><li>►     Selection Board </li></ul><ul><li>►     Inter-active Role Play </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    51. 51. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Planning a structured interview ensure an objective outcome to the selection process. It is important to avoid subjectivity and influence as personal choice will not necessarily align to the requirements of the job specification. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    52. 52. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Under no circumstance should an Interview be based upon a random selection of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting this method will undoubtedly include subjective opinions and preferences, which may lead to a prejudicial or discriminating decision. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    53. 53. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Armstrong: appoints a five point plan to a structured Interview: </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome and neutral introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The formal interview to assign competencies, competences and characteristics to the person specification of the job role </li></ul><ul><li>To provide pertinent information relating to the job specification and organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide opportunity to satisfy any enquiry or questions the candidate may have. </li></ul><ul><li>To close the Interview process with clear indication as to the next step of the process. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    54. 54. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Interview structure and style: </li></ul><ul><li>Person specification: this provides a sound basis and focuses upon: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Personal qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    55. 55. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Structured Situational Interviews focus upon how the candidate might best resolve a situation that has arisen. This will reflect a typical situation that has been identified within the job evaluation. One of the best approaches to this is to use situational role-play of a typical scenario that the jobholder would need to successfully negotiate. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    56. 56. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Structured Behavioural Interview technique focuses upon the techniques a candidate would employ in dealing with applying skills or aptitude ability to resolve a situation such as a machine breakdown. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    57. 57. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Interview techniques: it is important during the interview process to respect the position of the candidate. Effort should be made at the initial stage to putting the candidate at their ease. An outline of the interview purpose and content including the specified time duration should be clear at the outset. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    58. 58. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Conclusion: the conclusion drawn from an interview should be considered against the criteria of the person specification and the alternative selection techniques employed. Importantly a snap and isolated decision may hold many pitfalls and a sound recording system of histories in interview and candidate development should be utilised to form an objective reference of the organizations human resource management. G. Roberts (2001): </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    59. 59. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>Snap judgements : here the Interviewer develops a predetermined mental picture and the Interview process then falls to reinforce the subjective viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration : effective use of agreed note recording should be employed within the structured Interview this will avoid relapses of memory ability </li></ul><ul><li>Context ignorance : here the Interviewer must avail themselves as to the background environment of the candidate the purpose to this is to avoid disproportionate recognition of achievement or normal standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping : linked to discrimination Interview content and technique should avoid disadvantaging or positively discriminating against group types. </li></ul><ul><li>Mirroring : the Interviewer should avoid affiliating candidate traits with values that they reflect within themselves. Measurement of competencies will be therefore subject to bias. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    60. 60. 3.2.4 Interviews <ul><li>The following outline the usual formalities to the arrangement needs of a successful Interview process: </li></ul><ul><li>Written details of the position, job description: and Interview appointment and venue should be clearly communicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration for travelling, parking and accessibility for the candidate should be clearly communicated and available. Emergency contingencies should be clear. </li></ul><ul><li>A full briefing and timetable relating to the Interview and selection processes should be clearly communicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The interview panel should be appropriately prepared and pre-read of the candidate details. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate personnel should be available to meet candidate needs such as brochure display company history or tour arrangements as required or offered. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to discuss decision outcomes should be available within a neutral environment and audience. Method of response and time duration should be absolutely clear in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Records of the Interview process should be met with the explicit approval of the candidate. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    61. 61. 3.3 Processes of Staff Management <ul><li>Staff management is a component of the organizational management. A framework of varying rigidity and flexibility demands established from four main component systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Power and politics </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    62. 62. 3.3 Processes of Staff Management <ul><li>Within the key component of leadership are the discipline elements of responsibility and delegation. In essence management is a mechanism through which the objectives of the organization aim are determined and achieved. But we must consider the vital component to the achievement of all objectives: motivation. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    63. 63. 3.3 Processes of Staff Management <ul><li>As previously realized people are the most valuable asset in all senses of enrichment to the value of the organizations resources. Not least of all recognition of the importance of the contribution they bring in addition to the task accomplishment. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    64. 64. Leadership as a role has two clear role aims: <ul><li>Task achievement within the requirements set </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain effective relationships between themselves, groups and individuals on a consistent basis. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    65. 65. The components to these aims are: <ul><li>Task needs : leadership maintains perspective upon the common aim and the recognized value or reward through its achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Group maintenance needs : leadership manages the disparate association and cements the positive links within the active group relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Individual needs : these needs or motivating drives are tangible to the overall group aim but are however intrinsic to the overall success. Therefore it is essential that the leadership role define a strategy to resolve and meeting these needs in harmony with the group objectives. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    66. 66. Leadership and Motivation <ul><li>The nature of motivation is complex and extensive not least reflected by the volumes of research and theory backed up by empirical evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of motivation theories is to establish an understanding of the needs that drive the individual to perform in a behaviour that the organization requires. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    67. 67. Motivation theories <ul><li>These fall broadly into three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Content theories </li></ul><ul><li>Process theories </li></ul><ul><li>Social process theories </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    68. 68. Motivation <ul><li>The content theory is focused to the achievement of natural drives within our make-up these are seen as rank order or hierarchical needs of which the higher level drives motivate the need to develop our self-esteem and own achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Content theory recognizes that unless the basic attributes relating to an employees welfare and well being are met the failure to develop toward these will work in conflict with he motivational objectives sought within leadership aims. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    69. 69. Content theories <ul><li>Perhaps the greatest theorist of the content theory is Abraham Maslow who identified the following hierarchical model of motivational drives: </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological: basic needs satisfiers </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: well being needs satisfiers </li></ul><ul><li>Social: relationship and acceptance satisfiers </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem: recognition and achievement satisfiers </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilment: to recognize achievement Potential of a higher order </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    70. 70. Process Theories <ul><li>The process theories consider motivation as a conscious decision made by an individual through whom the conduct or action intended can provide reward and recognition. Of these theories perhaps the most recognized are: </li></ul><ul><li>The expectancy theory </li></ul><ul><li>Goal theory </li></ul><ul><li>Equity theory </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    71. 71. Process Theories <ul><li>The context of these three theories is not fundamentally different. Significantly they all rely upon a conscious decision by the individual and the bases of these decisions consider historic situational outcomes to evaluate the acceptance or rejection of activities. The relationship to leadership here is clear. Process theories do not rely upon natural instinctive drivers but a rationale or reason to perform. Hence it is vital that the leadership identifies with the characteristics that the employees see as valuable and trustworthy. Perhaps the greatest recognized theorist of process theory is Victor Vroom: </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    72. 72. Social process theory <ul><li>The third group of motivational theories are in essence centred to Frederick Herzberg : aligned to the concept of job enrichment the theory expounds factors for motivation content and for context. Grouped as follows: </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    73. 73. Social process theory; job enrichment 28/06/11 08:00 AM Motivation Factors (Content) Hygiene Factors (Context) Achievement Pay Advancement Company policy Growth Leadership style Recognition Status Responsibility Security Job satisfaction Working conditions
    74. 74. Social process theory; job enrichment <ul><li>The concept behind the theory relies upon the satisfaction of the hygiene factors, although not motivational themselves they serve as the foundation from which the content factors are achievable and realisable. Leadership has a more sanitary role to play here ensuring that the procedural elements of the employees situation are catered for thus allowing attention to be focused to the motivators of the job performance </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    75. 75. Group Activity: <ul><li>Working within your groups discuss the component part that pay plays and the component part that job satisfaction plays when considering what makes a good week at your own employment. NB. be truthful with yourselves. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    76. 76. Leadership and team management <ul><li>Within the context of organizational behaviour team management is a component part of the group context. The grouping of individuals is both managed and natural. And the process of group development can be seen through the following stages: </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    77. 77. Leadership and team management <ul><li>Forming: An initialising situation where unrelated individuals brought together with a coherent objective establish formal and informal relationships. This stage is heavily reliant upon the influence and management of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Storming: Task focused activity results in conflicting behavioural patterns where individuals fail to recognize the values and opinions held by other members of the group. Leadership may be perceived as a scapegoat body to which situational blame will be attached to appease situation conflict. Leadership has a harmonizing and rationalizing position to impose within this period. </li></ul><ul><li>Norming: A period of cohesion between group members, promotion of mutual support and identity supports the collective objectives of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Performing : this point performance is task orientated all energy is directed to the common objective of task accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Adjourning : at this point task completion is rationalised and a sense of accomplishment and self-fulfilment provide an arena of reflection and measure of achievement before the next task. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted Tuckman: Jensen (1977 ) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    78. 78. Teamwork <ul><li>“ A team is a small number of people with complimentary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” </li></ul><ul><li>Katzenbach and Smith (1993) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    79. 79. Teamwork <ul><li>Perhaps the most acknowledged exponent of team role is R. Meredith Belbin. The identity of a team being broken down into its component elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman: Controlling function </li></ul><ul><li>Shapers: Specifying the framework within which the team performs </li></ul><ul><li>Company worker: Conservative and loyal approach who put proposals into action </li></ul><ul><li>Plants: Imaginative and ideological, providing inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Resource investigator: Develops the resources to meet the demands </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor-Evaluator: Analyser </li></ul><ul><li>Team-worker: Fosters team orientation and social values </li></ul><ul><li>Completer-finisher: Order and rational approach, task achievement focused </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    80. 80. Activity <ul><li>Using the activity sheet develop a profile outcome of yourself as a team player. This activity is aligned to Belbin's </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    81. 81. Leadership <ul><li>To effect appropriate harmonization between individual and related needs the leadership role must maintain focus upon the objectives or tasks set of the group and provide a contingent approach that considers the operational environment and the organization goal. At this point it is relevant to refer to the associated factors linked to leadership and decision-making: those of conflict, power and politics. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    82. 82. Team management <ul><li>The term team management may portray a hierarchical situation of an authoritarian leadership role based upon a traditional organizational structure of rigid ranks of management, supervision and team leaders. Modern economic environmental pressures have little opportunity for the draconian measures of disciplinarian cultures of rank and file industrial relations. Today a much flatter and more flexible team-focused culture is developing and with it the need to provide an effective communicative role within team management where the managerial role is that of facilitator as opposed to coercive power. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    83. 83. Performance Monitoring <ul><li>Team performance may be measured in a similar way to a workforce, although on a smaller scale. For example, individual teams may be monitored using labour efficiency, specific to that group and measured against pre-determined targets. These targets may be self set by the team or by a Manager responsible for the results of the team </li></ul>28/06/11 BTEC Higher National in Motor Vehicle Management & Technology. Unit 2.Managing Resources
    84. 84. Labour Efficiency Example This example incorporates a quality element in that it factors in any reworks
    85. 85. Monitoring Individual Performance <ul><li>Deming carried out experiments on rating systems </li></ul><ul><li>He says “Rating people is only a measurement of the past and not a prediction of the future. The only interest for management should be the future” </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded that rating is a system process, which does not account for human elements. Therefore poor performance is a system failure, not individual. </li></ul>
    86. 86. <ul><li>Deming found that people are inconsistent by nature and therefore performance will fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>In any given time period a normally good performer may appear to be poor </li></ul><ul><li>People need support and help from a system not rating </li></ul><ul><li>Deming used an example from one of his experiments as described on the following slide </li></ul>Monitoring Individual Performance
    87. 87. <ul><li>A company decided to fire employees instead of closing down a failing plant based on a rating system </li></ul><ul><li>The company thought that they would be left with all of the good performers and therefore it would succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality some of the good performers measured as poor, so the process still failed and the plant closed down at a later date anyway </li></ul>Monitoring Individual Performance
    88. 88. <ul><li>The process failed because the problem with the operation was in its’ system and not with its’ people. </li></ul><ul><li>The people were willing employees and merely required a more supportive system to increase performance </li></ul><ul><li>An organisation should aim to have excellent performers, it is the measuring process used that is key in ensuring this works </li></ul>Monitoring Individual Performance
    89. 89. Staff Appraisal: the process
    90. 90. 4.1.1. Introduction <ul><li>“ Appraising performance is not a precise measurement but a subjective judgement. It has a long history of being damned for its ineffectiveness at the same time as being anxiously sought by people wanting to know how they are doing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Torrington Hall (1998:182) </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    91. 91. 4.1.1. Introduction <ul><li>It is important to realize before considering the process of appraisal that there is considerable opinion of rejection by experts and theorists largely brought about by the mismanagement of the process itself. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    92. 92. 4.1.2. Approaches <ul><li>Torrington Hall (1998): Identify two primary categories of appraisal process. </li></ul><ul><li>The management control approach: this style adopts an authority stance, citing the need to stimulate the effective performance and potential of the individual, setting achievable targets to be met. Performances beyond a predetermined level are responded to by way of reward, approval and promotion. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    93. 93. 4.1.2. Management Control Approach <ul><li>Management control appraisal is centred to a bureaucratic control process the performance initiative is clearly bias to high achievers and as a result promotes a highly competitive environment. The initial disadvantage in this style is its poor fit with team orientated organization structures. It is largely accepted that this style best fits a highly structured bureaucratic organization such as manufacturing where repetitive nature work tasks are dominant. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    94. 94. 4.1.2. Development Approach <ul><li>Alternatively is the development approach. This style focuses upon the individual and the improvement of their own progress. Appealing to situations of groups and high mutual respect the emphasis is upon an interview format of exchange in ideas and goals as opposed to agreeing of targets. The operating principle to the development approach is less reliant upon records and structures and exists within a mutually trusting and flexible environment where a set of united common objectives are pursued. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    95. 95. Activity 4.1 <ul><li>Discuss within your groups the advantages and disadvantages perceived by you in the use of either schemes. Would a combined approach be more beneficial? If so who for? </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    96. 96. 4.1.3.The Process <ul><li>Considering the mutually exclusive characteristics of the previewed approaches it is reasonable to assume the style of the appraisal interview will be shaped similarly. Importantly either approach should reveal the objectives of identifying the individuals needs and developing a mutually agreeable progression plan to develop their performance within a predetermined time frame. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    97. 97. 4.1.4.The Preparation <ul><li>The appraiser should clearly communicate the brief of the appraisal process with the appraisee. Within this initial arrangement a self-appraisal document should be completed and submitted prior to the appraisal itself. The purpose to he self-appraisal is to allow the appraiser, who should already have a working knowledge of the person to establish their current performance needs, concerns and reassurances on real working situations and ‘real stuff’. The appraiser should review this self-appraisal against the personal file: previous appraisals, reviews and records. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    98. 98. 4.1.5.Interview <ul><li>The situation of appraisal interview has a high probability of being conducted by a personnel or line manager/supervisor who is known to the appraisee, even to a social extent. Therefore the interview process should be approached with candour reflecting the deference of an appointment interview structure. After all the purpose of an appraisal is to develop and progress the staff in line with the organization performance. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    99. 99. 4.1.5.Interview <ul><li>The following provides a rudimentary framework from which an appraisal interview should be based through clear consultation with the appraisee. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    100. 100. 4.1.5.Interview Framework Pt 1 <ul><li>Establish the purpose of the appraisal interview process and agree the objectives, structure and completion of self-appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Present a factual review. Review progress based on measured performance since previous appraisal through appraisee acknowledgement. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish supportively the appraisee’s views of their own performance and relate to their operational environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what went well and not so well. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Identify preferences and indifferences. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    101. 101. 4.1.5.Interview Framework Pt 1I <ul><li>6. Appraiser qualifies comments with supporting measurement of own perspective and questions constructively subjective opinions of the appraisee within the perspective of the organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Engage agreement or problem-solving format to resolve differences of views </li></ul><ul><li>8.   Agree a plan based upon objective targets of performance and achievement within a mutually acceptable time scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree next review period. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Offer opportunity to comment or question upon the interview. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM Adapted: Torrington Hall (1998:389)
    102. 102. 4.1.6.Appraisal Process Summary <ul><li>An ideal condition to appraisal processes would include not only valid training of the appraiser but also the appraisee as the process depends upon the clear and effective communication between the appraiser and appraisee. The appraiser should be appropriately versed in the organizations overall aims and operational objectives, that way they are best able to develop training, learning and experience needs etc… as an overall progress and development plan to suit the individual and their role within the organization. But most important, that the individual should likewise understand the role and needs of the job </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    103. 103. Group Activity 4.2 <ul><li>Working within your groups, construct an appraisal form appropriate for use within the complete appraisal process and applicable to your own industry. It should consider the following within its recording process: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal objectives, ambitions and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Performance achievements* </li></ul><ul><li>Training achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Progress achieved* </li></ul><ul><li>Performance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Training requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Progress objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback/comments </li></ul><ul><li>Salary related review </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    104. 104. 4.2.Discipline: Processes and Procedures <ul><li>4.2.1.Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The need to invoke disciplinary procedures within an organization is a formal component to ensuring the values: health and viability of the organization and its people. Remedial action in response to incidents of breach of company policy and procedures that clearly jeopardize performance in achieving these values must be explicit in communication and effective in implementation. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    105. 105. 4.2.1.Introduction <ul><li>Approach to achieving this requires clarity in documentation of the company policy and procedures. These should be available in a staff handbook and within the personnel department of the company or with the company secretary. It is inappropriate except in a circumstance of gross misconduct to invoke a disciplinary procedure upon an individual where that person was innocently unaware of such imposed conditions. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    106. 106. Approach <ul><li>A reasonable approach should be focused upon the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals should be explicitly aware of the standards and performance criteria expected of them and the policy, procedures and rules that govern the people of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Breach of policy, procedures or rules should be clearly identified and communicated to the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>With the exclusion of Gross-misconduct an individual should be given opportunity to demonstrate genuine improvement of performance in line with the company policy regulations before or during disciplinary proceedings. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    107. 107. Standardized Approach <ul><li>Informal warning; oral (It is usual to record the incident on the individuals personal record) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal warning; oral or written. Must be accompanied by written support, documenting the nature of the disciplinary action and the consequences of further breaches of company policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Final written warning. Must be presented in written format within a formal structured interview within the guidelines of the company policy. A senior manager would normally preside over the interview process. In addition neutral witness(es) are present to ensure unbiased proceedings are conducted. The warning must include in addition to the disciplinary occurrence a statement outlining the consequences to recurrence and any time constraints imposed. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    108. 108. Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications <ul><li>The legal framework of employment is provided for by statute laws. Specific to dismissal are in addition: case laws of precedent legal actions current EU employment legislation. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM BTEC Higher Nationals in Motor Vehicle Management & Technology-Unit 2: MANAGING RESOURCES
    109. 109. Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications <ul><li>The law provides an employee with a limited job property right, which affords against unreasonable actions by the employer, which result in the loss of employment. Importantly the employer retains the right within law to legitimately dismiss an employee. These terms are under the definition of fair and reasonable. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    110. 110. Unfair Dismissal and Legal Implications <ul><li>However where grounds for unfair dismissal are suspected arbitration services have a statutory obligation to intervene at the request of either party or of its own initiative where a claim centred to unfair dismissal is lodged. Legal conditions against unfair dismissal are now automatically invoked after one-year continuous employment. Current European Directives are engaged to increase employee rights and are in place to afford non-fulltime employees the same protection and rights. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory, Service Conciliation and Arbitration </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    111. 111. Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>Legitimate dismissal is effective when: either the employer terminates the contract, with or without notice, or when the employee resigns by reason of the employer’s behaviour and the employee considers the employer to have repudiated the contract by its actions or behaviour. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    112. 112. Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>This second situation is legally termed Constructive Dismissal and may consist of a serious single action that is deemed to have destroyed the contract or alternatively it may constitute a series of smaller incidents that cumulatively add up to repudiation of the contract. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    113. 113. Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>Some Indicative examples of constructive dismissal are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of unjustifiable warnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Undermining of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing unwarranted suspicions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of provocative or defamatory language or engaging in physical or psychological abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing access to: pay increases, promotion or development opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Making unreasonable or substantial changes to job structure or terms and conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to effectively respond to reasonable grievance or failing to provide effective support to victims of harassment, bullying or unfair discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Insistence on unsafe working practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Insistence of excessive workloads. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    114. 114. Definition of Dismissal <ul><li>For dismissal to be reasonable it must exhibit two characteristics: Of fair and reasonableness. The following are considered the principle factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct of the employee </li></ul><ul><li>The employee’s capabilities or qualification </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>A statutory duty that will be contravened, by the employee of the employer, if employment continues (E.g. loss of driving licence) </li></ul><ul><li>Some other substantial reason justifying dismissal </li></ul><ul><li>  It is orthodox that senior company staff competent in employment policy and procedural detail should conduct approaches to all dismissal proceedings. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    115. 115. Review and discussion 28/06/11 08:00 AM
    116. 116. We will now watch a video about holding meetings “ Meetings Bloody Meetings ” with John Cleese
    117. 118. The management of team briefing <ul><li>Organizational objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify organizational strategic project/task objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate at all appropriate levels of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>The communication process should be as delayered as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Group size should be an effective minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership holder should be appropriately trained in team management and communicative skills. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    118. 119. Operational objectives: <ul><li>Identify participating people and their job role within the task or project. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly identify meeting objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritise agenda and schedule to a timely structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate the contributions through a formal recording system e.g. minutes should be arrangement (a person of trained secretarial status is ideal). </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    119. 120. Group objectives: <ul><li>All relevant minutes should be formally cascaded to the team members promptly. </li></ul><ul><li>Review and proposal structure should be in place to handle any enquiry relating to performance and success of task/project. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    120. 121. Team Meetings <ul><li>The structured approach to team meetings is imperative to the success of any task or project. The coordination role of the meeting leader ensures the focus of the meeting is maintained in a timely and effective process. Pivotal to the delivery success is the ability of the leadership role holder they should be appropriate in expertise and training at the level to which they are delivering as a minimum requirement. Within the team meeting situational control and leadership qualities will be in demand to ensure meeting closure is punctual and accomplished. </li></ul>28/06/11 08:00 AM
    121. 122. The Management of Meetings
    122. 123. The Management Of Meetings <ul><li>- Describe process for managing the facilitating, chairing and participation of meetings </li></ul>28/06/11
    123. 124. Preparing For A Meeting <ul><li>Selecting the right people to attend </li></ul><ul><li>Many people will be obvious participants to a meeting. For example where the quality of workmanship is a meeting subject it would be sensible to invite the Foreman and Quality Controller </li></ul>28/06/11
    124. 125. Business Communication Systems <ul><li>Others may be able to contribute specific skills or advice. Invite individuals whose communication skills will help the group work productively and achieve set goals. </li></ul><ul><li>If some participants are needed only for pan of a meeting, give them estimated start and finish times for the relevant items. This will save participants' time and make the meeting easier to control. </li></ul>28/06/11
    125. 126. Evaluating Contributions <ul><li>When you have made an initial list of participants, pinpoint the potential contribution of each person in turn: </li></ul>28/06/11
    126. 127. Evaluating Contributions <ul><li>Do they have information to share </li></ul><ul><li>- For example, a sales manager or service manager reporting the survey responses from a customer satisfaction survey </li></ul><ul><li>Can they offer specific advice or information </li></ul><ul><li>- For example, a production manager: </li></ul><ul><li>Is their professional status is useful </li></ul><ul><li>- For example, a lawyer in a contract dispute: </li></ul><ul><li>Can they implement agreed action </li></ul><ul><li>- For example, a finance director at a budget meeting </li></ul>28/06/11
    127. 128. Notifying Attendees <ul><li>One of the hardest parts of organizing a meeting is finding an appropriate time to suit all those you wish to invite. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the easiest way to fix a meeting is to arrange for it to follow an earlier one attended by the same people. Otherwise, e-mail messages and telephone calls can go back and forth until a date is fixed. </li></ul>28/06/11
    128. 129. Notifying Attendees <ul><li>If you find that someone cannot make the proposed date, consider whether it is feasible to hold the meeting without him or her before you rearrange times. Always send written confirmation of the time and place. </li></ul>28/06/11
    129. 130. Preparing An Agenda <ul><li>The best way to ensure that those attending a meeting are sure about its purpose is to send them a clear agenda well in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several ways to prepare an agenda, so find and utilize the one best suited to your purposes. </li></ul>28/06/11
    130. 131. Compiling Agendas <ul><li>An agenda for a meeting is essentially a list of items or issues that have to be raised and debated. It should be short, simple, and clear. </li></ul><ul><li>First, gather all relevant information, and then sort out which items need to be discussed and in how much detail. You may find it useful to consult with other participants. </li></ul>28/06/11
    131. 132. Compiling Agendas <ul><li>If there are many issues to discuss, assign a time limit to each to help ensure that you do not overrun the allotted duration of the meeting. How far in advance you begin to prepare an agenda will depend on how much preparation time is needed. </li></ul>28/06/11
    132. 133. Agenda 28/06/11
    133. 134. Distributing the Agenda <ul><li>Once you have drafted an agenda, send it to the other participants for comments, additions, or approval. If you wish to add or delete items from a formally approved agenda, you will need to obtain the consent of the participants. </li></ul>28/06/11
    134. 135. Distributing the Agenda <ul><li>They will be more likely to agree to a deletion than an addition, unless they have a particular interest in an item you wish to drop. It is not acceptable to present participants with a revised agenda as they arrive at a meeting unless last-minute events have made it necessary - for example, because of illness of the chairperson or a sudden change in financial circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute the final agenda as far as possible in advance of the meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    135. 136. Structuring an Agenda <ul><li>When you come to compile your meeting's agenda, try to order topics logically and group similar items together. This prevents the risk of going over the same ground again and again. </li></ul><ul><li>Your agenda should start off with &quot;housekeeping&quot; matters, such as the appointment of a chairperson and apologies for any absences, before moving on to approving the minutes of the last meeting (if relevant) and hearing reports from those assigned tasks at the previous meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    136. 137. Structuring an Agenda <ul><li>The next items covered at the meeting should be current issues - for example, the latest financial accounts and sales figures - about which the bulk of the discussion is likely to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, allow for any other business, and plan to set the date, time, and location of the next meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    137. 138. Locating A Meeting <ul><li>The choice of venue is vitally important to the success of a meeting. It is not only a question of comfort; participants must also feel that the place is appropriate to the occasion. This is true for all meetings, small or large, formal or informal. </li></ul>28/06/11
    138. 139. Choosing the Site <ul><li>If you are arranging a meeting that requires the hire of rooms and other facilities, shop around to compare prices, especially if you are operating on a tight budget. You may find you can negotiate a discount. </li></ul>28/06/11
    139. 140. Choosing the Site <ul><li>Locations in the centres of large cities may be convenient for most attendees, and well served by public transport, but space in a city centre will almost certainly be more expensive than a less central equivalent. An out-of-town location will provide fewer distractions for participants, which can be especially valuable if the meeting lasts for more than one day. </li></ul>28/06/11
    140. 141. Choosing the Site <ul><li>On the other hand, the amenities of a city may help to entice people to a meeting lasting several days. Weigh up your priorities, and make your choice of location for a venue accordingly </li></ul>28/06/11
    141. 142. Recognizing the Needs <ul><li>Try to match the location of a meeting to its aims. If one of the objectives of the meeting is to encourage two groups of people to get to know each other better, a relaxed out-of-town atmosphere may be appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>By the same token, do not hold a formal meeting in a messy open-plan office. For meetings within your organization, there is still a choice - you must decide whether home, neutral, or away territory is more suited to your needs. </li></ul>28/06/11
    142. 143. Assessing the Environment <ul><li>Physical factors play an important part in any type of meeting. Whatever the occasion, aim to make attendees comfortable enough to concentrate, but not so comfortable that they fall asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Check that external noise will be kept to a minimum and heating and ventilation are effective but not excessive. Rooms in big hotels often have excellent air conditioning but little natural light, yet this can be vital for maintaining a dynamic atmosphere. </li></ul>28/06/11
    143. 144. Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>There are a number of reasons - some obvious, some less so - why a venue may turn out to be a bad choice. </li></ul>28/06/11
    144. 145. Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>When you are inspecting and booking your venue, try to anticipate and avoid the following common pitfalls: </li></ul><ul><li>- More people attend than expected - there is insufficient room and people are uncomfortable; </li></ul><ul><li>- Fewer people attend than expected, leaving an intimidating large and empty space to fill; </li></ul><ul><li>- Air conditioning is inadequate and the room becomes stuffy, or it is on too high and not accessible for regulation </li></ul>28/06/11
    145. 146. Avoiding Pitfalls <ul><li>- Technical difficulties arise because the light switches and plugs in the meeting room are not checked and labelled; </li></ul><ul><li>- There is a lack of service outlets, such as banks or cafes, at or near the venue. </li></ul>28/06/11
    146. 147. Acoustics and Auditory Matters <ul><li>A well-structured meeting room does not guarantee of a good meeting, but it can increase the chances. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind your meeting's objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of most meetings is to share information verbally with others, so good acoustics are essential. Even a handful of people in a small room can have problems hearing each other, but acoustics are especially important for meetings with numerous participants. </li></ul>28/06/11
    147. 148. Preparing Practicalities <ul><li>The success of most meetings greatly depends on advance preparation and organization. This includes providing suitable facilities and materials for the occasion - including the venue, any audio- visual aids, and writing materials. </li></ul>28/06/11
    148. 149. Communicating and Audio Aids <ul><li>Audio-visual (AV) aids are used more and more in large meetings, presentations, and conferences to emphasize the points under discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Such aids can range from basic flip charts to sophisticated rear-projection video screens. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever AV aids are required, always rehearse their use before the meeting. Make sure you are familiar with the controls, that the equipment works, and that your aids can be seen from all seats. If necessary, enlist technical support. </li></ul>28/06/11
    149. 150. Organising the Venue <ul><li>At your venue, you may only have a limited amount of time available to check out the facilities, prepare the seating, set up audio-visual aids such as projectors and screens, and distribute agendas or background papers. </li></ul><ul><li>If this is the case, consider enrolling extra help for the preparations before the meeting and for clearing up afterwards. </li></ul>28/06/11
    150. 151. Providing Writing Materials for Note Taking <ul><li>The need for speed or accuracy when taking notes at a meeting and the style of the occasion - formal or informal - will influence participants' choice of writing aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide participants with a notepad and pens or pencils to avoid the potential delays and disturbances that occur when people have to look for their own. Make this an opportunity to gain some free publicity by issuing notepads or pens imprinted with your company's logo, name, address, and telephone number. </li></ul>28/06/11
    151. 152. Attending A Meeting <ul><li>It is the responsibility of each participant at a meeting to ensure that it attains its objectives. Prepare in advance and actively contribute to make every meeting productive. </li></ul>28/06/11
    152. 153. Attending A Meeting <ul><li>As a participant in a meeting, it is vital to be well briefed. Focus on the alms of the meeting by reading the agenda and any previous minutes in advance. Consider your expected role and how you would like to contribute, then prepare accordingly. </li></ul>28/06/11
    153. 154. Gathering Information <ul><li>Carry out some basic but thorough background research before a meeting to help you to make an informed and valid contribution. Gather information by collecting new data - for instance, by talking to colleagues and experts, or reading relevant publications and research material - or by consulting old notes, minutes of meetings, or company records. </li></ul>28/06/11
    154. 155. Points To Remember <ul><li>- Background research is essential for any contribution </li></ul><ul><li>- Contacting other participants before a meeting breaks the ice and allows for a useful exchange of information </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal rivalries between participants must be identified </li></ul><ul><li>- It may be necessary to canvass support on big issues in advance </li></ul><ul><li>- Participants can be sounded out in advance of a meeting </li></ul>28/06/11
    155. 156. Taking Minutes <ul><li>The minutes of a meeting the meeting’s secretary as a written record of what was discussed takes -short notes detailing its proceedings -. If you are responsible for taking minutes, ensure that they are accurate and clear: </li></ul>28/06/11
    156. 157. Writing Minutes <ul><li>In the minutes you should record the time and place of the meeting, the names of attendees (where appropriate), all items presented, but not necessarily details of the discussions involved, and all decisions, agreements, or appointments made. </li></ul>28/06/11
    157. 158. Writing Minutes <ul><li>During the course of a meeting, make notes from which to write the minutes in full later. Make sure the minutes are unbiased, written in a clear, concise style, and accurate. Accuracy is essential, particularly where minutes may be used as evidence in the case of a later dispute. </li></ul>28/06/11
    158. 159. Distribution of the Minutes <ul><li>Once the minutes are complete, make sure that they are distributed quickly to all the relevant people. Compiling the minutes is a meaningless task if the action agreed on at the meeting is not duly followed up. </li></ul>28/06/11
    159. 160. Distribution of the Minutes <ul><li>Minutes should indicate clearly the deadlines agreed on for any projects, and who is responsible for implementation. After a suitable period but before the next meeting, follow up on the progress of any projects or tasks noted in the minutes, and update the chairperson on their status. If necessary, see that these items are included in the agenda for the next meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    160. 161. Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>The following is a simple rank order checklist of how you see yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Never. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Occasionally. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Always. </li></ul>28/06/11
    161. 162. Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q I allow others to finish what they are saying before I speak </li></ul><ul><li>q I am confident when making a point </li></ul><ul><li>q I am able to concede when I am wrong </li></ul><ul><li>q I can control my voice and tone when nervous </li></ul>28/06/11
    162. 163. Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q My body language suggests self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>q I dress appropriately for meetings </li></ul><ul><li>q I listen intently and carefully to others </li></ul><ul><li>q I am careful to prepare for meetings </li></ul>28/06/11
    163. 164. Evaluating Your Skill As a Participant <ul><li>q I an careful to review the minutes of a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>q I research others views prior top meetings </li></ul><ul><li>q I know my objectives well before I go into a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>q I always intend to share common purposes with other within the meeting </li></ul>28/06/11
    164. 165. Analysis <ul><li>12 – 24: Your skills need all-round attention </li></ul><ul><li>25 – 36: you are a reasonable performer </li></ul><ul><li>37 – 48: A sound performance </li></ul>28/06/11
    165. 166. Chairing A Meeting <ul><li>Every meeting needs a chairperson to direct the proceedings. As chairperson, you must fulfil the vital role of ensuring the smooth running and successful completion of any meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>A chairperson is the person in charge of running a meeting. He or she has the authority to regulate the meeting, and is responsible for enforcing any rules that govern the proceedings, keeping order and the successful completion of business. </li></ul>28/06/11
    166. 167. Using Personal Skills <ul><li>The ideal chairperson should have a wide range of personal skills. Brush up on these essential skills before chairing any meeting: </li></ul><ul><li>q Firmness in running meetings to time </li></ul><ul><li>q Ability to summarize points succinctly; </li></ul><ul><li>q Flexibility when dealing with the different tones and styles of attendees;' </li></ul><ul><li>q Openness and receptiveness when listening to opinions that you do not share; </li></ul><ul><li>q Fair-mindedness in ensuring that all views are aired and given equal consideration. </li></ul>28/06/11
    167. 168. Points to Remember: <ul><li>q A chairperson is responsible for ensuring that any discussion is relevant to the points on a meeting's agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>q A chairperson should repeat any motion proposed by those attending to ensure that everyone has heard and understood it. </li></ul><ul><li>q A chairperson can expel anyone who disrupts a meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>q A chairperson is responsible for summing up the discussion at the end of the meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    168. 169. Chairing an Informal Meeting <ul><li>Not all informal meetings have an &quot;official&quot; chairperson, those that do usually appoint one by a vote among participants or via instructions from the meeting's organizers. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of chairperson here is mainly to keep control and to ensure that every point of view is heard. In general, the chairperson must appear unbiased, so cannot fully join in the discussion. </li></ul>28/06/11
    169. 170. Chairing an Informal Meeting <ul><li>However, the chairperson can still exert considerable influence over the outcome of a meeting by allowing detailed coverage of some issues and limited consideration of others. The chairperson also often has a casting vote in the event of it being necessary </li></ul>28/06/11
    170. 171. Chairing a Formal Meeting <ul><li>A number of different rules govern the selection of a chairperson for a formal meeting. For example, in the case of a public company, the choice will be controlled by company rules. </li></ul>28/06/11
    171. 172. Chairing a Formal Meeting <ul><li>A government committee, however, will select its chairperson in accordance with statutory regulations. One of the main responsibilities of a chairperson is to ensure that a meeting is properly convened: that is, that the minimum number of people, known as a quorum, is present; that business follows the order of the agenda; and that there is sufficient time to discuss all the items. If these conditions are not met, any decisions taken may not be binding. </li></ul>28/06/11
    172. 173. Pacing A Meeting <ul><li>Pacing a meeting correctly is an important part of the role of chairperson. Always make sure that an agenda is provided and adhered to, and that the speakers have enough time to make their points without allowing the meeting to overrun its schedule. </li></ul>28/06/11
    173. 174. Starting on Time <ul><li>Always make a point of starting meetings on time. When you are chairing a meeting, arrive at the venue well before the planned start time. If some participants are late, start without them. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if a key contributor is late, it is acceptable to wait for their arrival before beginning, or to change the order of the agenda to prevent delays. If starting late is unavoidable, make sure that this is noted in the minutes, along with the reasons for the delay: </li></ul>28/06/11
    174. 175. Keeping to the Agenda <ul><li>It is important to allocate an overall time limit to complete a meetings agenda. Research shows that the attention span of most participants picks up for the first 10 to 15 minutes, and then dips before rising again as the end of a meeting is anticipated . </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal meeting length of 45 minutes minimizes loss of attention time. When chairing a meeting, keep things moving briskly by adhering strictly to the agenda, enforcing a strict time limit for each item. This establishes momentum in proceedings. </li></ul>28/06/11
    175. 176. Using Time Effectively <ul><li>It is vital that the chairperson keeps a meeting's purpose clearly in each participant's mind. Do not allow participants to waste time by wandering from the point. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for a brief discussion among the participants before summarizing the debate, and, if appropriate, taking a vote on the points raised in the meeting. </li></ul>28/06/11
    176. 177. Providing Breaks and Refreshments <ul><li>Time for breaks and refreshments should always be built into the agenda of a long meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>These breaks serve several purposes: they allow attendees to discuss matters in small groups, which may help to iron out any awkward differences; they provide the chairperson with useful buffer zones that can be used to extend or shorten a meeting in special circumstances; they allow bodies and brains to relax a little. </li></ul>28/06/11
    177. 178. Closing A Meeting <ul><li>When all the items on an agenda have been discussed, and any necessary action agreed, it is the duty of the chairperson to bring the proceedings to a close. Ensure that all decisions are recorded accurately and any follow-up procedures are set in motion. </li></ul>28/06/11
    178. 179. Dealing With Any Other Business <ul><li>The final item on the agenda of most meetings is Any Other Business (AOB). This gives participants an opportunity to raise issues that could not have been anticipated before the meeting, such as points stimulated by the discussion. </li></ul>28/06/11
    179. 180. Dealing With Any Other Business <ul><li>Participants sometimes use AOB tactically to raise controversial issues or to introduce surprise or unexpected items to a meeting. As chairperson, you must decide whether to allow this practice. You may either permit a discussion or vote on the issues raised under AOB, or add the issues to the agenda for the next meeting so that they can be discussed fully before a decision is made. </li></ul>28/06/11
    180. 181. Summarising <ul><li>Once participants in a meeting have considered the final item of business, recap on each decision reached, summarizing the discussion leading up to it. This is an opportunity for you to redress the balance of the meeting by giving each of the issues discussed the significance you think they merit. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if the most insignificant item on the agenda has inspired the longest, most heated debate, give it scant attention in your summary to indicate the weight you think it deserves. </li></ul>28/06/11
    181. 182. Concluding a Meeting <ul><li>After summarizing the business of a meeting, decide whether you need to meet again, and set a date and time if necessary: </li></ul><ul><li>You can confirm these details and the venue when you circulate a new agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting can now be closed. At this point, you should thank all the participants for attending, especially if they have voluntarily given up their time to do so. </li></ul>28/06/11
    182. 183. Role Play 1 <ul><li>Elect a Chairperson </li></ul><ul><li>Elect someone to take minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Agenda for a meeting on the subject of ‘ Facility Upgrades’ </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the meeting and discuss points on agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude the meeting appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Produce minutes and an action plan for future tasks </li></ul>28/06/11
    183. 184. Role Play 2 28/06/11 <ul><li>Produce a presentation of upgrades based </li></ul><ul><li>on your meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your presentation to a group </li></ul><ul><li>of colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation title should be ‘Proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrades’ </li></ul><ul><li>Include in your presentation, timescales for implementation and any potential disruptions </li></ul>

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