Distance learning study guide v1 managing people unit 1

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Distance learning study guide v1 managing people unit 1

  1. 1. Bridgwater College<br />Area of Arts & Technology<br />Automotive Department<br />Study Guide for the<br />BTEC HNC / HND in Automotive Management & Technology (Level 5)<br />Unit 1: Managing People<br />Programme Manager<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailOlly Bartlett01278 441228 / bartletto@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Programme Unit Delivery Team<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailOlly Bartlett01278 441228 / bartletto@bridgwater.ac.ukSimon Grey01278 441228 / greys@bridgwater.ac.ukChris Hamlett01278 441228 / hamlettc@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Tutor<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailChris Hamlett01278 441228 / hamlettc@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Bridgwater College<br />Bath Road<br />Bridgwater <br />Somerset<br />TA6 4PZ<br />Tel: 01278 <br />E-mail: <br />Contents<br />Course Specification & Assessment Guide4PrefaceHow to use this study guide10Outcome 110Outcome 2 17Outcome 337Outcome 442Preparing your assignment45References and further reading45<br /> Unit specification<br />Unit 1: Managing People<br />NQF level 5: BTEC Higher National — H2<br />Description of unit<br />This unit provides a thorough foundation in the essential aspects of managing people employed by the motor industry service sector. It is intended to develop the learner’s understanding and ability to deal effectively with the processes that relate to human resource management. The unit embraces all aspects of people management; personnel issues such as recruitment and selection, grievance and disciplinary processes, employment documentation, measuring performance and team management. Learners will also develop their awareness of aspects relating to individual performance. This includes the motivation of teams and individuals to maximise their contribution to the quality of service and resulting improvements in the performance of the business in the marketplace.<br />Summary of learning outcomes<br />To achieve this unit a learner must:<br />1 Investigate employment practices<br />2 Evaluate the performance of individuals<br />3 Investigate the roles and behaviour of teams<br />4 Evaluate the performance of a team.<br />Content<br />1 Employment practices<br />Recruitment and selection: work force planning; internal and external appointments (e.g. advertising vacancies, use of recruitment and temporary placement agencies).<br />Documentation (e.g. application forms, curriculum vitae, short and long listing, selection criteria, person specifications).<br />Selection processes (e.g. psychometric testing, skills testing, interviewing processes and techniques). <br />Evaluating applicants; appointment procedures and induction procedures.<br />Legal requirements: employment contracts; equal opportunities; discrimination.<br />Job descriptions: job analysis and roles (e.g. duties, responsibilities, limits of authority, line management).<br />Layout and format of job specification; conditions of employment (e.g. pay,<br />Bonus and incentives, etc)<br />Employment documentation: formal written contracts; policy and procedures (e.g. employee handbook, grievance procedures, disciplinary procedures).<br />2.3.4 Etc….<br />Outcomes and Assessed Criteria<br />OutcomeNo.Assessment criteria for passTo achieve each outcome a learner must demonstratethe ability to:Outcome 1 Investigate employmentpractices1.1Identify and describe recruitment and selectionprocesses and procedures in an organisation1.2Explain the legal requirements that relate torecruitment and selection1.3Describe the factors affecting job descriptions1.4evaluate employment documentation and identifytheir benefits to the employer and the employeeOutcome 2 Evaluate the performance ofindividuals2.1Identify and describe the factors affecting theperformance of people at work2.2Explain the methods used for conductingperformance review2.3Analyse the procedures, processes anddocumentation of a staff appraisal system2.4Describe how individual performance targets are setOutcome 3Investigate the roles and behaviour of teams3.1Describe the type and function of teams found in agiven vehicle operation 3.2Identify and describe team operating procedures andevaluate methods of communication3.3Identify and explain team responsibilitiesOutcome 4Evaluate the performance ofa team4.1identify and determine the targets for teams4.2describe the factors affecting team management4.3evaluate the performance of a team<br />Merit and Distinction Grading <br />Contextualising the generic grade descriptors<br />The generic merit and distinction grade descriptors need to be viewed as a qualitative extension of the assessment criteria for pass within each individual unit. The relevant generic grade descriptors must be identified and specified within an assignment and the relevant indicative characteristics should be used to place the required evidence in context.Assessment<br />As well as the Course engagement task, the following assignment must be completed for assessment purposes:<br />A copy of the assessment can be found in the Blackboard assessment folder.<br />Sampled for Internal Verification<br />IV’s NameDate<br />Programme Title:Higher National Certificate in Vehicle Operations Management W4831Unit Number/Title:Unit 1 Managing People H2Title of Assignment:Managing People 1 of 1Assignment Internally Verified by:Barry WilliamsDate: 2011Tutor Name:Chris HamlettIssue Date:Submission Date:Student Name:<br />Module Criteria Assessed (Students fill column A with specific page No. where criteria can be found. Assessor sign column B when criteria has been met).UnitCritCriteria AssessedAB11.1Identify and describe recruitment and selectionprocesses and procedures in an organisation11.2Explain the legal requirements that relate torecruitment and selection11.3Describe the factors affecting job descriptions11.4evaluate employment documentation and identifytheir benefits to the employer and the employee12.1Identify and describe the factors affecting theperformance of people at work12.2Explain the methods used for conductingperformance review12.3Analyse the procedures, processes anddocumentation of a staff appraisal system12.4Describe how individual performance targets are set13.1Describe the type and function of teams found in agiven vehicle operation 13.2Identify and describe team operating procedures andevaluate methods of communication13.3Identify and explain team responsibilities14.1identify and determine the targets for teams14.2describe the factors affecting team management14.3evaluate the performance of a teamUnitDesMerit Descriptors AssessedAB1M1.1Effective judgments have been clearly made with the use of further reading.1M2.1Apply and analyze detailed knowledge and skills, using relevant theories and techniques in response to the tasks.1M3.3Coherently present and communicate the research and data in response to the tasks using technical language and appropriate theory models accurately.UnitDesDistinction Descriptors AssessedAB1D1.1You have drawn justifiable conclusions through synthesis of ideas, information and data relevant to your research and criteria.1D1.2Validity of your results have been evaluated using defined criteria and evidence of further reading.1D2.1Independence has been demonstrated within your responses to the tasks.1D3.1Ideas have been generated and decisions taken in response to the tasks in doing so showing in-depth knowledge of the subject area.<br />Assessor feedback & Suggestions for improvement Student comments pre-submission on how assignment was managedStudent comments on feedbackTutor signature on feedbackDateStudent signature on feedbackDate<br />Statement of AuthenticationI declare all work within the submitted assignment to be entirely my own unless otherwise stated and that I fully understand the college disciplinary process for plagiarism.Student Signature:Print Name:Date:<br />Date Received:Received by:<br />Assessment Brief<br />Description of unit<br />This unit provides a thorough foundation in the essential aspects of managing people employed<br />By the motor industry service sector. It is intended to develop the learner’s understanding and<br />Ability to deal effectively with the processes that relate to human resource management. The<br />Unit embraces all aspects of people management; personnel issues such as recruitment and<br />Selection, grievance and disciplinary processes, employment documentation, measuring<br />Performance and team management. Learners will also develop their awareness of aspects<br />Relating to individual performance. This includes the motivation of teams and individuals to<br />Maximise their contribution to the quality of service and resulting improvements in the<br />Performance of the business in the marketplace.<br />Summary of learning outcomes<br />To achieve this unit a learner must:<br />1 Investigate employment practices<br />2 Evaluate the performance of individuals<br />3 Investigate the roles and behaviour of teams<br />4 Evaluate the performance of a team.<br />In order to reach the high quality the qualification demands and to withstand the rigidity of the assessment criteria the total assignment must be a minimum of 2500 words or equivalent in order to reach the pass grade, merit and distinction will be awarded thereafter having referred to the Merit and Distinction criteria.<br />Task 1<br />As the Head of personal you have been asked to oversee the employment of a Regional Sales Manager, in order for the process to be successful there are certain factors that must be considered. Successful completion of the following tasks will ensure the new appointment is the right one.<br />Identify and describe suitable recruitment, selection process and procedures for the Regional Sales Manager position.<br />Explain any legal requirement that relate to the recruitment and selection of an employee<br />Generate a job description for the post explaining the reasoning for the description.<br /> <br />Task 2<br />Using the staff appraisal document (appendix 1) as a primary source, evaluate the procedures, processes and documentation of a staff appraisal system. Within your evaluation describe how individual performance targets are set, explain the methods used when conducting performance. <br />Task 3<br />Teams play an invaluable role in a successful organization. Identify the various types of teams found in an automotive operation. Having identified the various teams select one of them to analyze in more detail. Your analysis must include:<br />The composition of the team detailing their responsibilities, how their personalities match these responsibilities and make the team work effectively. You will need to refer to Belbin’s team roles, personalities, theories and types which can be found at, www.businessballs.com/personalitystylesmodels or www.businessballs.com/dtiresources/TQM_development_people_teams.pdf<br />Management of the team<br />How the team communicates and how effective these methods are.<br />Task 4<br />Using the team you selected for task 3 you must now identify and determine realistic targets for the team using relevant techniques and theories. Having set targets explain how you would evaluate the performance of the team against the targets. Apply any theories and techniques to your evaluation justifying your methods. <br />SUGGESTED READING<br />Campbell, Stonehouse and Houston — Business Strategy (J A Majors, 2002)<br />ISBN: 0750655690<br />Dale B – Managing Quality (Prentice Hall, 1994)<br />Hannagan, Tim — Management Concepts and Practices (FT Prentice Hall, 2001)<br />ISBN: 0273651897<br />Johns T – Perfect Customer Care (Century Business, 1994)<br />Tenner A, Detoro I J – Total Quality Management (Addison-Wesley, 1991)<br />Websites<br />The following websites are useful in providing information and case-study materials:<br />www.benchmarkingnetwork.com<br />www.benchnet.com<br />www.iip.co.uk<br />www.iso9000.org<br />www.quality-foundation.co.uk<br />www.qualitytoday.com<br />www.businessballs.com<br />Preface: How to use this Study Guide<br />This Study Guide and the accompanying Study Material constitute the learning materials for the title of unit. The Study Guide functions in a similar way to that of a tutor, by presenting questions and suggesting activities that will help to consolidate your understanding of the unit content contained in the Study Material, and by guiding you to what we hope will be a successful assignment. You should aim to work steadily through the Study Guide, referring to the Study Material at appropriate points as instructed. Most of the responses to the tasks should be carried out on blackboard and will be automatically assessed. <br />Outcome 1Investigate employment practices<br />Explain the role of personnel in the recruitment and selection of staff<br />Explain the features of a job specification<br />Explain staff selection<br />Explain staff management<br />Describe importance of team management<br />Armstrong (2001): provides the following definition of Human Resource Management: HRM. <br />HRM can be defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets: the people of the organization. <br />Importantly Armstrong identifies that the people of an organization will operate both individually and collectively in accomplishing the objectives set by the organization strategic management in order to achieve the aim. <br />The overall purpose of HRM is to enable the organization to achieve success through its people. <br />HRM Its Purpose<br />It meets the need for a strategic approach to human resource management<br /> A coherent approach to mutual employment and HR policies and practices.<br /> HRM identifies with the organization’s mission statement* commitment-orientated. <br />Employees are recognized as assets (Human capital) of the organization. Investment of this asset includes: learning and development within a culture of a learning organization. <br />Human Resource is recognized as a source of competitive advantage<br />The approach to employee relation is unitarist not pluralist. The culture focus is upon a common aim and interest of employer and employee. <br />HRM is a line management responsibility <br />Human resource Management is a distinctive approach to employment management, which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. <br />Storey (1995:5) <br />The role of the personnel department, now more accurately termed the human resources department, is to provide a system of method, people and processes to effect efficient recruitment and hence successful selection of people to the organization. <br />The system is derived from three essential and linked stages. <br />Satisfy the needs for an effective evaluation of both the job and the person specification. Appropriate consideration should be given to the overall objective of the job role and its part within the organization’s strategic plan.<br />An effective choice of selection processes should be legitimately evaluated. Procedural requirements should be established and appointed.<br />An effective selection process including material and human resources should be prepared and communication system established.<br />Appropriate time and cost scales should be identified and agreement with the organization owners confirmed. <br />The main factors that the HRM would consider are described below:<br />Marketing of advertisement<br />Method of placement: Internet, media, etc…<br />Outsourcing<br />Resources co-ordination<br />Assessment methods/centres<br />Selection techniques<br />Appointment <br />Induction/mentoring<br />Review <br />In this the 21st Century the focus has moved to selecting people who offer the multiple skills that are the best suited to the operating roles of the organization. But in accompaniment to this is the desire to nurture a unitarist culture that of all working in a harmony to a set target or group of objectives. <br />Mintzberg: identifies the selection of these people as an alignment to a Total Quality Approach. <br />Imperative is the specification of the role, it should be clear and identify all activities. Anything brought about by this role as it participates within the complete business function of the organization should be transparent. <br />Roberts: (2002) identifies this as the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. With the following as the key elements of person selection:<br /> <br />A clear and precise specification of the role<br />Effective use of multiple techniques<br />Elimination of redundant processes<br />Measurement<br />Evaluation, review and continuous improvement <br />Selection Process Flow-Chart<br />Job Specification<br />|<br />Analyze the Role (Job description)<br />|<br />Person Specification<br />|<br />Job Description<br />|<br />Screening Applicants<br />|<br />Develop an effective selection process<br />|<br />Implement selection process<br />|<br />Evaluate<br />Interviews<br />The objectives to the Interview process are to enable a mutually beneficial opportunity for the candidate and the prospective employer to establish an understanding of the needs and attributes of each other. <br />This may include one of the following structured types:<br />►    Individual Interviewer<br />►    Interview Panel<br />►    Selection Board<br />►    Inter-active Role Play<br />Planning a structured interview ensure an objective outcome to the selection process. It is important to avoid subjectivity and influence as personal choice will not necessarily align to the requirements of the job specification. <br />Under no circumstance should an Interview be based upon a random selection of questions. <br />Adopting this method will undoubtedly include subjective opinions and preferences, which may lead to a prejudicial or discriminating decision. <br />Armstrong: appoints a five point plan to a structured Interview:<br />Welcome and neutral introduction<br />The formal interview to assign competencies, competences and characteristics to the person specification of the job role<br />To provide pertinent information relating to the job specification and organization.<br />To provide opportunity to satisfy any enquiry or questions the candidate may have.<br />To close the Interview process with clear indication as to the next step of the process. <br />Interview techniques:it is important during the interview process to respect the position of the candidate. Effort should be made at the initial stage to putting the candidate at their ease. An outline of the interview purpose and content including the specified time duration should be clear at the outset. <br />Conclusion: the conclusion drawn from an interview should be considered against the criteria of the person specification and the alternative selection techniques employed. Importantly a snap and isolated decision may hold many pitfalls and a sound recording system of histories in interview and candidate development should be utilised to form an objective reference of the organizations human resource management. G. Roberts (2001): <br />The following outline the usual formalities to the arrangement needs of a successful Interview process:<br />Written details of the position, job description: and Interview appointment and venue should be clearly communicated.<br />Consideration for travelling, parking and accessibility for the candidate should be clearly communicated and available. Emergency contingencies should be clear.<br />A full briefing and timetable relating to the Interview and selection processes should be clearly communicated.<br />The interview panel should be appropriately prepared and pre-read of the candidate details.<br />Appropriate personnel should be available to meet candidate needs such as brochure display company history or tour arrangements as required or offered.<br />Opportunity to discuss decision outcomes should be available within a neutral environment and audience. Method of response and time duration should be absolutely clear in communication.<br />Records of the Interview process should be met with the explicit approval of the candidate. <br />Task 1.1: Course Engagement Task Employment PracticesInvestigate recruitment and selection processes and procedures in an organisation including the role of HR departments, person specification, testing techniques and interviewsStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (1-60)Carry out the 2 Activities as described on slides 36 and 41 in PowerPoint 1<br />It is imperative to prevent against discrimination within the process of person specification that an appropriate understanding of the law and current practices should be developed. Specifically the law currently protects against: G. Roberts (2001:41)<br />Sex discrimination<br />Racial discrimination<br />Disability discrimination<br />In addition discrimination may be direct or indirect and to promote either; intentionally or innocently is an offence. <br />Task 1.2: Course Engagement Task Employment Practices Investigate the legal requirements that relate torecruitment and selection with particular regard to actions which may be discriminatory in lawStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (26, 47, and 52)Outline the 3 main areas of discrimination law and define indirect and direct discrimination<br />Selection Procedures<br />Roberts (2001): identifies a two way process of matching people to roles. Therefore encouraging an element of self-selection within the applicants’ evaluation of his/her own suitability provides a productive contribution in reduced speculative applications. <br />The targeting of an appropriate audience is therefore vital in attracting the suitable applicant. If we consider the opportunity for the position of Finance director for a large Automotive Group it may be most appropriate to place a professional advertisement through an agency within the professional journals of the accounting practice. <br />Further it may be considered appropriate to rely upon the expertise of a recruitment agency that might actively head hunt an appropriate executive level candidate. <br />Likewise operational supervisors and managers may be advertised for within specific journals such as the Motor Industry Management Journal. <br />The overall aim therefore of the recruitment and selection process is to provide at the minimal cost the appropriate quality and range of candidates to provide for the optimum selection criteria. <br />In response to a vacancy being presented through the media format it will attract both orthodox and non-orthodox responses. These will require an initial sample and selection process to sift the appropriate candidates. <br />Almost imperative to any job application will be the completion of an orthodox application form. <br />This formality enables the contractual nature of the relationship of applicant and potential employer to be engaged without ambiguity but with integrity. <br />In addition these form the basis of personal records and pertinent details. <br />The screening of applications is required to be conducted to rational and recognized criteria. <br />If we refer to our person specification it is possible now to correctly identify the competences and competencies that are the criteria to effective job performance. <br />Roberts (2001): suggests the use of a competencies framework from which a structured screening or short-listing can be achieved. <br />Rating an application through the weighted competencies method<br />CompetencyWeightingRatingScoreTechnical Knowledge   Business Knowledge   Results   People experience   Total   CompetencyWeightingRatingScoreTechnical Knowledge   Business Knowledge   Results   People experience   Total   <br />The justification to the use of testing is to establish a true representation of a person’s ability and aptitude. In essence ability testing is definable in to two categories:<br />Principal categories: <br />Personality value assessments. <br />Cognitive value assessments. <br />Firstly measures of typical performance. These are tests designed to assess personal qualities such as personality, beliefs, values and interests: and in addition motivation.<br /> Administered with no time limit the responses represent the respondent’s feelings or beliefs at that time. <br />Secondly are those designed to measure maximum performance. <br />These are termed cognitive or ability tests, usually administered with a specific time limit and have a single specific correct answer option. <br />  <br />Typical terminologies for these types of test are: <br />Psychological <br />Psychometric <br />Psychometrics: mental measurement. Their purpose is to provide objective means by which to measure individual abilities and traits. <br />Importantly the selection and measurement using psychometric testing relies upon competent and suitably trained personnel. This particular discipline within testing is a weakness; appropriate orthodox practices are obtainable from the agency provider or from such institutes as The British Psychological Society. <br />Further inappropriate application of this type of testing produces inaccurate and variable responses. <br />Armstrong (2001): Identifies the following characteristics of a good test: <br />Sensitive to discriminate well between candidates<br />Standardized to provide a representative sample of the population of candidates<br />Reliable in consistently measuring the same values to the same degree <br />Valid by measuring only those values that the test is designed to and precluding irrelevant information and data. <br />The main test types are in the following categories:<br />Intelligence<br />Personality<br />Ability<br />Aptitude<br />Attainment (achievement) <br />Task 1.3: Course Engagement Task Employment PracticesInvestigate the factors affecting job descriptions to include the importance of matching person specification to job specificationStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (11-35)Carry out the activity as described on slide 20 in PowerPoint 1<br />Armstrong (2001): provides a rich explanation within the job analysis and role description.<br /> <br />An important HRM function within the recruitment process needs to provide: the job description, role definitions, personal learning needs and development objectives. <br />Job Analysis: The process of amassing information relevant to the content of the job currently and appropriate to providing a suitable and realistic description. As the analysis should be focused upon expectations of the holder it is important to reference to measurement or evaluation techniques associated to the job function. <br />Role Analysis: defines the process of collecting and analysing data specifically related to the role of the participating people. Role analysis almost precludes the content of the job with the concentration upon the behavioural aspects expected of the role holder. <br />These would include: working within groups or where project focused; teams, flexibility, motivation, management and leadership qualities. <br />The job description should be accurately derived from the job analysis employed. It should provide the foundation information specific to the function of the job and outline with clarity the responsibilities and limitation or extent of authority. <br />In support of the specified evaluation and accountability policies should be a defined outline of expected qualification and competence requirements. Behavioural competencies should be reflected as the performance related enhancers qualified as necessary to the role. <br />Further to these two aspects of analysis is the effective recognition as to the current needs for the actual role itself and how it fits overall with the organizations objectives.<br /> At this point opportunity to review specification against the organizations future objectives should be considered prior to the implementation of the next stage of the process. <br />Person specification: is concerned with the measurable competences specific to the demands of the job specification and the necessary competencies required to enhance performance vs. those that impede.<br />Roberts (2001): identifies the following Acronym:<br /> PERSON-Specification<br />Personal qualities and attributes; traits <br />Experience<br />Record of achievements<br />Skills or qualifications necessary to the execution of the activity.<br />Organization-match; personal attributes outside of discrimination.<br />Needs: candidate expectations<br />Task 1.4: Course Engagement Task Employment PracticesInvestigate employment documentation and identifytheir benefits to the employer and the employee, to include Application forms, job descriptions, person specifications and keeping recordsStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (16-60)Carry out the activity as described on slide 37 in PowerPoint 1<br />Outcome 2Evaluate the performance of individuals<br />Processes of Staff Management<br />Staff management is a component of the organizational management. A framework of varying rigidity and flexibility demands established from four main component systems:<br />Leadership<br />Decision-making<br />Conflict<br />Power and politics <br />Within the key component of leadership are the discipline elements of responsibility and delegation. In essence management is a mechanism through which the objectives of the organization aim are determined and achieved. But we must consider the vital component to the achievement of all objectives: motivation. <br />As previously realized people are the most valuable asset in all senses of enrichment to the value of the organizations resources. Not least of all recognition of the importance of the contribution they bring in addition to the task accomplishment.<br />Leadership as a role has two clear role aims:<br />Task achievement within the requirements set<br />Maintain effective relationships between themselves, groups and individuals on a consistent basis. <br />Task needs: leadership maintains perspective upon the common aim and the recognized value or reward through its achievement<br />Group maintenance needs: leadership manages the disparate association and cements the positive links within the active group relationship<br />Individual needs: these needs or motivating drives are tangible to the overall group aim but are however intrinsic to the overall success. Therefore it is essential that the leadership role define a strategy to resolve and meeting these needs in harmony with the group objectives. <br />The nature of motivation is complex and extensive not least reflected by the volumes of research and theory backed up by empirical evidence. <br /> <br />The aim of motivation theories is to establish an understanding of the needs that drive the individual to perform in a behaviour that the organization requires. <br />Motivation Theories<br />These fall broadly into three categories:<br />Content theories<br />Process theories<br />Social process theories <br />The content theory is focused to the achievement of natural drives within our make-up these are seen as rank order or hierarchical needs of which the higher level drives motivate the need to develop our self-esteem and own achievement. <br />Content theory recognizes that unless the basic attributes relating to an employee’s welfare and well being are met the failure to develop toward these will work in conflict with the motivational objectives sought within leadership aims. <br />Perhaps the greatest theorist of the content theory is Abraham Maslow who identified the following hierarchical model of motivational drives:<br />Physiological:basic needs satisfiers<br />Safety: well being needs satisfiers<br />Social: relationship and acceptance satisfiers<br />Esteem:recognition and achievement satisfiers<br />Self-fulfilment:to recognize achievement potential of a higher order <br />The process theories consider motivation as a conscious decision made by an individual through whom the conduct or action intended can provide reward and recognition. Of these theories perhaps the most recognized are:<br />The expectancy theory<br />Goal theory<br />Equity theory<br />Perhaps the greatest recognized theorist of process theory is Victor Vroom:<br />Process theories do not rely upon natural instinctive drivers but a rationale or reason to perform. Hence it is vital that the leadership identifies with the characteristics that the employees see as valuable and trustworthy.<br />The third group of motivational theories are in essence centred to Frederick Herzberg: aligned to the concept of job enrichment the theory expounds factors for motivation content and for context. Grouped as follows:<br />Motivation Factors (Content)Hygiene Factors (Context)AchievementPayAdvancementCompany policyGrowthLeadership styleRecognitionStatusResponsibilitySecurityJob satisfactionWorking conditionsMotivation Factors (Content)Hygiene Factors (Context)AchievementPayAdvancementCompany policyGrowthLeadership styleRecognitionStatusResponsibilitySecurityJob satisfactionWorking conditions<br />The concept behind the theory relies upon the satisfaction of the hygiene factors, although not motivational themselves they serve as the foundation from which the content factors are achievable and realisable. Leadership has a more sanitary role to play here ensuring that the procedural elements of the employees situation are catered for thus allowing attention to be focused to the motivators of the job performance.<br />Task 2.1: Course Engagement Task Performance of IndividualsInvestigate the factors affecting the performance of people at work to include motivational theories, process management of staff and leadershipStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (61-75)Carry out exercise as described on slide 75 PowerPoint 1<br />“Appraising performance is not a precise measurement but a subjective judgement. It has a long history of being damned for its ineffectiveness at the same time as being anxiously sought by people wanting to know how they are doing.”<br />Torrington Hall (1998:182) <br />It is important to realize before considering the process of appraisal that there is considerable opinion of rejection by experts and theorists largely brought about by the mismanagement of the process itself.<br />Torrington Hall (1998): Identify two primary categories of appraisal process.<br />The management control approach: this style adopts an authority stance, citing the need to stimulate the effective performance and potential of the individual, setting achievable targets to be met. Performances beyond a predetermined level are responded to by way of reward, approval and promotion. <br />Alternatively is the development approach. This style focuses upon the individual and the improvement of their own progress. Appealing to situations of groups and high mutual respect the emphasis is upon an interview format of exchange in ideas and goals as opposed to agreeing of targets. The operating principle to the development approach is less reliant upon records and structures and exists within a mutually trusting and flexible environment where a set of united common objectives are pursued. <br />The situation of appraisal interview has a high probability of being conducted by a personnel or line manager/supervisor who is known to the appraisee, even to a social extent. Therefore the interview process should be approached with candour reflecting the deference of an appointment interview structure. After all the purpose of an appraisal is to develop and progress the staff in line with the organization performance. <br />Task 2.2: - Course Engagement Task Performance of Individuals Investigate the methods used for conducting performance review to include the Management Control and Development Control approachesStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (154-167)Carry out the exercise on slide 160 PowerPoint 1<br />Appendix 1<br />PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCEDURE<br />CONTENTS<br />SECTION 1:INTRODUCTIONParagraphItem1.1What is Performance Appraisal?1.2 - 1.3Links with Investors in People Standards1.4Who conducts Performance Appraisal?1.5Who should be Appraised?1.6Who should attend Appraisal Training?<br />SECTION 2:HOW TO CONDUCT AN APPRAISAL MEETINGParagraphItem2.1Setting up the Meeting2.2 - 2.4Preparation of Documentation2.5Types of Questioning2.6Listening and Observing2.7-2.11Summarising and Documenting the Meeting2.12 – 2.13Interim Review Meeting<br />SECTION 3:YOUR APPRAISAL MEETINGParagraphItem3.1 - 3.3Preparation for the Meeting3.4 - 3.6Appraisal Discussions3.7Documentation for Employee’s personal records3.8Interim Review - 6 Months Later<br />SECTION 4:APPRAISAL FORMSFORM AAppraisee Preparation FormFORM BAppraiser Preparation FormFORM CRecord of Meeting<br />1INTRODUCTION<br />What is Performance Appraisal?1.1Performance Appraisal is a joint review process between you and your line manager to discuss your progress. Your line manager is responsible for conducting an Appraisal meeting with you each year to evaluate your progress and plan your development. You should work together with your manager to implement the agreed targets. 1.2Within the College’s Personnel and Development Policies, Appraisal is an important management development process. It is an opportunity for staff to tell us how they feel about their jobs and what we can do to support them.1.3As an Investors in People employer we are keen to ensure that our staff development policies and processes are linked to achievement of business objectives. The development needs identified at Appraisal are revised to ensure they fit within business goals and targets. The overall objective is to enhance the quality of service provided by Bridgwater College to our students.Who Conducts Performance Appraisal?1.4The Appraiser will be the Line Manager. The techniques for conducting the Appraisal meeting and completing the Appraisal documentation are set out in the next section. The line management structure for conducting meetings is as follows:Chair of GovernorsPrincipalPrincipalVice PrincipalPrincipal/Vice PrincipalArea HeadsArea HeadsSection Leaders and Support ManagersSection LeadersLecturersLine ManagersSupport StaffWho Should be Appraised?1.5Our Appraisal systems cover all permanent and temporary staff (full-time and part-time) who are employed for a minimum period of 12 months. We recommend as a minimum standard an annual appraisal of all staff in ‘substantive’ posts (i.e. working for approximately 6 or more hours per week for at least 2 academic terms each year). 1.6This includes part-time lecturers. Section Leaders are responsible for ensuring Appraisals are implemented for all substantive posts, as defined above. A self-appraisal form is available for Associate Lecturers who undertake less than 6 hours per week. Contact SQS for a copy of this form.Who Should Attend Appraisal Training?1.7All line managers should attend an appraisal training session on appointment. All staff are encouraged to attend for a ‘refresher’ session every few years, to update their skills.Equality, Diversity and Disability1.8Line managers are requested to ask the Appraisee if there are any adaptations or modifications that the Appraisee would find useful to support them in their job. This question is particularly useful for managers to ask staff with disabilities. An employee may also wish to volunteer this information during the meeting, or at a separate time.<br />2HOW TO CONDUCT AN APPRAISAL MEETING WITH YOUR STAFF<br />Preparation2.1Allow 1½ hours for the meeting. Ensure you plan ahead, to diarise the appointment and book a suitable room. Ensure there are no barriers to communication and choose the venue accordingly. 2.2When you arrange the appointment with the Appraisee, explain the Appraisal process and set a date for exchange of the draft Appraisal forms. Ask the Appraisee to bring the most recent appraisal record, their job description and any work records to the meeting. Stress the two-sided nature of the meeting.2.3Prepare for the meeting by referring to the Appraisee’s job description and last year’s appraisal forms (or the Induction Review Report if you are meeting with a new member of staff). If the Appraisee has responsibilities for other managers or to other Areas of the College, ensure you collect feedback from the relevant staff for discussion at Appraisal.The College has 3 main forms used in the appraisal process.Form A- Appraisee Preparation FormForm B- Appraiser Preparation FormForm C- Record of Appraisal Meeting Form2.4Based on the above, draft your comments on FORM B. Exchange FORM B with the Appraisee a week before the meeting. S/he will provide you with a completed FORM A. Your discussions will be based on an exchange of ideas from these draft notes.Running the MeetingStage 12.5Use the opportunity of the appraisal process to explore how the employee feels about the job, work arrangements and communications across the area. Examples of question techniques are set out below.<br />Type of QuestionExampleUsageOpen (cannot be answered yes or no)‘Tell me about ….…’To get the Appraisee talking about ideas and feelings as well as facts. Closed (should be answered yes or no)‘I understand from what you say that you are pleased with ……’To summarise. To bring back to the subject at hand if the conversation has wandered. To check if you have understood correctly.Specific‘When did you……..’To find out the facts. A good directive approach. Good for the talkative Appraisee.Hypothetical‘If you had someone who……’Testing possible reaction to a situation. Useful for developing an open discussion.<br />Listening and Observing2.6Encourage the Appraisee to talk freely and relax by listening supportively.Concentrate throughout and analyse what is said and what is not said.Note points for later expansion.Wait out pauses. The Appraisee may be trying to sort out his/her thoughts and may be on the verge of expressing them.Summarising and Documenting the Meeting2.7Summarise key points, any issues of concern and proposed remedies during the meeting and at the end of the discussion to make sure that the Appraisee is clear about what future action has been decided.2.8Document the key points on personal targets and staff development needs on Form C. Make sure that the targets and Staff Development you agree with your Appraisee, fit in with Area goals. Agree an Interim Review date in 6 months time (see para 2.12 - 2.13).2.9Take copies of Form C for your records and for the employee, to be retained in the Appraisee’s own record file.2.10Pass the original FORM C to your Area Head for information. He/she should pass them directly to Staff & Quality Services (within one week of the appraisal meeting), who will:Acollate Staff Development needs;Breview FORM C plan and targets;CPlace all FORM Cs on College Personal Files.2.11If the Appraisee’s role has developed and changed substantially since the previous appraisal, update the job description to reflect the changes and refer to the Area Head and Staff & Quality Services for confirmation of the changes.Interim Review Meeting2.12Plan how to implement the agreed targets during the weeks following the Appraisal. Do not wait 12 months to discuss successes or problems. Schedule an Interim Review date in 6 months from the date of the Appraisal meeting to check progress on all action points. 2.13Allow half an hour for an Interim Review meeting with each of your staff, to review progress in achieving the targets. Update or refocus the plans as necessary. Make sure that the career-planning process is meaningful for the Appraisee by making things happen.<br />3HOW TO PREPARE FOR YOUR APPRAISAL MEETING WITH YOUR MANAGER<br />Preparation3.1You should ensure you have the most recent copy of your job description and last year’s Appraisal Form C (or your Induction Report if you joined the College in the last year).3.2Re-read these documents. They are the basis for discussion of responsibilities and targets. If your job description is out of date, prepare to update it at the Appraisal Meeting with your Manager. You might find it useful to make some notes on your existing Job Description.3.3Check that you have filled in details of any Staff Development programmes attended, or projects undertaken, which will be relevant to a discussion of your progress.Appraisal MeetingStage 13.4Based on the above, draft your ideas on FORM A and pass it to your manager a week before the Appraisal meeting. Your Manager will provide you with FORM B.Stage 23.5Your discussions at the Appraisal Meeting will be based on an exchange of ideas from these draft notes. Please use the opportunity to raise any issues or concerns and any proposals for improvements to your work environment.3.6Teaching and learning support staff that have membership of the IfL should be prepared to discuss their Continuous Professional Development (CPD) at the appraisal meeting. The record of CPD is the IfL members’ record of their learning and reflection of how they have ‘grown’ professionally in the last year. The CPD record is driven by the employee.Stage 33.7Your Manager will produce an agreed summary of the discussions and any training needs on FORM C. This may be written at the performance appraisal meeting, which has the advantage of speed and immediate capture of the key points. Alternatively the appraisal record form may be finalised after the meeting, based on the notes taken at the meeting. Please discuss how any training will be arranged and support your manager in planning the timing and cover arrangements.Stage 43.8You should review, sign and photocopy the forms for your own record. Instructions are provided at the end of the Appraisal Record form regarding who the form should be sent to and by when.Stage 5 (Interim Review)3.9Please ensure you diarise a Review Date 6 months after the Appraisal Meeting to progress all action points and any development activities.<br />Task 2.3: Course Engagement Task Performance of Individuals Investigate the procedures, processes and documentation of a staff appraisal systemStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (154-168)Carry out the exercise on slide 168 PowerPoint 1<br /> <br />PERFORMANCE APPRAISALAPPRAISEE PREPARATION (FORM A)<br />Appraisee Name:Area:Job Title:Section/Team:Appraiser Name:Date of meeting:<br />GUIDANCE(i)The aim of the Appraisal process is to review what has happened in the past year and to plan for the coming year. SQS can provide you with your records of Staff Development and attendance/absence. You may also wish to check that your Job Description is still broadly relevant.(ii)Please complete this form in advance of your appraisal meeting. You may wish to exchange it with your manager a week before your Appraisal meeting. Your manager will complete and exchange Form B likewise. (iii)The outcome of the appraisal meeting discussions will be recorded on Form C. Please retain a copy of this for your Personal Records.<br />REVIEWING THE PAST YEAR – the period since the last appraisal or Stage 2 Induction Meeting1I believe the areas of my performance that have been most successful are…This is because…1aTeaching Observation Grade and comments1bReview of tutorial duties and responsibilities, including feedback from Senior Tutors2I think the areas of my performance that could have been more successful are…I can identify potential improvements for future years as…3Thinking outside of my immediate team and considering any feedback from other managers, colleagues and/or employers, I would consider my performance across other areas to be...4Total sickness absence in the last yearTotal DaysTotal Occasions<br />5Considering any fluctuations of workload, my attendance record and my abilities throughout the last 12 months, I feel my overall performance in post has been…6The following support may aid future successful performance in my role…REVIEW OF LAST YEAR’S PERFORMANCE AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES7Review of last year’s SMART targets – I believe progress against each SMART target has been…SMART TARGETPROGRESS8Review of last year’s staff development activities – an evaluation of the impact of the staff development activities on my ability to successful undertake my role is…ACTIVITYEVALUATION<br />FROM MY VIEW AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE COLLEGE’S MISSION, STRATEGIC AIMS AND SECTION/TEAM OPERATING PLANS, THE FOLLOWING SMART WORK OBJECTIVES ARE SUGGESTED…9I have tried to make each suggested work objective SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed) as follows:SMART TARGETINTERIM REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE IN 6 MONTHS TIME10To support my achievement of the suggested SMART work objectives, I have identified the following training needs... (see the list of possible competencies and qualifications overleaf)TRAINING NEEDe.g. skill, knowledge, competencySUGGESTED SOLUTIONe.g. course, qualification, reading, on-the-job training, mentoring, coachingBY DATE mm/yy<br /> <br />PERFORMANCE APPRAISALAPPRAISER PREPARATION (FORM B)<br />Appraisee Name:Area:Job Title:Section/Team:Appraiser Name:Date of meeting:<br />GUIDANCE(i)The aim of the Appraisal process is to review what has happened in the past year and to plan for the coming year. You will need a copy of the previous appraisal record, staff development and attendance/absence records. (ii)Please complete this form in advance of the appraisal meeting. You may wish to exchange it with your appraisee a week before the Appraisal meeting. Your appraisee will complete and exchange Form A likewise. You will record the outcome of the appraisal meeting discussion on Form C.(iii)SQS can provide you with Staff Development and attendance/absence records. You may also wish to check the Job Description is still relevant.<br />REVIEWING THE PAST YEAR – the period since the last appraisal or Stage 2 Induction Meeting1I believe the areas of the appraisee’s job performance that have been most successful are…This is because…1aTeaching Observation Grade and comment 1bReview of tutorial duties and responsibilities, including feedback from Senior Tutors2I think the areas of the appraisee’s performance that could be more successful are…I can suggest potential improvements for future years as…3Thinking outside of the immediate team and considering any feedback from managers, colleagues and/or employers, I would consider the appraisee’s performance across other areas to be……4Total sickness absence in the last yearTotal DaysTotal Occasions5Considering any fluctuations of workload, the appraisee’s attendance record and their abilities throughout the last 12 months, I feel the overall performance in post has been…6The following support may aid future successful performance in the appraisee’s role…REVIEW OF LAST YEAR’S PERFORMANCE AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES7Review of last year’s SMART targets – I believe the appraisee’s progress against each SMART target has been…SMART TARGETPROGRESS8Review of last year’s staff development activities – an evaluation of the impact of the staff development activities on the appraisee’s ability to successfully undertake their role is…ACTIVITYEVALUATION<br />FROM MY VIEW AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE COLLEGE’S MISSION, STRATEGIC AIMS AND SECTION/TEAM OPERATING PLANS, THE FOLLOWING SMART WORK OBJECTIVES ARE SUGGESTED…9I have tried to make each suggested work objective SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed) as follows…SMART TARGETINTERIM REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE IN 6 MONTHS TIME10To support the appraisee’s achievement of the suggested SMART work objectives, I have identified the following training needs... (see the list of possible competencies and qualifications overleaf)TRAINING NEEDe.g. skill, knowledge, competencySUGGESTED SOLUTIONe.g. course, qualification, reading, on-the-job training, mentoring, coachingBY DATE mm/yy<br />PERFORMANCE APPRAISALRECORD OF MEETING (FORM C)<br />Appraisee Name:Job Title:Area:Section/Team:Appraiser Name:Date of meeting:<br />GUIDANCE(i)The aim of the Appraisal process is to review performance at work over the past year and to plan for the coming year, through the setting of SMART job related objectives and relevant staff development activities(ii)The Appraiser (line manager) will complete this form at the Appraisal Meeting, to record the outcome of the discussions. A signed copy of this form should be passed to the Appraisee for his/her personal records. The Appraiser retains a copy and the original should be sent, to your Area Head and then onto Staff & Quality Services for retention on your personal file and to record training needs onto the College training needs database.(iii)Please pass the form to Area Head, then SQS within one week of appraisal meeting.<br />REVIEWING THE PAST YEAR – the period since the last appraisal or Stage 2 Induction Meeting1Agreed areas of the appraisee’s performance which have been the most successful2Teaching Observation Grade and comment 3Review of tutorial duties responsibilities, including feedback from Senior Tutors4Agreed areas of the appraisee’s performance which the appraisee or appraiser feel could have been more successful. Please identify potential improvements for future years.5Agreed evaluation of the appraisee’s job performance impacting outside of immediate team/section. Note of feedback received from other managers/customers/employers.6Total sickness absence in the last yearTotal DaysTotal Occasions<br />7Overall, the appraisee’s performance in their role throughout the last 12 months has been…8What support from the appraiser or other people would aid future success?8aAre there any adaptations or modifications that the appraisee would find useful to support them in their job? (particularly useful for staff with disabilities)9Review of last year’s SMART targets – how successfully have these been met? SMART TARGETPROGRESS10Review of last year’s staff development activities – evaluate the impact of the activitiesACTIVITYEVALUATION<br />IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COLLEGE’S MISSION, STRATEGIC AIMS AND SECTION/TEAM OPERATING PLANS, THE FOLLOWING SMART WORK OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN AGREED11Each appraisee’s targets should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed)SMART TARGETINTERIM REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE IN 6 MONTHS TIME12To support the achievement of the agreed SMART work objectives, the following staff development needs have been identified.TRAINING NEEDe.g. skill, knowledge, competencySUGGESTED SOLUTIONe.g. course, qualification, reading, on-the-job training, mentoring, coachingTO BE ACTIONED BY (initials)BY DATE mm/yyAGREED DATE OF 6 MONTH REVIEWSigned Appraisee:Date:Signed Appraiser:Date:Signed Area Head:Date:Received in SQS:Date:<br />1.Appraiser to keep a copy and pass a copy to the Appraisee.2.Original to be passed to Area Head, then to SQS within one week of the appraisal meeting.<br />Task 2.4: Course Engagement Task Performance of Individuals Investigate how individual performance targets are setStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (155-165)<br />Outcome 3Investigate the roles and behaviour of teams<br />Leadership and team management<br />Within the context of organizational behaviour team management is a component part of the group context. The grouping of individuals is both managed and natural. And the process of group development can be seen through the following stages: <br />Forming: An initialising situation where unrelated individuals brought together with a coherent objective establish formal and informal relationships. This stage is heavily reliant upon the influence and management of leadership.<br />Storming: Task focused activity results in conflicting behavioural patterns where individuals fail to recognize the values and opinions held by other members of the group. Leadership may be perceived as a scapegoat body to which situational blame will be attached to appease situation conflict. Leadership has a harmonizing and rationalizing position to impose within this period.<br />Norming: A period of cohesion between group members, promotion of mutual support and identity supports the collective objectives of the group.<br />Performing: this point performance is task orientated all energy is directed to the common objective of task accomplishment<br />Adjourning: at this point task completion is rationalised and a sense of accomplishment and self-fulfilment provide an arena of reflection and measure of achievement before the next task.<br />Adapted Tuckman: Jensen (1977<br />“A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” <br />Katzenbach and Smith (1993)<br />Perhaps the most acknowledged exponent of team role is R. Meredith Belbin. The identity of a team being broken down into its component elements:<br />Chairman:Controlling function<br />Shapers:Specifying the framework within which the team performs<br />Company worker:Conservative and loyal approach who put proposals into action<br />Plants:Imaginative and ideological, providing inspiration <br />Resource investigator: Develops the resources to meet the demands<br />Monitor-Evaluator:Analyser <br />Team-worker:Fosters team orientation and social values<br />Completer-finisher:Order and rational approach, task achievement focused <br />Task 3.1: Course Engagement Task The Roles and Behaviour of Teams Investigate the type and function of teams found in a given vehicle operation to include Belbin’s analysisStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (76-80)Carry out exercise as described on slide 80 PowerPoint 1<br />The choice of venue is vitally important to the success of a meeting. It is not only a question of comfort; participants must also feel that the place is appropriate to the occasion. This is true for all meetings, small or large, formal or informal. <br />If you are arranging a meeting that requires the hire of rooms and other facilities, shop around to compare prices, especially if you are operating on a tight budget. You may find you can negotiate a discount. <br />Locations in the centres of large cities may be convenient for most attendees, and well served by public transport, but space in a city centre will almost certainly be more expensive than a less central equivalent. An out-of-town location will provide fewer distractions for participants, which can be especially valuable if the meeting lasts for more than one day.<br />On the other hand, the amenities of a city may help to entice people to a meeting lasting several days. Weigh up your priorities, and make your choice of location for a venue accordingly<br />Try to match the location of a meeting to its aims. If one of the objectives of the meeting is to encourage two groups of people to get to know each other better, a relaxed out-of-town atmosphere may be appropriate. <br />By the same token, do not hold a formal meeting in a messy open-plan office. For meetings within your organization, there is still a choice - you must decide whether home, neutral, or away territory is more suited to your needs. <br />Physical factors play an important part in any type of meeting. Whatever the occasion, aim to make attendees comfortable enough to concentrate, but not so comfortable that they fall asleep. <br />Check that external noise will be kept to a minimum and heating and ventilation are effective but not excessive. Rooms in big hotels often have excellent air conditioning but little natural light, yet this can be vital for maintaining a dynamic atmosphere<br />There are a number of reasons - some obvious, some less so - why a venue may turn out to be a bad choice. <br />When you are inspecting and booking your venue, try to anticipate and avoid the following common pitfalls: <br />-More people attend than expected - there is insufficient room and people are uncomfortable; <br />-Fewer people attend than expected, leaving an intimidating large and empty space to fill; <br />-Air conditioning is inadequate and the room becomes stuffy, or it is on too high and not accessible for regulation<br />Technical difficulties arise because the light switches and plugs in the meeting room are not checked and labelled; <br />-There is a lack of service outlets, such as banks or cafes, at or near the venue. <br />A well-structured meeting room does not guarantee of a good meeting, but it can increase the chances.<br />Keep in mind your meeting's objectives. <br />The main purpose of most meetings is to share information verbally with others, so good acoustics are essential. Even a handful of people in a small room can have problems hearing each other, but acoustics are especially important for meetings with numerous participants. <br />Task 3.2: Course Engagement Task The Roles and Behaviour of Teams Investigate team operating procedures and methods of communication to include team meetings, environment and group dynamicsStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (81-151)Watch video presentation “Meetings Bloody Meetings” on slides (85-86) <br />Selecting the right people to attend<br />Many people will be obvious participants to a meeting. For example where the quality of workmanship is a meeting subject it would be sensible to invite the Foreman and Quality Controller<br />When you have made an initial list of participants, pinpoint the potential contribution of each person in turn:<br />Do they have information to share?<br />-For example, a sales manager or service manager reporting the survey responses from a customer satisfaction survey<br />Can they offer specific advice or information?<br />-For example, a production manager:<br />Is their professional status useful?<br />-For example, a lawyer in a contract dispute:<br />Can they implement agreed action?<br />-For example, a finance director at a budget meeting<br />One of the hardest parts of organizing a meeting is finding an appropriate time to suit all those you wish to invite. <br />Sometimes the easiest way to fix a meeting is to arrange for it to follow an earlier one attended by the same people. Otherwise, e-mail messages and telephone calls can go back and forth until a date is fixed.<br />If you find that someone cannot make the proposed date, consider whether it is feasible to hold the meeting without him or her before you rearrange times. Always send written confirmation of the time and place. <br />The best way to ensure that those attending a meeting are sure about its purpose is to send them a clear agenda well in advance. <br />There are several ways to prepare an agenda, so find and utilize the one best suited to your purposes. <br />An agenda for a meeting is essentially a list of items or issues that have to be raised and debated. It should be short, simple, and clear. <br />First, gather all relevant information, and then sort out which items need to be discussed and in how much detail. You may find it useful to consult with other participants. <br />If there are many issues to discuss, assign a time limit to each to help ensure that you do not overrun the allotted duration of the meeting. How far in advance you begin to prepare an agenda will depend on how much preparation time is needed. <br />Once you have drafted an agenda, send it to the other participants for comments, additions, or approval. If you wish to add or delete items from a formally approved agenda, you will need to obtain the consent of the participants. <br />They will be more likely to agree to a deletion than an addition, unless they have a particular interest in an item you wish to drop. It is not acceptable to present participants with a revised agenda as they arrive at a meeting unless last-minute events have made it necessary - for example, because of illness of the chairperson or a sudden change in financial circumstances. <br />Distribute the final agenda as far as possible in advance of the meeting. <br />When you come to compile your meeting's agenda, try to order topics logically and group similar items together. This prevents the risk of going over the same ground again and again. <br />Your agenda should start off with "housekeeping" matters, such as the appointment of a chairperson and apologies for any absences, before moving on to approving the minutes of the last meeting (if relevant) and hearing reports from those assigned tasks at the previous meeting. <br />The next items covered at the meeting should be current issues - for example, the latest financial accounts and sales figures - about which the bulk of the discussion is likely to occur. <br />Finally, allow for any other business, and plan to set the date, time, and location of the next meeting. <br />Points to Remember<br />-Background research is essential for any contribution<br />-Contacting other participants before a meeting breaks the ice and allows for a useful exchange of information<br />-Personal rivalries between participants must be identified<br />-It may be necessary to canvass support on big issues in advance<br />-Participants can be sounded out in advance of a meeting<br />The minutes of a meeting the meeting’s secretary as a written record of what was discussed takes -short notes detailing its proceedings -. If you are responsible for taking minutes, ensure that they are accurate and clear: <br />In the minutes you should record the time and place of the meeting, the names of attendees (where appropriate), all items presented, but not necessarily details of the discussions involved, and all decisions, agreements, or appointments made. <br />During the course of a meeting, make notes from which to write the minutes in full later. Make sure the minutes are unbiased, written in a clear, concise style, and accurate. Accuracy is essential, particularly where minutes may be used as evidence in the case of a later dispute. <br />Once the minutes are complete, make sure that they are distributed quickly to all the relevant people. Compiling the minutes is a meaningless task if the action agreed on at the meeting is not duly followed up. Minutes should indicate clearly the deadlines agreed on for any projects, and who is responsible for implementation. After a suitable period but before the next meeting, follow up on the progress of any projects or tasks noted in the minutes, and update the chairperson on their status. If necessary, see that these items are included in the agenda for the next meeting.<br />Task 3.3: Course Engagement Task The Roles and Behaviour of TeamsInvestigate team responsibilities including participation in team briefsStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (76-82) and (130-134)Carry out exercise/evaluation as described on Slides (130-134) PowerPoint 1<br />Outcome 4Evaluate the performance of a team<br />Team performance may be measured in a similar way to a workforce, although on a smaller scale. For example, individual teams may be monitored using labour efficiency, specific to that group and measured against pre-determined targets. These targets may be self set by the team or by a Manager responsible for the results of the team.<br />Labour Efficiency Example<br />This example incorporates a quality element in that it factors in any reworks<br />Task 4.1: Course Engagement Task Performance of a TeamInvestigate and determine the targets for teamsStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (81-84)Carry out a Labour efficiency analysis of a team within your own, or a familiar organisation<br />Leadership<br />To have appropriate harmonization between individual and related needs the leadership role must maintain focus upon the objectives or tasks set of the group and provide a contingent approach that considers the operational environment and the organization goal. At this point it is relevant to refer to the associated factors linked to leadership and decision-making: those of conflict, power and politics. <br />The term team management may portray a hierarchical situation of an authoritarian leadership role based upon a traditional organizational structure of rigid ranks of management, supervision and team leaders. Modern economic environmental pressures have little opportunity for the draconian measures of disciplinarian cultures of rank and file industrial relations. Today a much flatter and more flexible team-focused culture is developing and with it the need to provide an effective communicative role within team management where the managerial role is that of facilitator as opposed to coercive power. <br />Task 4.2: Course Engagement Task Performance of a Team Investigate the factors affecting team management to include leadership and communication processesStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (76-84)<br />Organizational objectives:<br />Identify organizational strategic project/task objectives<br />Communicate at all appropriate levels of the organization<br />The communication process should be as de-layered as possible<br />Group size should be an effective minimum<br />Leadership holder should be appropriately trained in team management and communicative skills.<br />Identify participating people and their job role within the task or project.<br />Clearly identify meeting objectives.<br />Prioritise agenda and schedule to a timely structure.<br />Co-ordinate the contributions through a formal recording system e.g. minutes should be arrangement (a person of trained secretarial status is ideal).<br />All relevant minutes should be formally cascaded to the team members promptly.<br />Review and proposal structure should be in place to handle any enquiry relating to performance and success of task/project. <br />The structured approach to team meetings is imperative to the success of any task or project. The coordination role of the meeting leader ensures the focus of the meeting is maintained in a timely and effective process. Pivotal to the delivery success is the ability of the leadership role holder they should be appropriate in expertise and training at the level to which they are delivering as a minimum requirement. Within the team meeting situational control and leadership qualities will be in demand to ensure meeting closure is punctual and accomplished.<br />Group objectives<br />All relevant information should be formally cascaded to the team members promptly.<br />Review and proposal structure should be in place to handle any enquiry relating to performance and success of task/project. <br />Group members may be able to contribute specific skills or advice. Invite individuals whose communication skills will help the group work productively and achieve set goals. <br />If some participants are needed only for pan of a meeting, give them estimated start and finish times for the relevant items. This will save participants' time and make the meeting easier to control. <br />Task 4.3: Course Engagement Task Performance of a Team Investigate evaluating the performance of a team, to include identification of the roles played by each team member and meeting both operational and group objectivesStudy material on PowerPoint 1 slides (76-89)Carry out exercises as described in tasks 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 (these exercises need not be repeated unless otherwise beneficial to your studies)<br />Preparing your assignment<br />Turn back to the unit specification at the beginning of this Study Guide (pp…..). There are two important sub-headings in this specification that you will need to take into account when planning your assignment: the learning outcomes, and the assessment tasks.<br />Harvard Referencing<br />References and additional reading<br />Textbooks<br />Armstrong, M — Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (Kogan, 2001)<br />ISBN: 0749433930<br />Hunt, J — Managing People at Work (McGraw Hill, 1992) ISBN: 007707677X<br />Maund, L — Introduction to Human Resource Management (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001)<br />ISBN: 0333912438<br />Torrington, D and Hall, L — Human Resource Management (Prentice-Hall Europe, 1998)<br />ISBN: 0130807397<br />Other references will be found at the end of the unit Reader.<br />

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