Distance learning study guide managing resources unit 2

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Distance learning study guide managing resources unit 2

  1. 1. Bridgwater College<br />Area of Arts & Technology<br />Automotive Department<br />Study Guide for the<br />BTEC HNC / HND in Automotive Management & Technology (Level 5)<br />Unit 2: Managing Resources<br />Programme Manager<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailOlly Bartlett01278 441228 / bartletto@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Programme Unit Delivery Team<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailOlly Bartlett01278 441228 / bartletto@bridgwater.ac.ukSimon Grey01278 441228 / greys@bridgwater.ac.ukChris Hamlett01278 441228 / hamlettc@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Tutor<br />NameContact details phone / e-mailChris Hamlett01278 441228 / hamlettc@bridgwater.ac.uk<br />Bridgwater College<br />Bath Road<br />Bridgwater <br />Somerset<br />TA6 4PZ<br />Tel: 01278 <br />E-mail: <br />Contents<br />Course Specification & Assessment Guide4PrefaceHow to use this study guide10Outcome 110Outcome 2 14Outcome 318Outcome 422Preparing your assignment35References and further reading35<br /> Unit specification<br />Unit 2: Managing Resources<br />Learning hours: 60<br />NQF level 4: BTEC Higher National — H1<br />Description of unit<br />The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an understanding of the various aspects involved in the efficient management of resources in vehicle operations. It covers the processes involved in the identification and use of resources through careful selection, specification of requirements and planning. The unit also considers how to assess the effective use of resources through the measures of key performance indicators, utilisation factors and cost effectiveness. This is balanced against the need to evaluate the impact of health and safety legislation on the use of these resources.<br />Summary of learning outcomes<br />To achieve this unit a learner must:<br />1 Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operation<br />2 Evaluate the efficient use of resources<br />3 Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resources<br />4 Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operation.<br />Outcomes and assessment criteria<br />Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass<br />To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to:<br />1 Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operation<br />• identify and describe the different resources used in a vehicle operation<br />• explain the critical factors which affect the selection of resources<br />• produce recommendations for the selection of resources in a vehicle operation<br />2 Evaluate the efficient use of resources<br />• explain and apply key performance indicators to measure the efficient use of resources in a vehicle operation<br />• assess the utilisation and cost effectiveness of resources in a vehicle operation<br />• recommend changes to improve the use of resources in a vehicle operation<br />3 Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resources<br />• explain methods of financing the acquisition of physical resources<br />• describe alternative methods of acquiring the use of physical resources in a vehicle operation<br />• compare methods of acquiring physical resources for a specified purpose<br />4 Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operation<br />• identify and describe the legislation and regulations that impact upon the management of the vehicle operation<br />• describe the requirements and mechanisms for recording and reporting accidents at work<br />• carry out a risk assessment in a vehicle operation and make recommendations<br />Support materials<br />Textbooks<br />Dyson, J — Accounting for Non-Accounting Students (Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN: 0273646834<br />Health and Safety Executive — Health & Safety in Motor Vehicle Repair (HSE, 1991)<br />ISBN: 0118856715<br />Johnson, B — Managing Operations (JA Majors, 1997) ISBN: 0750638095<br />Assessment<br />As well as the Course engagement task, the following assignment must be completed for assessment purposes:<br />A copy of the assessment can be found in the Blackboard assessment folder.<br />Sampled for Internal Verification<br />IV’s NameDate<br />Programme Title:Higher National Certificate in Vehicle Operations Management W4831Unit Number/Title:Unit 2 Managing ResourcesTitle of Assignment:Managing ResourcesAssignment Internally Verified by:Barry WilliamsDate: 2011Tutor Name:Chris HamlettIssue Date:Submission Date:Student Name:<br />Module Criteria Assessed (Students fill column A with specific page No. where criteria can be found. Assessor sign column B when criteria has been met).UnitCritCriteria AssessedAB21.1Identify and describe the different resources used in vehicle operations.21.2Explain the critical factors which affect the selectionof resources.21.3Produce recommendations for selection ofResources in a vehicle operation.22.1Explain and apply key performance indicators to measure the efficient use of resources in a vehicle operation.22.2Assess the utilisation and cost effectiveness of resources in a vehicle operation.22.3Recommend changes to improve the use of resources in vehicle operations.23.1Explain methods of financing the acquisition of physical resources.23.2Describe alternative methods of acquiring the use of physical resources in a vehicle system.23.3Compare methods of acquiring physical resources for a specified purpose.24.1Identify and describe the legislation and regulations that impact upon the management of the vehicle operation24.2Describe the requirements and mechanisms for recording and reporting accidents at work.24.3Carry out a risk assessment in a vehicle operation and make recommendations.UnitDesMerit Descriptors AssessedAB2M1.1Effective judgments have been clearly made with the use of further reading.2M2.1Apply and analyze detailed knowledge and skills, using relevant theories and techniques in response to the tasks.2M3.3Coherently present and communicate the research and data in response to the tasks using technical language and appropriate theory models accurately.UnitDesDistinction Descriptors AssessedAB2D1.1You have drawn justifiable conclusions through synthesis of ideas, information and data relevant to your research and criteria.2D1.2Validity of your results has been evaluated using defined criteria and evidence of further reading.2D2.1Independence has been demonstrated within your responses to the tasks.2D3.3Ideas have been generated and decisions taken in response to the tasks in doing so showing in-depth knowledge of the subject area.<br />Assessor feedback & Suggestions for improvement Student comments pre-submission on how assignment was managedStudent comments on feedbackTutor signature on feedbackDateStudent signature on feedbackDate<br />Statement of AuthenticationI declare all work within the submitted assignment to be entirely my own unless otherwise stated and that I fully understand the college disciplinary process for plagiarism.Student Signature:Print Name:Date:<br />Date Received:Received by:<br />Merit and Distinction Grading <br />Contextualising the generic grade descriptors<br />The generic merit and distinction grade descriptors need to be viewed as a qualitative extension of the assessment criteria for pass within each individual unit. The relevant generic grade descriptors must be identified and specified within an assignment and the relevant indicative characteristics should be used to place the required evidence in context.<br />Brief<br />The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an understanding of the various aspects involved in the efficient management of resources in vehicle operations. It covers the processes involved in the identification and use of resources through careful selection, specification of requirements and planning. The unit also considers how to assess the effective use of resources through the measures of key performance indicators, utilization factors and cost effectiveness. This is balanced against the need to evaluate the impact of health and safety legislation on the use of these resources.<br />In order to reach the high quality the qualification demands and to withstand the rigidity of the assessment criteria the total assignment must be a minimum of 2500 words or equivalent in order to reach the pass grade, merit and distinction will be awarded thereafter having referred to the Merit and Distinction criteria.<br />Task 1a<br />Investigate the use of current physical resources for a business, describing the critical physical factors affecting selection of these physical resources. (This could be an actual or fictional business).<br />Task 1b<br />Explain the critical factors which effect the selection of resources, select and make recommendations for a new major resource which would improve an area within the business investigated in task 1a.<br />Task 2a<br />Plan the use of the additional resources you have recommended in task 1b using relevant efficiency criteria and key performance indicators. Analyse the results of the plan, assess the utilisation and cost effectiveness of the resource.<br />Task 2b<br />Recommend and apply changes to your plan in task 2a to improve its use.<br />Task 3<br />Produce a report on acquiring the additional resource outlined in task 1b. You will need to research methods of how you could finance the new resource and compare these to alternative methods of acquiring the resource e.g. cash, loan etc… compared to rental, lease etc... From your research compare the various methods select the most suitable method you would use to acquire the new resource outlined in task 1a, justifying your conclusions. <br />Task 4a<br />Investigate and briefly describe the legislation and regulations that impact upon the management of the vehicle operation.<br />Task 4b <br />Explain the requirements and mechanisms for recording and reporting accidents at work.<br />Task 4c <br />Carry out a risk assessment in a vehicle operation. Make recommendations based on the results, which would improve health and safety legislation within the vehicle operation.<br />SUGGESTED READING<br />Dyson, J — Accounting for Non-Accounting Students (Prentice Hall, 2000) ISBN: 0273646834<br />Health and Safety Executive — Health & Safety in Motor Vehicle Repair (HSE, 1991)<br />ISBN: 0118856715<br />Johnson, B — Managing Operations (JA Majors, 1997) ISBN: 0750638095<br />Slack Nigel – Operations Management (Pitman, 1997)<br />Preface: How to use this Study Guide<br />This Study Guide and the accompanying Study Material constitute the learning materials for the title of unit. The Study Guide functions in a similar way to that of a tutor, by presenting questions and suggesting activities that will help to consolidate your understanding of the unit content contained in the Study Material, and by guiding you to what we hope will be a successful assignment. You should aim to work steadily through the Study Guide, referring to the Study Material at appropriate points as instructed. Most of the responses to the tasks should be carried out on blackboard and will be automatically assessed. <br />Outcome 1Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operation<br />Resources in relation to motor vehicle operations may include:<br />Buildings<br />Plant<br />Equipment<br />Vehicles<br />Workshops<br />Internal and external space<br />Specialist tools<br />Access to supplies and materials<br />Administration facilities<br />Task 1.1: Course Engagement Task Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operationIdentify and describe the different resources used in a vehicle operation Study material on PowerPoint slides (23-39)Watch the video presentation as shown on slides 5 and 6 <br />Critical Factors Influencing the Selection of Physical Resources <br />The Divisional and tactical planning is the action of developing, implementing, monitoring and controlling specific departmental objectives by departmental management, in order to achieve the strategic aims. The reality of drawing up plans will incur many obstacles and difficulties that the management will be required to overcome. These critical factors are considered as measures of resource within the performance forecasting: a component of the planning process.<br />The principal resource within an organization is its human resource; its people: this organizational topic is dealt with within sections 3 and 4. The focus of this section will be the understanding of physical resources and how to assess their value within the planning and monitor process.<br />Forecasting concerns the probability of future events or trends occurring, which will directly or indirectly influence the business, either as an opportunity or threat? From this the management plan will attempt to turn their resources into strength in dealing with the opportunity as opposed to a threat.<br />Task 1.2: Course Engagement Task Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operationExplain the critical factors which affect the selection of resources Study material on PowerPoint slides (24 - 44)Carry out group activity 1.1 as shown on slide 46<br />Nigel Slack (2001): identifies medium, short-term planning as dealing with planning in detail. A process of looking ahead in a disaggregated manner as the medium term plan moves toward the shorter term.<br />This can create a difficult environment from which the departmental manager must make his decisions related to capital expenditure on physical resources. Refer Diagram 1.3.<br />Time<br />Horizon<br />45720015240000<br />45656514478000457200145415CONTROL00CONTROLLong-term planning and control<br />0145415Years/months00Years/monthsUses aggregate demand forecasts<br />Determines resources to an aggregate demand<br />Financially biased objectives<br />069215Months/weeks00Months/weeksMedium-term planning and control<br />Uses partially aggregate demand forecasts<br />Determines resources and contingencies<br />0221615Weeks/days00Weeks/daysObjectives combine financial and operational concerns<br />152400123507500Short-term planning and control<br />685800188595Control00Control0320675Days/hours00Days/hoursUses totally disaggregated forecasts based upon demand<br />Makes interventions to resources to correct deviations from planned objectives<br />Ad hoc consideration of operational objectives<br />Adapted Slack (2001:307)<br />Balance between planning and control activities long to short-term.<br />The tactical operating management will be able to identify with the Ad hoc demands of their environment to take up operating opportunities. Diagram 1.3 identifies the characteristics of the short term planning and medium term planning, specifically 12 months and less. At this level managers will be continually balancing efficiency quality revenue and expenditure in order to control the focus and reduce the negative variance from the budget control. <br />Let us consider a potential Ad hoc situation. Consider the group activity conducted relating to competitor and environmental SWOT analysis. Let us now consider a hypothetical opportunity or threat has arisen in the form of recent planning permission for a new office building to house in excess of 3,500 employees whose major commuter route is by road. <br />As a Service Manager you have a limited tyre, exhaust and battery fitting facility and rely upon the Parts Department Manager for you supply of stock, most of which is ordered in as the demand for your services in this sector is only a small component of your current customer base. You believe this to be because your current customer base, is largely local with a resultant limited spend value in this service sector and additionally, as a result of local knowledge, therefore benefit from the discounted factor components supplied by a local tyre specialists. <br />As a result you have refrained from investing further in new equipment centred to this service facility as the revenue from what you consider to be an Independent Demand situation where planning is very difficult due to fluctuation in customer demand would not justify the investment.<br />However within your SWOT analysis you believe you have identified an opportunity to secure additional service work plus an opportunity to control and improve tyre and ancillary sales as an addition to the service work.<br />Your decision to consider this opportunity as a Dependent Demand, although has risk attached offers profitability, this is centred to the fact that the new office block is sited literally within walking distance and that you believe this benefit of location will provide a convenience demand as a result of the outsider employees commuting by car to work. In addition although your main workshop is busy you only measure a 90% efficiency overall for you 10 productive staff and believe that sufficient work from this new opportunity will take up this shortfall in labour efficiency.<br />Task 1.3: Course Engagement Task Examine and describe the resources required to support a vehicle operationProduce recommendations for the selection of resources in a vehicle operation Study material on PowerPoint slides (24-58)Carry out the competitor analysis as described on slide 36<br />Outcome 2Evaluate the efficient use of resources<br />Two of the most common methods for measuring the efficient use of resources are Payback and Net Present Value.<br />Example<br />The simplest method is the term Pay back method. This method simply looks at the initial investment value and projects the expected revenues over the life of the project. The total revenues are calculated from each year and summed to establish the overall net profit.<br />Project YearsExpected net Cash Inflow at year-end. £, 000’sInitial Outlay £, 000’sRevenue £, 000’s022(22)11.5(20.5)23.5(17)35(12)410(2)51086302287Total<br />A disadvantage to this method is that it takes no account of comparison with other investment values or rates of inflation. <br />Project YearsInitial Outlay £, 000’sExpected net Cash Inflow at year-end. £, 000’sDiscount factor applied 10%Value of cash inflow £, 000’sDiscounted revenues £,000’s022010(22)11.5.90911.37(20.63)23.5.82642.89(17.74)35.75133.76(13.98)410.68306.83(7.15)510.62096.21(0.94)6223021.06*(0.94)7Total<br />-628650-314325<br />Task 2.1: Course Engagement Task Evaluate the efficient use of resourcesExplain and apply key performance indicators to measure the efficient use of resources in a vehicle operation.Study material on PowerPoint slides (60-75)Carry out NPV exercise as described on slide 63 <br />The operating department budget should identify all costs and revenues expected to be incurred and produced. Within the after-sales departments of a retail motor retailer, labour sales play a dominant role within the body, paint and service departments.<br />Hence labour utilisation is a very important and extensively measured performance of any workshop. And usually the bigger they are the more complex the measurements get.<br />Utilization factors:<br />In planning the utilization of the physical resources modern workshops make use of computer software programmes to calculate the inter-related efficiency and revenue rates. <br />Within the motor Industry through put is measured on a continual basis with measured analysis occurring on a monthly cycle. It is important to recognise that within the make-up of the budget certain trend and seasonal fluctuations may or may not be accounted for. <br />It is imperative that the department manager avail themselves of any particular aggregation of revenue or expenses set out by the accountant in the interest of the company policy and master budget. The alternative to this is shear frustration!<br />The following are the main measures of utilization that impact upon the measure of efficiency and profitability of a department: <br />Human resources<br />Workshop loading<br />Available labour hours<br />Sold hours<br />Attended hours<br />Bought hours (Including bonuses and overtime)<br />Absences (Lost hours)<br />Physical resources<br />Equipment depreciation<br />Company vehicle utilisation costs (Insurance, Tax, Road fund licence, Fuels, etc…)<br />Company vehicle depreciation costs.<br />Recovery vehicle costs (Standing costs).<br />Recovery vehicle downtime (Idle time).<br />Driver’s hour’s regulation.<br />Routes and associated costs.<br />Task 2.2: - Course Engagement Task Evaluate the efficient use of resourcesAssess the utilisation and cost effectiveness of resources in a vehicle operation.Study material on PowerPoint 1 slides (66-75)Calculate labour efficiencies s described on slides (72 – 73)<br />Example comparison of project - Payback and NPV<br />When recommending any changes in resources a manager should always present recommendations using some form of justification process. The methods above may be utilised for such an exercise. Other aspects which should also be considered include the Human Factor. Human nature dictates a natural adversity to change therefore this should be carefully managed. The people of an organisation should be motivated in any potential changes in terms of making it a success therefore they should be involved in the development process.<br />Task 2.3: Course Engagement Task Evaluate the efficient use of resourcesRecommend changes to improve the use of resources in vehicle operations.Study material found throughout PowerPointCompare NPV results for two different companies<br />Outcome 3Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resources<br />There are a considerable number of available sources of finance available to limited liability companies, although they vary depending upon the type of entity. <br />Central and local government, for example, are heavily dependent upon current tax receipts for financing capital investment projects, while charities rely on loans and grants. <br />The sources of finance available to companies depend upon the time period involved:<br />The short-term<br />The medium-term<br />The long-term<br />Trade credit is a form of financing common in all companies (and all other entities). An entity purchases goods and services from suppliers and agrees to pay for them some days or weeks after they have been delivered. <br />Bank overdrafts are a form of loan where the bank's customer is allowed to draw out more from the bank than has been deposited. <br />You normally pay an arrangement fee when an overdraft is set up. A 'limit' up to which you can borrow will be granted by the bank and reviewed annually, when it can be increased, decreased or renewed at the same level. A renewal fee is payable for this service. <br />An entity's overdraft may have to be secured by a floating charge. This means that the bank has a general claim on any of the entity's assets if the entity cannot repay the over- draft. There is usually an upper limit, the amount overdrawn can usually be called in at any time, and the interest charge may be high. The main advantages of an overdraft are that it is flexible and that interest is normally only charged on the outstanding balance on a daily basis. <br />Banks may be prepared to loan a fixed amount to a customer over the medium- to long-term period. <br />The loan may be secured on the company's assets and the interest charge may be variable. <br />Regular repayments of both the capital and the interest will be expected. <br />Bank loans are a common form of financing but the restrictions often placed on the borrower may be particularly demanding<br />Finance arranged through bank-owned companies <br />Finance houses, which are specialist companies owned in the main by the major banks, offer alternative ways of obtaining fixed assets: <br />Hire purchase<br />An HP agreement from a finance house enables a business to acquire an asset on the payment of a deposit and to pay back the cost plus interest over a set period, at the end of which ownership of the asset passes to the borrower<br />Hire purchase is often used to finance vehicles and machinery<br />Leasing<br />With a leasing agreement, the business has use of assets such as cars and computers bought by the finance house. The business pays a regular 'rental' payment, normally over a lease period of two to seven years<br />Ownership of the asset does not normally pass to the business because the asset (the car, the computer) will have become out-of-date and will need renewing at the end of the lease period. <br />Clearly a lease is not a loan, but it can substantially reduce the financial requirements of a business when it needs to acquire assets such as computer equipment and fleets of company cars. <br />Business loan<br />This is a fixed medium-term loan, typically for between 3 and 10 years, to cover the purchase of capital items such as machinery or equipment. Interest is normally 2% to 3% over base rate, and repayments are by instalments<br />Commercial mortgage<br />If you are buying premises for your business you can arrange to borrow long-term by means of a commercial mortgage, typically up to 80% of the value of the property, repayable over a period of up to 25 years<br />Your premises will be taken as security for the loan: if the business fails, the premises will be sold to repay the bank. <br />Task 3.1: Course Engagement Task Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resourcesExplain methods of financing the acquisition of physical resources.Study material on PowerPoint 1 slides (77-120)Carry out exercise as described on slide 136 <br />Factoring - working capital finance<br />Many banks also provide factoring services through specialist factoring companies<br />A business may have valuable financial resources tied up because its customers owe it money and have not yet paid. A factoring company will effectively 'buy' these debts by providing a number of services:<br />-It will lend up to 80% of outstanding customer debts<br />-It will deal with all the paperwork of collecting customer debts<br />-Insure against non-payment of debts<br />Factoring releases money due to the business and allows the business to use it in its general operations and expansion plans. It is therefore a valuable source of short-term finance. <br />Finance for companies: venture capital <br />There are many specialist banks - 'merchant banks' - and investment companies which offer advice and financial assistance to limited companies looking for capital. This financial assistance takes the form of loans and venture capital, which provides finance for fixed assets and for working capital. <br />Venture capital companies will view these companies as investment opportunities and will put in money in the form of loans or purchase of shares, or both. In return, they may expect an element of control over the company and will possibly insist on having a director on the board of the company. <br />A venture capital company considering investing will look for a business with good sales and profit record - or potential. <br />Credit sales are a form of borrowing in which the purchaser agrees to pay for goods (and services) provided on an instalment basis over an agreed period of time. <br />Once the agreement has been signed, the legal ownership of the goods is passed to the purchaser and the seller cannot reclaim them. <br />Debentures are formal long-term loans made to a company; they may be for a certain period or open-ended. Debentures are usually secured on all or some of an entity's assets. Interest is payable, but because it is allowable against corporation tax, debentures can be an economic method of financing specific projects<br />Loan capital, for example is a form of borrowing in which investors are paid a regular amount of interest and their capital is eventually repaid. <br />The investors are creditors of the entity but they have no voting rights. <br />Eurobond loan capital can be obtained by borrowing overseas in the 'Euro' market. The loans are usually unsecured and they are redeemed at their face value on a certain date. <br />Interest is normally paid annually; the rate depends partly on the size of the loan and partly on the particular issuer. <br />For Limited Liability Companies, expansion of the company could be financed by increasing the number of ordinary shares available, either on the open market or to existing shareholders in the form of a rights issue. <br />An increase in an entity's ordinary share capital dilutes the holding of existing shareholders and all shareholders will expect to receive increasing amounts of dividend. <br />Task 3.2: Course Engagement Task Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resourcesDescribe alternative methods of acquiring the use of physical resources in a vehicle system.Study material on PowerPoint slides (77-120)Combine this task with 3.1<br />This will involve making informed decisions based on the individual circumstances of the organisations compared. Various methods of finance should be investigated with a view to concluding which is the most viable option. Considerations should include the overall cost, the timescales and potential future income streams.<br />The plan should be validated by using relevant performance and evaluation criteria.<br />Task 3.3: Course Engagement Task Examine and appraise the methods for acquiring physical resourcesCompare methods of acquiring physical resources for a specified purpose.Study material on PowerPoint slides (77-120) Combine this task with 3.1<br />Outcome 4Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operation<br />This will entail the consideration of maintenance agreements with regard to the general workshop equipment and the essential consideration of legislative controls of the following:<br />Health and Safety legislation. Responsibility of the employer may include the following areas depending on national or EU laws:<br />Provide and maintain safe premises, plant and systems of work that are safe and without risk to health or safety.<br />Make provision for the safety and absence of risk to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transporting of articles and substances<br />Provide information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure the health and safety of all its employees<br />Provide a maintenance and working environment which is safe and without risk to health and has adequate facilities and arrangements for the welfare of employees <br />Health and Safety at Work extends to include the following main equipment types: <br />Vehicle lifts/hoists<br /> Jacking beams and hydraulic bench lifts<br />Axle stands <br />Cranes and hydraulic hoists<br />Chains, chain blocks, slings and other types of mechanical lifting tackle<br />Air receivers<br />Abrasive wheels <br />Respiratory systems<br />Accident recovery systems: including: repair, recovery and first-aid equipment <br />Task 4.1: Course Engagement Task Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operationIdentify and describe the legislation and regulations that impact upon the management of the vehicle operation Study material on PowerPoint 1 slides (40-44)<br />Below is an example policy for reporting accidents from Bristol University:<br />Accident/Incident/Near-miss Reporting<br />An accident is defined as any unplanned event which led or could have led to injury of persons, property damage and/or damage to the environment.<br />All accidents and incidents must be reported. The reporting and investigation procedure is in place to ensure that;<br /> Action can be taken to prevent a possible recurrence<br /> Any trends can be identified and any necessary action taken<br />The University complies with its legal requirement under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) to report certain incidents to the Health and Safety Executive (external enforcement agency).<br />How to report an accident, incident or near-miss<br />A University Accident Report (Excel 85 KB, PDF 30 KB) Form must be completed whenever there is an incident, however minor and including a "near miss". It should be completed by the immediate supervisor of the injured person or by the person in charge of the area where the incident happened and be sent to the Health and Safety Office as soon as possible (within 48 hours).  Report forms must be completed for incidents that occur on University business that may be remote from the University for example on fieldwork.<br />Section 1 of the report form should normally be completed by the person with supervisory responsibility for the area. This should then be passed on to the Departmental Safety Advisor or the Head of Department to carry out an investigation of the incident and complete section 2. The report should then be sent to the Health and Safety Office. If the Head of Department or DSA is unable to sign the form promptly do not delay in sending the report to the Health and Safety Office especially with regard to a serious incident.<br />The injured person and/or the Departmental Safety Advisor should inform the relevant Trade Union Safety representative of the accident as appropriate. <br />NB - the old BI 510 Accident reporting book (used to comply with the Social Security 1975) now is no longer required. All old books should be returned to the Departmental Safety Advisor.<br />Serious accidents<br />Any injury which is serious or likely to lead to lost time from work should be reported to the Health and Safety Office immediately by telephone (ext 88780). Such accidents include (but are not limited to) those resulting in:<br />  broken or fractured bones or dislocation of a joint<br />  loss of limbs, digits, sight (temporary or permanent)<br />  any injury leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation<br />  any injury requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours<br />  acute illness requiring medical treatment resulting from exposure to chemicals or to a biological agent.<br />A Health and Safety Advisor from the Health and Safety Office will ensure that necessary reports are submitted to the Health and Safety Executive as required by The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR).  For accidents that are reportable under RIDDOR a member of the Health and Safety Office will usually initiate and compete a full accident investigation.<br />A procedure regarding action to be taken in the event of a death of a member of staff or student is outlined in the Incident and Crisis Management Framework available at http://www.bristol.ac.uk/planning/crisismanagementandbcm/icmfdocuments/<br />Dangerous Occurrences<br />Wherever possible, hazards should be identified before they result in injury and investigations of near-miss accidents can help to achieve this.<br />Examples of dangerous occurrences that must be reported include;<br />an accidental release of biological agents which is likely to cause human infection or illness<br />accidental release or escape of any substance in a quantity sufficient to cause death, major injury or any other damage to the health of any person<br />failure of a pressure system or system with the potential to cause a fatality groundwater<br />electrical fire or explosion<br />collapse of scaffolding<br />collapse of any floor or wall of a building<br />If you see an unsafe situation or a near miss that is outside a departmental area where no clear line of responsibility exists (i.e. loose paving slabs) then please contact the Health and Safety Office . This will allow the initial action to rectify the situation as soon as possible. This does not replace the requirement to fill out an Accident / Dangerous Occurrence Report Form as appropriate.<br />Environmental Incidents<br />An environmental incident will also require the form to be completed. Examples of incidents where this will be necessary include the following;<br />emission to air, toxic fumes, airborne pollutants<br />noise pollution<br />discharge to a natural water body, drainage system, surface water, groundwater<br />failure of a drainage system<br />fire with firewater pollution risk<br />discharge to land and soil,<br />fly-tipping, including dumping of illegal hazardous / chemical containers<br />(One incident may involve several of the hazards above).<br />Details of any environmental incidents will be passed to the Sustainability Department for action as necessary.<br />Example of Accident report form from Goldsmiths University London<br />Use this form to report an injury, work-related illness, or dangerous occurrence.<br />PART ONE (to be completed by injured person or their representative)<br />About the injured person <br />Full name:<br />Home address:<br />Telephone number:<br />Age:Male □Female □<br />Job/course title:<br />Goldsmiths staff □student □contractor □visitor □<br />Name of employer:<br />(Contractors only)<br />About the accident<br />When did it happen?Date: Time: <br />Where did it happen?<br />(Which room, building or place)<br />How did it happen?<br />(Give the cause if you can)<br />What was the injury?<br />(E.g. fracture, bruise, cut, sprain)<br />What part of the body?<br />What work-related illness diagnosed?<br />Signature of injured person<br />OR Signature of representativeDate:<br />Name of representative:<br />Telephone number:<br />PART TWO (to be completed by first aider)<br />About first aid/medical treatment <br />Was first aid:accepted □refused □advised to attend hospital/GP □<br />Not applicable □ <br />First aid details:<br />Name of first aider:<br />Telephone number of first aider:<br />Was injured person sent to hospital?Yes □No □<br />Name and address of hospital:<br />Was injured person kept in hospital for more than 24 hours? Yes □ No □ <br />Personal data provided on this form will be stored in accordance with Goldsmith College policies on data protection. Policy details are available at www.gold.ac.uk/data-protection<br />PART THREE (to be completed by manager/supervisor/tutor)<br />About the investigation <br />Name of witness 1:Telephone No:<br />Name of witness 2:Telephone No:<br />Please include as much relevant information as possible, but don’t delay sending your report – you can send further information later if necessary.<br />Attach information relevant to accident, for example: local safety procedures, risk assessments, training records, safety handbooks. Alternatively, note here where these are kept in the department:<br />Has the injured person resumed work/study?Yes □No □<br />If YES, on what date?<br />Actions taken to prevent a recurrence of this accident:<br />(For example: reporting building defects to Estates Department, repair of faulty equipment, review of local safety procedures, updating safety handbooks, reminders of safe procedures).<br />Signature of investigator:<br />Full name:<br />Department:<br />Date:<br />Please send completed form to the Head of Health and Safety<br />For health and safety office use only<br />Received by:Ref. No.Date:<br />F2508 Further investigation Referred to Insurance Officer <br />NOTE!<br />Accidents which result in an employee dying or suffering a major injury (see list below)<br />An employee suffering an injury which causes them to be away from work or unable to do their normal duties for more than three days<br />An employee diagnosed as suffering from one of the specified work-related illnesses (see list below)<br />A student or member of the public suffering an injury and being taken to hospital<br />A specified dangerous occurrence (see list below). These do not necessarily result in injury, but have the potential to do significant harm<br />These accidents must be reported to the Head of Health and Safety immediately by phone or email. Then follow up with a completed accident form. The line manager must also let the Head of H&S know when an injured employee has been off work or normal duties for more than three days.<br />Major injuries include:<br />Fractures, except to fingers, thumbs or toes<br />Amputation<br />Dislocation of shoulder, hip, knee or spine<br />Loss of sight (temporary or permanent)<br />Chemical or hot metal burns to eye, or penetrating injury to eye<br />Injury resulting from electric shock or electrical burn, leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours<br />Acute illness requiring medical treatment, or loss of consciousness, resulting from the absorption of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin, or exposure to a biological agent<br />Any other injury leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness, or to unconsciousness, or requiring resuscitation, or requiring admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours<br />Work-related illnesses include:<br />Occupational dermatitis, occupational asthma or respiratory sensitisation<br />Infections such as legionellosis, tetanus, hepatitis (if work-related)<br />Certain musculoskeletal disorders (if related to physically demanding work, frequent or repeated movements, use of hand-held vibrating tools)<br />Dangerous occurrences include:<br />Gas explosions<br />Collapse of scaffolding<br />Collapse, overturn or failure of lifting machinery<br />Task 4.2: Course Engagement Task Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operationDescribe the requirements and mechanisms for recording and reporting accidents at work.Study material on PowerPoint 1 slides (40-44)<br />Example risk assessment for a motor vehicle mechanical repair workshop <br />Setting the scene<br />The garage manager carried out the risk assessment. The business employed 12 mechanics, including two apprentices who carried out mechanical repairs. <br />How was the risk assessment done?<br />The garage manager followed the guidance in Five steps to risk assessment (www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg163.pdf). <br />To identify the hazards, the garage manager:<br />read HSE’s motor vehicle repair web pages■■(www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/), the Health and safety in motor vehicle repair booklet HSG67 (www.hsebooks.com) and the Essentials of health and safety at work publication (www.hsebooks.com ISBN 978 0 7176 6179 4) to learn where hazards can occur; <br />checked the manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets ■■for chemicals and equipment; <br />walked around the garage and took a note of things ■■that they thought might pose a risk, taking into consideration what they learnt from HSE’s guidance; <br />talked to staff to find out what work methods were ■■in use, what training they had been given, and any particular requirements that the two young apprentices may have; <br />went over the arrangements for waste disposal with the ■■licensed disposal contractor on the telephone;<br />listened to the employees’ own concerns about health ■■and safety; and<br />looked in the accident book.■■<br />The manager then wrote down who could be harmed by the hazards and how. <br />For each hazard identified, the manager recorded what controls, if any, were in place to manage these. He then compared these controls to the good practice guidance laid out in motor vehicle repair web pages, the Health and safety in motor vehicle repair booklet, Essentials of health and safety at work publication and the manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets. Where existing controls did not meet good practice, the manager wrote down what further actions were needed to manage the risk. <br />Putting the findings of the risk assessment into practice, the manager decided and recorded who was responsible for implementing the further actions and when they should be done. When each action was completed it was ticked off and the date recorded.<br />The findings of the risk assessment were discussed by the supervisors and their teams of mechanics. The manager decided that a review and update of the risk assessment would be made annually or sooner if things changed. <br />Important reminder<br />This example risk assessment shows the kind of approach a small business can take. Use it as a guide to think through some of the hazards in your business and the steps you need to take to control the risks. Please note that it is not a generic risk assessment that you can just put your company name on and adopt wholesale without any thought. This would not satisfy the law – and would not be effective in protecting people. <br />Every business is different – you need to think through the hazards and controls required in your business for yourself. <br />Example risk assessment: A motor vehicle mechanical repair workshop <br />Health and Safety Executive<br />HAZARDWHO MIGHT BE HARMED?EXISTING CONTROLSFUTURE ACTIONSHazardous Substancesi) Isocyanate paints; petroleum paints; thinners used in spray booth.ii) Handling of fillers, dust from grinding of fillers.iii) Cleaning solvents, engine oil.iv) Car engineer running inside, toxic exhaust fumes e.g. carbon monoxide.v) Brake and clutch linings and discs (may contain asbestos)Employees working in spray booths.Employees storing and mixing paints.Employees, particularly panel beater.All employeesAll employeesAll employees, particularly those involved in the task.Spray booths totally enclosed, general exhaust extraction in operation during spraying and baking. Spraying work only undertaken by trained staff. Air-fed respirator, disposable overalls, gloves and safety boots worn at all times. Spray/bake booths maintained on regular basis by contract.Paints stored in separate room with extraction system. Proprietary mixing system used.Inventory kept.Colour-coded metal drum used for waste.Health surveillance carried out on all body shop staff.Latex gloves worn when handling fillers.During grinding, local exhaust used.Full face mask and cartridge, gloves and overalls used.Kept in small amounts.Disposed of in colour-coded drums.Gloves and overalls used.Car exhaust attached to extractor system when engine is running.Extractor system maintained and tested to prevent leaks.Proprietary drum cleaning equipment used.Dust removed with special vacuum cleaner.Overalls and respirator worn. Overalls cleaned by designated contractor and not taken home.Supervisor to monitor the use of personal protective equipment by all body shop workers. Manager to introduce system to record issue and inspection of personal protective equipment.As above.As above.Supervisor to periodically check carbon monoxide levels in the workshop when engine running and extractive system operates.No further action required.Firei) Sparks and dust from grinding; welding;ii) Use of flammable substances;iii) Petrol fires;iv) Charging batteries; build-up of hydrogen, explosion.All employees, visitorsAll employees, visitors.All employees, visitors.All employees, others.Smoking prohibited in all work areas.Fire alarms maintained and tested by manufacturer.Extinguishers provided and inspected under contract.Special fire exits not needed as all work areas have immediate access to outside.Flammables purchased in minimum quantities and stored in well ventilated locations.Flammable liquid waste stored away from main building. Good housekeeping standards.Fuel retriever used in emptying vehicle fuel tanks if necessary.Component cleaning in recalculating paraffin system.Operation carried out in a well-ventilated area so the hydrogen can disperse.Trained to follow manufacturers' recommendations.Manager to arrange some training on use of extinguishers for all staff.No further action required.No further action required.No further action required.Electrical EquipmentFixed equipment; range of portable appliances e.g. hand lamps.All employees, particularly from portable equipment which is liable to damage.Testing carried out annually on all portable equipment and users trained to carry out visual checks and report defects.Installed equipment receives regular maintenance.No further action required.Falling ObjectsCar lift failure.Car jack failure.Employees, especially in vehicle repair.Car lifts inspected and services every six months by insurers.Jacks and axle stands maintained on a regular basis.Axle stands used after lifting vehicle with jack.Safe working loads not exceeded.No further action required.Mechanical EquipmentE.g. grinding equipment.Employees.All mechanical equipment checked before use and faults reported to supervisor.Equipment not to be left running unattended.Guarding provided.Protective equipment worn.No further action required.Operation of Fork-Lift TruckDrivers.Other staff visitors.All operators trained and certified for use of the lift truck.Truck serviced regularly and examined every six months.Stores laid out to enable truck to load and unload safely.Flooring maintained to reasonable standard.No further action required.Manual HandlingIn the stores; movement of components.All employees, particularly those in the stores.Fork-lift truck used to move materials into store and take components to work shop.Manual handling still required.Manager to arrange manual handling training for the staff in the store.More detailed assessment to be carried out.NoiseParticularly in body repair work.All employees, particularlyEar defenders must be worn when panel beating.Ear defenders available in vehicle repair for use with certain equipment, e.g. air saw.Supervisors to monitor use of ear defenders.WeldingToxic fumes, sparks, arc eye.Employees performing the task.Others nearby.A range of head and body protection used depending on the type of welding operation.Local exhaust extraction (LEV) in place.Screens to be provided to protect others from radiation.Arrange periodic testing of LEV plant.Slips, trips and falls on levelAll employees.Visitors.Good housekeeping standards maintained through training and monitoring,Floors degreased weekly.Absorbent granules and sawdust put on spills as soon as possible.Entrances and exits maintained.Walkways and storage areas designated by yellow lines.Compressed airi) Explosion of equipment, tyres.ii) Injection of air in the body.All employees.All employees trained in safe working procedures.Air line has dead man’s handle.System inspected and serviced every six months by insurers.No further action.Waste DisposalAll employees and others who remove the waste.Materials disposed of in colour-coded waste bins.Waste removed by firm of specialist contractors.No further action required.Hand ToolsAll employees.Tool box provided for correct storage when not in use.Damaged tools taken out of use immediately.Supervisor to monitor maintenance and use.Hygiene and comfortAll employees.Heated mess room with kitchen area provided.Toilets and sinks available, cleaned daily.Locker room for drying and storage of won clothes and work clothing/equipment provided.Portable heaters used during the winter in the workshop.No further action required.<br />Overall Hazard Rating Number (please circle relevant numbers and calculate to indicate Risk Assessment Category)RatingImprobablePossibleLikelyVery LikelyAlmost CertainRisk Assessment CategoryTrivial Injury12345Likelihood x ConsequenceLow Risk = 1-5Medium Risk = 6 –10 (Clarification Required)High Risk = 12-25 (Immediate Attention)Minor Injury246810Severe Injury3691215Major Injury48121620Fatal Injury510152025If hazardous activities such as mountaineering, abseiling, pot-holing etc. are NOT being arranged through an Activity Centre, then qualifications of Leader MUST BE submitted with this form. If in any doubt please check with the Head of Management Services PA on Ext. 206.<br />Task 4.3: Course Engagement Task Describe the impact of health and safety legislation on a vehicle operationCarry out a risk assessment in a vehicle operation and make recommendations.Study material on PowerPoint 1 slides (40-44)Carry out Risk assessment using documentation below<br />Preparing your assignment<br />Turn back to the unit specification at the beginning of this Study Guide (p4).There are two important sub-headings in this specification that you will need to take into account when planning your assignment: the learning outcomes, and the assessment tasks.<br />Harvard Referencing<br />References and additional reading<br />Textbooks<br />Armstrong, M — Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (Kogan, 2001)<br />ISBN: 0749433930<br />Hunt, J — Managing People at Work (McGraw Hill, 1992) ISBN: 007707677X<br />Maund, L — Introduction to Human Resource Management (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001)<br />ISBN: 0333912438<br />Torrington, D and Hall, L — Human Resource Management (Prentice-Hall Europe, 1998)<br />ISBN: 0130807397<br />Other references will be found at the end of the unit Reader.<br />

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