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Basic teaching about biotechnology and tools used.

Basic teaching about biotechnology and tools used.

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  • 1. APPLICATIONS OF DNA TECHNOLOGY One of the defining features of modern biology is the extensive use of the technology of gene manipulation . It is now possible to manipulate DNA directly to produce recombinant DNA . The manipulated genes can be replaced back into the original, or a different, organism to produce transgenic plants and animals.
  • 2. Applications of DNA Technology
    • 1) The Human Genome Project: genetic mapping, DNA sequencing, genome analysis/comparison
    • 2) Human Therapeutics: detecting genetic disorders, gene therapy
    • 3) Forensic Uses: DNA profiling
    • 4) Agriculture: transgenic plants, production of BST
  • 3. The Human Genome Project
    • The genome of an organism is it’s complete complement of genetic information
    • Completed in 2003, the international Human Genome Project was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.
    • Project goals were to …
    • - identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA,
    • - determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA
    • - store this information in databases
    • - improve tools for data analysis
    • - address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project.
  • 4.
    • The human genome project has been achieved using 3 approaches:
    • a) GENETIC MAPPING
    • b) PHYSICAL MAPPING
    • c) DNA SEQUENCING
    • Firstly however, the desired DNA sequences must be amplified. The process used to do this is the POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)