1 “INTELLIGENCE”‘DEFINITION’:Intelligence is an umbrella term used to describe aproperty of the mind that encompasses many relatedabilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, tosolve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehendideas, to use language, and to learn. There are severalways to define intelligence. In some cases, intelligencemay include traits such as creativity, personality,character, knowledge, or wisdom. However there is noagreement on which traits define the phenomenon ofintelligence agreed upon by a majority across thevarious concerned disciplines.There are probably as many definitions of intelligenceas there are experts who study it. Simply put, however,intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from,understand, and interact with one’s environment. Thisgeneral ability consists of a number of specificabilities, which include these specific abilities:• Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the current environment• Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it• Capacity for reason and abstract thought
2• Ability to comprehend relationships• Ability to evaluate and judge• Capacity for original and productive thoughtAdditional specific abilities might be added to the list,but they would all be abilities allowing a person tolearn about, learn from, understand, and interact withthe environment. Environment in this definitiondoesn’t mean the environment of the earth, such as thedesert, the mountains, etc., although it can mean thatkind of environment. It has a wider meaning thatincludes a person’s immediate surroundings, includingthe people around him or her. Environment in this casecan also be something as small as a family, theworkplace, or classroom. ‘THEPHENOMENON OFGENNIUS’: ‘WHAT IS GENIUS?Genius is actually very difficult to define. For onething, it is quite a subjective label – for some, a geniusis anyone with an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) higherthan a certain value. Others, however, feel that IQ is avery poor and unrepresentative measure of a person’s
3total intelligence and therefore IQ scores are a poorreflection of real genius.Generally, it is accepted that a genius is not onlysomeone with a very high IQ but also someone whobreaks new ground with new ideas, discoveries,inventions or even works of art. In other words, agenius challenges the way other people view the fieldin which he works in – or even the world at large.GENIUS AND INTELLIGENCE:Intelligence itself can be difficult to define, the fieldof Psychometrics is devoted to studying and measuringintelligence and yet scientists and experts still cannotall agree on how best to analyze measure and describeintelligence. Therefore, it is not surprising that therelationship between genius and intelligence is not aneasy one to describe.Ironically, many geniuses actually score poorly onstandardized intelligence tests or perform very poorlyat school – despite the fact that they have very highintellectual ability. Many researchers and theorists feelthat this supports the argument that the concept of ageneral intelligence ‘g’ is too limiting and does notprovide a complete view of a person’s intelligence.‘ORIGIN OFINTELLIGENCE’:
4In a purely naturalistic worldview, intelligence mustnecessarily be entirely a product of natural causes. Ifthis is true, then the phrase "intelligent design" issimply convenient shorthand for a kind of naturalprocess with distinctive results, and talk about "theappearance of design" is unnecessary, since there is noground for distinguishing between the appearance ofnatural design and the reality.It has frequently been asked, however, whether naturalprocesses are adequate to account for intelligence.Experimentally, the creation of anything resemblingintelligence has thus far required a sophisticatedengineering effort unlike anything we could expect tooccur naturally. Philosophically, there is a question ofwhether a process determined entirely by natural causescould ever provide credible knowledge about theuniverse. As C. S. Lewis pointed out, the moreconfident we are that we can account for a personsthinking as the result of mechanical or environmentalcauses, the less seriously we are likely to take it. Tosay "you only think that because..." is to discredit apersons thinking. An analogy I have used before is tocompare the relationship of ones intelligence to onesbrain with the relationship between the meaning of a
5book and its materials (the paper, ink, binding, etc.).Though each influences the other, neither is explainedby the other, nor attempts to do so commit a categoryerror.If this distinction (or one like it) is valid, then naturalcauses are not casually adequate to account forintelligence. In that case, some being outside of natureis required account for intelligence. Such a being mightwell account for other features of terrestrial biology aswell.What evidence can we supply to support either side ofthis argument? Either experimentally orphilosophically, what can we say with confidenceabout the source and cause of intelligenceExploring Origin of High IQIs Intelligence a Product of Heredity,Environment or Both? “Parents of gifted and high-IQ children often wonderabout the source of their childs intelligence.”The origin of intelligence, whether from heredity,environment or both, remains an interesting part of theIntelligence Quotient (IQ) issue. This question hasconfounded scholars and mental health professionals
6since French psychologist Alfred Benet created thefirst IQ test in 1902 to identify children with learningdisabilities. While some reliable studies prove the casefor heredity, other equally reliable studies, make theirclaims about environment.“THEORIES OFINTELLIGENCE:”Numerous theories have emerged to define, explain andpredict human intelligence. While intelligence is one ofthe most talked about subjects within psychology, thereis no standard definition what exactly constitutes“INTELLIGENCE”. Some researches have suggestedthat intelligence is a single general ability; while otherbelieve that intelligence encompasses the range ofaptitudes, skills and talents. The following are some ofthe major theories of intelligence.1-CHARLES SPEARMAN:(GENERAL INTELLIGENCE)
7British psychologist Charles spearman (1863-1945)described a concept. He referred to as generalintelligence, or the “ g” factor. After using atechnique known as factor analysis to examine anumber of mental aptitude test, spearman concludedthat scores on these test were remarkably similar.People who performed well on one cognitive test tendedto perform well on other test, while those who scoredbadly on one test tended to score badly on other heconcluded that “intelligence is general cognitive abilitythat could be measured and numerically measured”2- LOUIS L. THURSTONE :(PRIMARY MENTALABILITIES)Psychologist Louis l. Thurston (1887-1955) offered adifferently theory of intelligence instead of viewingintelligence as a single general ability, Thurston theoryfocused on seven different “primary mental abilities” in1938. The abilities that he described were: Verbal comprehension Reasoning Perceptual speed Numerical ability Word fluency Spatial visualization
83-HOWARD GARNER:(MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE)One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howardgardeners “theory of multiple intelligence”. Instead offocusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardnerproposed that numerical expressions of humanintelligence are not full and accurate depiction ofpeople ability.His theory describes eight distinct intelligence that arebased on skills and abilities that are valued withindifferent culture. The eight intelligence gardenerdescribed is: Visual-spatial intelligence Verbal-linguistic intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence Logical-mathematical intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Musical intelligence Intra-person intelligence Naturalistic intelligence 4-ROBERT STERNBERG: (TRI ARCHIC THEORY)
9 Psychologist Robert defined intelligence as mental activity directed towards purposive adaptation to selection and shaping of, real world environment relevant to ones life. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as successful intelligence which is comprised of three different factors: Analytical intelligence Practical intelligence Creative intelligence 5-DANIEL GOLEMAN: (EMOTIONAL THEORY)Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recentbehavioral model, rising to prominence with DanielGolemans 1995 Book called Emotional Intelligence.The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originallydeveloped during the 1970s and 80s by the work andwritings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard),Peter Salovey (Yale) and John Jack Mayer (NewHampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasinglyrelevant to organizational development and developingpeople, because the EQ principles provide a new way tounderstand and assess peoples behaviors, managementstyles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential.Emotional Intelligence is an important considerationin human resources planning, job profiling, recruitmentinterviewing and selection, management development,customer relations and customer service, and more.
10Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts oflove and spirituality: bringing compassion andhumanity to work, and also to Multiple Intelligencetheory which illustrates and measures the range ofcapabilities people possess, and the fact that everybodyhas a value.The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventionalintelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areasof Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable howsuccessful we are. Success requires more than IQ(Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be thetraditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essentialbehavioral and character elements. Weve all metpeople who are academically brilliant and yet aresocially and inter-personally inept. And we know thatdespite possessing a high IQ rating, success does notautomaticallyGoleman identified the five domains of EQ as: Knowing your emotions. Managing your own emotions. Motivating yourself. Recognizing and understanding other peoples emotions. Managing relationships, ie. Managing the emotions of others.Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws fromnumerous other branches of behavioral, emotional andcommunications theories, such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming), Transactional Analysis, and
11empathy. By developing our Emotional Intelligence inthese areas and the five EQ domains we can becomemore productive and successful at what we do, andhelp others to be more productive and successful too.The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligencedevelopment also contain many elements known toreduce stress for individuals and organizations, bydecreasing conflict, improving relationships andunderstanding, and increasing stability, continuity andharmony follow.‘TYPES OFINYELLIGENCE’: 1. NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE: (NATURE SMART)Designates the human ability to discriminate amongliving things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity toother features of the natural world (clouds, rockconfigurations). This ability was clearlyof value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers,and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles asbotanist or chef. It is also speculated that much of ourconsumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences,
12which can be mobilized in the discrimination amongcars, sneakers, kinds of makeup, and the like2. MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE: (MUSICAL SMART)Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch,rhythm, timbre, and tone. This intelligence enables usto recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, asdemonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians,vocalist, and sensitive listeners. Interestingly, there isoften an affective connection between music and theemotions; and mathematical and musical intelligencesmay share common thinking processes. Young adultswith this kind of intelligence are usually singing ordrumming to themselves. They are usually quite awareof sounds others may miss. 3. LOGICAL-MATHEMATICALINTELLIGENCE: (NUMBER/REASONING SMART)
13Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability tocalculate, quantify, consider propositions andhypotheses, and carry out complete mathematicaloperations. It enables us to perceive relationships andconnections and to use abstract, symbolic thought;sequential reasoning skills; and inductive anddeductive thinking patterns. Logical intelligence isusually well developed in mathematicians, scientists,and detectives. Young adults with lots of logicalintelligence are interested in patterns, categories, andrelationships. They are drawn to arithmetic problems,strategy games and experiments4. EXISTENTIALINTELLIGENCE:Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions abouthuman existence, such as the meaning of life, why dowe die, and how did we get here.5. INTERPERSONALINTELLIGENCE: (PEOPLE SMART)Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understandand interact effectively with others. It involveseffective verbal and nonverbal communication, theability to note distinctions among others, sensitivity tothe moods and temperaments of others, and the ability
14to entertain multiple perspectives. Teachers, socialworkers, actors, and politicians all exhibitinterpersonal intelligence. Young adults with thiskind of intelligence are leaders among their peers, aregood at communicating, and seem to understand others’feelings and motives.6. BODILY-KINESTHETICINTELLIGENCE: (BODY SMART)Bodily kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity tomanipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills.This intelligence also involves a sense of timing andthe perfection of skills through mind–body union.Athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople exhibitwell-developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence.7. LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE(WORD SMART):Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in wordsand to use language to express and appreciate complexmeanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us tounderstand the order and meaning of words and toapply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use oflanguage. Linguistic intelligence is the most widelyshared human competence and is evident in poets,novelists, journalists, and effective public speakers.Young adults with this kind of intelligence enjoy
15writing, reading, telling stories or doing crosswordpuzzles.8. INTRA-PERSONALINTELLIGENCE: (SELF SMART)Intra-personal intelligence is the capacity tounderstand oneself and one’s thoughts and feelings,and to use such knowledge in planning and directionone’s life. Intra-personal intelligence involves notonly an appreciation of the self, but also of the humancondition. It is evident in psychologist, spiritualleaders, and philosophers. These young adults may beshy. They are very aware of their own feelings and areself-motivated.9. SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE : (PICTURE SMART)Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in threedimensions. Core capacities include mental imagery,spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic andartistic skills, and an active imagination. Sailors,pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibitspatial intelligence. Young adults with this kind of
16intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsawpuzzles, or spend free time drawing or daydreaming.“QUOTES”:Man becomes man only by his intelligence, but he isman only by his heart. ~Henri Frederic AmylA great many people think that polysyllables are a signof intelligence. ~Barbara WaltersPrimitive does not mean stupid. ~Author Unknownit’s not that Im so smart; its just that I stay withproblems longer. ~Albert EinsteinThe difference between intelligence and education isthis: intelligence will make you a good living .~Charles F. KetteringPerhaps imagination is only intelligence having fun.~George ScialabraCommon sense is not so common. ~VoltaireCharacter is higher than intellect. ~Ralph WaldoEmersonThere are no great limits to growth because there areno limits of human intelligence, imagination, andwonder.
17Ronald ReaganThe true sign of intelligence is not knowledge butimagination. ~Albert Einstein‘INTELLIGENCE INABNORMAL’ :THE STUDY OF THE HUMANMIND:Why are children stubborn? Why do some peoplebecome addicted to alcohol or gambling? How do youhelp an abused child? All of these are difficult andchallenging questions that the field of psychology istrying to answer.So, then what exactly is psychology? There are manymisperceptions created by television and movies today,but the basic answer is that psychology is both anapplied and academic science that studies the humanmind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks tounderstand and explain thought, emotion, andbehavior. Psychology is applied to individuals viamental health treatment, performance enhancement,self-help, ergonomics, and many other areas affectinghealth and daily life.
18PSYCHOLOGY HISTORY ANDSCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:While people have always been fascinated by humanbehavior, it wasnt until the late 19th century thatpsychology began to be considered an actual science.Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab inGermany. He believed in a school of thought calledstructuralism-believing that certain structures in themind caused behavior. Over the course of psychologyshistory, different schools of thought have competed forprominence. Here are the major schools of thought inpsychology:•Structuralism: The belief that there is aconnection between sensation and emotion andbehavior.•Functionalism: The idea that the human brainis much like a computer, designed to carry out specificfunctions.•Psychoanalysis: Created by Sigmund Freud,this school of thought believes in the rigorous probingof an individuals personal problems, motives, goalsand attitudes as a way to heal the mind.• Behaviorist : Proponents of this theoryessentially hold that all human behavior is learnedfrom ones surrounding context and environment.
19•Humanism: This much more recent school ofthought came as a reaction to behaviorism andPsychoanalysis, and emphasizes the importance ofvalues, intentions, and meaning in the individual. Theconcept of the "self" is a central focus for mosthumanistic psychologists.•Cognitive : This branch of psychology believesthat psychology should be concerned with a personsinternal representations of the world and with theinternal or functional organization of the mind.As psychology moved away from its philosophical roots,psychologists began to employ more and more scientificmethods to study human behavior. Today, researchersemploy a variety of scientific methods, includingexperiments, correlation studies, longitudinal studies,and others to test, explain, and predict behavior.Abnormal Behavior and MentalHealth:Human behavior is abnormal by default, because thetruth is that the human being is a very absurd andcruel animal.The big irony of the continuation of the work that apsychiatrist began, by a literature writer like me, isexactly the fact that balance, psychic, emotional andmental health are not based on rationalism, but onsensitivity. Poetry and philosophy helped me perceivewhat all cold scientists could not see.
20They were not able to discover the truth about humannature because they didnt give any importance tosensitivity, considering anger as a "normal" humanreaction.However, anger is an abnormal behavior, since it leadsto violence and terror.What is logical and what is absurd are very intriguingmatters. Many of the reactions considered as "normal"ones by the psychiatric world and by common logic, arein fact totally absurd, which can be noticed in the end,when we see their tragic results.I have studied human logic and behavior since I was 15years old, but I could only understand it when I turned28 years old, and I discovered the anti-conscience atthe bottom of the human psyche. This is the wild andviolent conscience that everyone inherits from birth intheir brain.I found it as I was interpreting my dreams andlearning about the unknown content of the humanpsyche.Carl Jung abandoned his research, afraid of thecraziness that he knew that existed there.I had to continue though, and face the primitivemonster that exists inside the wild part of the humanconscience.This was how I discovered that the cure forschizophrenia, psychosis, hysteria and all existent
21mental illnesses is the elimination of the domination ofthe anti-conscience in the human side, and today youcan protect your mental health for sure, beforebecoming its victim.I have cured many people translating their dreams for20 years now. I discovered the wild anti-conscience butI discovered also the solution: the obedience to thewise directions of the unconscious mind in our dreams.There is too much craziness accumulated in the anti-conscience. Real absurdity, like the feeling of pleasurewith terror, as we have seen in many horror movies,believing that this cannot be real...Craziness and terror are synonyms, the same way thatcraziness and evilness are synonyms as well.The primitive animal that exists inside everyones brainis still active and keeps trying to dominate their humanside, in order to destroy it and take its place.This wild animal provokes abnormal behavior andsuicidal tendencies to the human conscience, pretendingthat it is human.It misleads the human conscience, making it follow itsabsurd thoughts, which are camouflaged by a falselogic that the human conscience cannot perceive asfalse.Thanks to the scientific method of dream interpretationand my courageous research, today you know very wellwhat exists inside you and what you have to do in
22order to transform this wild and dangerous monster ina positive part of your human side. This way, this partwill make you more intelligent, instead of trying toimprison you in the labyrinth of craziness.Many people dislike the idea of being considered crazy,however the craziness existent inside everyone is not aresult of their own faults. This is an inherited content.The human being is not responsible for the absurdity ofthe monster he comes from.This means that you are not really crazy yourself, butyou carry in your brain a dangerous brother who is toocrazy.On the other hand, your human conscience is absurdtoo, because it is under-developed and it follows theabsurd desires of your ego...This means that if you want to be sure that youllreally keep your mental health for life, you have tolearn how to translate your dreams according to thescientific method and transform your worst enemy in apositive part of your human side without delay!
23‘SEX DIFFERENCES ININTELLIGENCE’:INTRODUCTION:In this discussion of sex differences I rely mostly onchapter 13, "Sex differences in g", from Arthur Jensensbook "The g factor", and a little bit on chapter 4,"Conditions for excellence", from Hans Eysencks book"Genius - The natural history of creativity".MEAN I.Q.:When it comes to the question whether or not there isdifference in mean I.Q. between males and females,Jensen basically says no, after having considered alarge amount of evidence. Eysenck is a little bit moreskeptical and points out that the usual assumption ofequal I.Q. of the sexes may be flawed. Based on dataalso mentioned by Jensen (R. Lynn, 1994, "Sexdifferences in intelligence and brain size: a paradoxresolved"), Eysenck’s suggests 4 I.Q. points as aconservative estimate of the difference (favoringmales). Lynn, on his home page, simple states in adultsthe difference is about 4 points.Both Jensen and Eysenck indicate that the question ishard to answer, as I.Q. tests like Stanford-Benet andW.A.I.S. have traditionally been constructed to showno sex difference in total score, by leaving out or
24counterbalancing items that show sex differences. Suchtests therefore are not capable of measuring a possibledifference between the sexes.I myself can not observe a mean difference directly as Ionly deal with high-range tests. I will return to thispoint further on with regard to the variance difference.VARIANCE:The male variance in I.Q. is greater than that forfemales; Jensen says this difference is greatest in mathand spatial ability. In math the male variance is 1.1 to1.3 times greater (He does not give the difference forI.Q. or g).In the high range, my own observation to date is thatat or above the 98 th percentile there are about twicemore males than females, while at or above the 99.9 thpercentile there are about 15 times more males. Theseestimates are based on the male/female ratios in certainhigh I.Q. societies and on analysis of male and femaleperformance on my tests. Trying to make this fit interms of standard deviation ("variance" is, incidentally,the square of the standard deviation), I find that whenthe male and female mean are both I.Q. 100, the malestandard deviation (S.D.) must be about 33% greaterthan the female S.D. However, if a mean difference of5 points in favor of males existed, the male S.D. wouldonly need to be about 11% greater. I do not yet knowwhich is true (or if the truth lies in between). I must
25say though that an SD difference of 33% seemsunlikely.A remark sometimes made regarding the male/femaleratio in I.Q. societies and among high-range candidatesis that females may be so lowly represented becausethey simply do not like taking intelligence tests, oreven because they attach less value to intelligence thanmales do as a result of having been raised andsocialized to value other traits higher in women. Inother words, that their representation is notproportional to their actual presence at highintelligence levels. The following facts however speakagainst this: • In general, people enjoy (like, tend to, are inclined to) doing what they are good at, so the fact that fewer women than men take high-range tests is in full accordance with their lower occurrence frequency at high intelligence levels. It is unlikely that people in large numbers are kept from doing what they are naturally good at merely by not liking or not valuing it. It is much more likely that the "not liking" is a result of being less good at it. • It is well known that females are far more interested in (enjoying, liking) taking all sorts of psychological tests than are males, so their strong underpresence among high-range test candidates must have a compelling reason other than "not liking".
26• A factual observation about high-range tests is that the harder a test is (as measured by the proportion of the tests problems that is on average missed), the fewer people choose to take it, the higher their median score, and the smaller their internal spread. It follows logically, is apparent, that people are avoiding tests that are too hard for them (rather than just avoiding tests they do not like), and are taking tests they can handle (rather than just taking tests they like).• It is also a factual observation about high-range tests that the harder a test is, the greater the male/female ratio among that tests candidates is. It follows logically that females are avoiding tests that are too hard for them (rather than just avoiding tests they do not like), and are taking tests they can handle (rather than just taking tests they like).• The distribution of female scores on high-range tests looks roughly similar to that of males, shifted downward by about ten I.Q. points.• In professions that require high intelligence, such as those in exact science and technology, there are still fewer to far fewer females than males working, despite decades of emancipation, affirmative action, government-prescribed minimum quota for females in certain professions, and lowering educational standards. Clearly, there is a force that keeps females away from these professions, and the longer the positive discrimination goes on and fails, the more painfully clear it gets that this force is mainly the
27 ability requirement of the work itself, which is at least partly an intelligence requirement, while other aspects of creativity may also play a role.These facts make it almost inescapable to conclude thatthe male/female ratio among high-range candidates andin I.Q. societies is roughly representative of the actualmale/female ratio at high intelligence levels. Sometimesone has to leave a prejudice (equality) behind andaccept the facts, even if one would like them to beotherwise. That I say "roughly representative" is notbecause I believe that "liking tests" or social orsocialization factors may still contribute, but to leaveopen the possibility that yet other personality featuresare at play next to intelligence, like associativehorizon. CHILDHOOD ANDGROWING UP:Girls mature earlier verbally, and after puberty boyscatch up. The male advantage on spatial and numericalability (discussed further on) is not yet present inyoung children, and develops slowly during childhoodand puberty. Important to realize here is that the sexdifferences in mental abilities are caused by hormonaldifferences (estrogen/testosterone balance), which workpartly prenatally and partly after puberty.If there is a mean difference in I.Q. between the sexes,this will be fully expressed only in adults, and not yetin children. In any case, it seems that when testing
28children, e.g. for giftedness, one should be aware ofthese developments and differences, the risk being thatone might select too many girls and too few boys as“gifted”.ABILITY TYPES AT WHICHFEMALES ARE BETTERTHAN MALES:Females are slightly better than males at straight-forward arithmetic (not at more complex math). Onshort-term memory the difference is greater; Theyscore .3 S.D. higher than males, and one may supposethat this disposes them for multi-tasking.A verbal ability type that consistently favours femalesis "fluency"; Such tests require the candidate to nameas many as possible words starting with a given letterwithin a limited time. Females are also better atreading, writing, grammar and spelling. The popularnotion that females are better than males at verbalability on the whole is not true; They are only better atthese specific tasks, while there is no or as good as nosex difference in verbal ability on the whole.Other tasks at which females outscore males are thoseinvolving perceptual speed (e.g. matching figures) andclerical checking, both speed and accuracy (e.g.underlining certain letters in a text, or digit/symbolcoding). Their advantage on such tasks varies from .2to .4 S.D. Females are also better at motorcoordination and finger and manual dexterity, but
29those are not mental abilities in a strict sense,although they do occur in the "performance" sections ofsome individual tests.In general, men are a level up than women at mentalmanipulation of objects and at doing specificquantitative tasks that depend on visual symbolism.Men are said to have the innate ability in mathematicsand scientific study. If this is considered truthful,then why do women achieve higher grades inmathematics and science? Baffling isnt it?Some say women are better in poker math? But itsdifficult to prove this because the game doesnt onlydeal with probabilities but "bluffing" as well whichcompletely takes out the mathematics involved. If thequestion is who is better in gambling?..women are,according to research studies. Its easy to assume menare better and this is purely stereotypical just becausemore men are seen inside casinos. One particular studyclaimed that women are much more assertive andaggressive than men when stakes are high.ABILITY TYPES AT WHICHMALES ARE BETTER:The largest difference is that in spatial ability; themental manipulation of figures in two or moredimensions. The difference varies from .3 to .5 S.D.Then there is a difference in numerical ability (exceptfor simple arithmetic) of .1 to .25 S.D. And as already
30said, in both spatial and numerical ability there is alsoa large difference in variance, favoring males.As for verbal ability, males are better at tests ofgeneral knowledge. In verbal reasoning there is as goodas no difference.CONCLUSION:Most important to realize is that because of thedifference in variance (regardless if there is a meandifference), in any above-average sample it is normal tofind males scoring higher than females. It would infact be suspect to find this not to be the case; Thatwould indicate possible problems with test ceiling (toolow to allow the males to outscore the females) or testconstruction (items selected to be sex-balanced insteadof for psychometric soundness), or fraud withstatistics.Also important to know is that the state of affairsamong children, regarding mental abilities, is notrepresentative of how it will be when they have becomeadults. In childhood, girls appear so deceptively equalor superior to boys.Dilemmas that come forth from these facts: Should testscores in the high range be expressed within-sex ratherthan sex-combined, given the difference? And: Should"giftedness" be defined within children, or withinadults? I am inclined to say "Yes" to the first, and"Beyond doubt within adults" to the latter question.
31‘ANIMALS ANDINTELLIGENCE’:ARE ANIMALS INTELLIGENT?Some researchers in the field strongly support the ideathat animals have “minds” but while their position hasstrong support from the lay population, it has notfound wide acceptance in the scientific community.However, researchers have demonstrated animals’strong cognitive ability in several areas. For example,the studies of birds which catch their food through theuse of a sophisticated mind map or even thechimpanzee that learnt sign language. Animal languageacquisition and its importance in revealing animalintelligence is still a controversial topic.1-GREAT APES:Human and chimps genome are at least identical andinfect they are one four closest living relatives. Chimps make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring co-operation, influence and rank.
32 They are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception. They can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language. A recent study revealed that use of such advanced tools as spears; they sharpen it with their teeth and use it to spear Senegal bush babies out of small holes in trees.2-DOLPHINS:Dolphins are very intelligent, playful and creativeanimals and by many researches are considered to bethe second smartest animal in the world. They also have very advanced communication system and even use tools. Dolphins can communicate abstract idea such as left and right. Dolphins can clean their places or pools etc. They hide their food and play games also. 3-ELEPHANTS: Elephants are highly intelligent. They create complex social relationships,, and even imitate human language. Elephants also exhibit self awareness. Elephants are highly skilled tool users.
33 They also teach their young ones how to use sticks. Elephants also communicate over long distances by producing and receiving low- frequency sound. 4-Parrots: African grey parrots are extremely sociable loving and intelligent animals. They are capable of learning hundreds of human words and sounds, which can be used in their proper context. From some researches it is cleared that an African parrot is as much intelligent as a five year old child. They can distinguish color, shapes, concept of bigger and smaller. 5-Dogs:Dog intelligence is the ability of a dog to learn, think,and solve problems. Dog trainers, owners, andresearchers have as much difficulty agreeing on amethod for testing canine intelligence as they do forhuman intelligence. One specific difficulty is confusinga breeds genetic characteristics and a dogs obediencetraining with intelligence.
34Certain breeds, like Doberman Pinschers, BorderCollies, Poodles, German Shepherds, ShetlandSheepdogs, Rottweiler, Labrador Retrievers and GoldenRetrievers, are thought to be "smarter" breeds of dogs.These descriptions are relative to other dogs, notrelative to the world at large. The ability andwillingness to learn and obey commands is not the onlypossible measurement of intelligence. Other breeds,such as sled dogs and sight hounds demonstrateintelligence in other ways6-CATS:Are a lot more intelligent than people give them creditfor. They are capable of forming attachments to peopleand communicating their needs and wants. They arecapable of “instinctual thought.” Cat owners willagree, these are animals are truly smart.These animals have many wants. The stories people tellare all about cats that are cunning, aloof, and alwayshungry. In many ways, this image is correct, butthere’s a lot more to most cats than this. They havepersonalities – and that may mean that they don’thesitate to demand whatever they want, be it food,play, or to be left alone.
35‘What is Artificial Intelligence?’ Artificial intelligence (AI), also known assynthetic intelligence, is a branch of science andengineering which studies and designs intelligentmachines, and in particular, intelligent computerprogrammers.It is also often used to describe the property orcharacteristic of machines or computer systems thatdemonstrate intelligence. Intelligence in this case beingtraits such as learning, reasoning, planning,communication, knowledge and perception, as well asthe physical ability to move and manipulate objects.AI research first began after World War II, whenseveral scientists began to independently work ondifferent ‘intelligent’ machines. Alan Turing, anEnglish mathematician, was probably the first and wasprobably also the first to decide that AI researchbenefited more from programming computers than frombuilding machines. Since then, most AI researchers basetheir work on programming computers.
36AI AND HUMANINTELLIGENCE:The ultimate goal of AI researchers is to createcomputer programmers which can solve problems aswell as any human. Thus, a large part of AI research isdirected towards simulating human intelligence.However, AI researchers are not bound by biologicalconstraints and therefore they can also tackle problemsthat require far more computing than humans arecapable of.There is some doubt over whether human-levelintelligence can ever be achieved, some researchers feelthat it can be if a large enough number of programmesare written and a large enough knowledge base isaccumulated. Most AI researchers feel that computersystems will always lack the new fundamental ideasrequired and therefore, it is difficult to predict ifhuman intelligence can ever be achieved. AI AND COMPUTERS:While many researchers have attempted to invent non-computer machines which exhibit artificial intelligence,so far they have always had to simulate the machine on
37a computer first, due to the large costs involved inbuilding such machines.The computer simulations have always performed sofast that that the researchers have doubted the worthof actually building these machines, as they willprobably never be superior to computers in speed andperformance. Certainly, with the ongoing developmentof computers, they will only get faster and faster, withmore and more sophisticated programs meaning thatthey continue to be best agents for artificialintelligence.APPLICATIONS OF AI:AI borrows from several fields, including neuroscience,computer science, cognitive science, psychology,linguistics, operations research, control theory,philosophy, logic, optimisation, economics andprobability. It involves operations such as logistics,robotics, speech recognition, control systems, facialrecognition, scheduling and data mining, among others.AI is applied in many areas: Game Playing ,Speech Recognition Understanding Natural Language Computer Vision –Expert systems Heuristic Classification
38‘MACHINES’:Machines, especially computers, that have beendesigned to demonstrate intelligence are said to have“artificial intelligence” or AI. They show the ability toreason, learn, communicate, plan, gain knowledge andperceive, as well as the ability to physicallymanipulate objects.They are now being used in a variety of areas,including things like speech recognition, game playingand providing expert systems. AI’s application could begrouped in to 4 main areas:SCIENCE:AI technology is revolutionizing the scientific world.It is being extensively used as a tool in research anddevelopment, with specific applications in militarytechnology. With the help of AI, scientific fieldsexpand and grow faster, allowing new technologies toadvance and new inventions to be created at a greaterrate.This in turn feeds back into the field of AI and sobecomes a perpetuating cycle. AI is also used insatellites where it uses existing algorithms to evaluatecollected data and help to predict weather patterns
39around the world. One of the benefits of technologyincorporating AI is that it can often be used in otherscientific areas.MEDICINE:AI is being employed to design machines that help toovercome human failings – for example, blindness,deafness or paralysis. Far from being a vague promiseof the future or a feature of science fiction novels,these issues are being overcome by scientists here andnow, working on projects using robotics to enable theblind to see, the paralyzed to walk and the deaf tohear.In other areas of medicine, AI is being used to combata variety of debilitating diseases and some people evenbelieve that the creation of “nanobots” – microscopicrobots that communicate with the human brain ormuscles – will not only help with medical proceduresbut can even be a means of creating a ‘superhuman’with unlimited memory. This is perhaps now gettinginto the realm of science fiction but it is certainly notimpossibility in the future.ENTERTAINMENT:AI can also be used for fun! People are fascinated byrobots and intelligent toys, which now come in a
40wondrous variety. ‘Chatter bots’, for example, canconverse with you in real time while AI video gameswill modify their behavior during play according toyour actions. In sports, AI computer programmers canhelp to make predictions while autonomous robots canactually play the sports themselves!Entertainment can also be useful as education. Forexample, the military has developed an AI computergame which teaches recruits a new language. Becauseof the “fun” and interest element, soldiers learn thelanguage more quickly and thoroughly, than if theyattended conventional language classes or used simpler,non-intelligence computer programmers.ART:It may go against the common perception but robotscan “think” and be creative. AI has not only helpedhumans create art but it is also capable of creating artof its own. In fact, AI has successfully created poetry,music and even engaged in drawing – all original andcompletely computer generated.These robots are able to express creativity in music,words and on paper, through innate knowledge andjudgment. Thus, AI robots can create new symphoniesin the style of long-dead composers or even produce the“potential” collaborations of several famous poets. In
41fact, there is even a cybernetic artist named AARONwho has been creating artwork that has been displayedin prominent art museums since the 1970’s‘Savant Syndrome andIntelligence’: Many of us have heard of the term idiotsavant or even Savant Syndrome and almost everyonehas seen the academy-award winning film, Rain Man,which brought this condition to the world’s attention.Many people are fascinated by the savant phenomenon,its contradictions regarding IQ and mental disability –and its manifestation through different skill areas. Butjust exactly what is a savant and what is therelationship between savant syndrome and intelligence?WHAT IS SAVANTSYNDROME?Savant Syndrome is a rare condition in which a person,who has a developmental disability resulting in a brainhandicap or some other form of central nervous system
42And incredible memory, superimposed on top of theirbasic brain dysfunction. In other words, they haveastonishing specific abilities or talents which are instark contrast to their overall mental limitations.WHAT CAUSES SAVANTSYNDROME?Savant Syndrome can arise in a variety of ways.Generally, it is congenital (inherited through the genesor resulting from developmental abnormalities beforebirth) but it can also be acquired later in childhood oreven during adult life, from brain injury or disease.It is believed that Savant Syndrome could be a resultof injury or damage to the left hemisphere of the braineither during development (e.g. high circulating levelsof testosterone which can become neurotoxin) or froman accident later in life and corresponding over-compensation from the right hemisphere of the brain.Interestingly, Savant Syndrome is 4 to 6 times morelikely to occur in males than females. Savant syndromeis also often linked to autism in that 10% of thosewith an autistic disorder will have some savant skills;in reverse, almost half of all savants will also have anautistic disorder. However, not all autistic persons aresavants nor are savants autistic.SAVANT SYNDROME AND IQ:Contrary to popular belief, Savant Syndrome is notnecessarily linked to lower IQ or mental retardation.
43In fact, there are just as many cases of savants withabove average IQ. While Savant Syndrome does tend tobe linked with a number of different mentaldisabilities, such as Autism, Asperser’s, Hyperemia orWilliams Syndrome, individuals with these conditionscan still have normal or even above average IQ’s.Usually, in fact, they will show a wide scatter amongthe various IQ sub-scores, with extremely high scoresin some areas and severe limitations in other sub-tests.Some scientists claim that this supports the theory ofmultiple intelligences and the inadequacy of theconcept of a general intelligence ‘g’ which gives arepresentative overall measure of a person’sintelligence. In fact, savants seem to prove that youcan very intelligent in certain fields while showingmental retardation in others.‘Conclusion’:In a purely naturalistic worldview, intelligence mustnecessarily be entirely a product of natural causes. Ifthis is true, then the phrase "intelligent design" issimply convenient shorthand for a kind of naturalprocess with distinctive results, and talk about "theappearance of design" is unnecessary, since there is noground for distinguishing between the appearance ofnatural design and the reality.It has frequently been asked, however, whether naturalprocesses are adequate to account for intelligence.Experimentally, the creation of anything resembling
44intelligence has thus far required a sophisticatedengineering effort unlike anything we could expect tooccur naturally. Philosophically, there is a question ofwhether a process determined entirely by natural causescould ever provide credible knowledge about theuniverse. As C. S. Lewis pointed out, the moreconfident we are that we can account for a personsthinking as the result of mechanical or environmentalcauses, the less seriously we are likely to take it. Tosay "you only think that because..." is to discredit apersons thinking. An analogy I have used before is tocompare the relationship of ones intelligence to onesbrain with the relationship between the meaning of abook and its materials (the paper, ink, binding, etc.).Though each influences the other, neither is explainedby the other, nor attempts to do so commit a categoryerror.If this distinction (or one like it) is valid, then naturalcauses are not casually adequate to account forintelligence. In that case, some being outside of natureis required account for intelligence. Such a being mightwell account for other features of terrestrial biology aswell.The nature of intelligence and how it can be measuredhas occupied psychologists, educationalists, biologistsand philosophers for hundreds of years. However, there has been little investigation into the riseof the traditional dominant educational ideology thatintelligence and IQ have innate limits and areunchanging and unchangeable. This book traces theroots of this mind set back to early puritan
45communities on both sides of the Atlantic, drawingparallels between puritan dogma and the developmentof the traditional curricula and selection processes thatare still firmly embedded in school practice today.Drawing on the work of Galton, Pearson, Burt,Goddard, Term an and others in his search for the truthabout intelligence testing, John White looks at thepersonal histories and socialized religious backgroundsof these key psychologists and casts an entirely newlight on schooling in Britain and the USA in moderntimes. This work also shows how we can transcend thisheritage and base our educational system on values andpractices more in tune with the twenty-first century.