JAIN UNIVERSITY SUBJECT - ECONOMICS TOPIC – POVERTY GUIDED BY – NAVEEN SIR BY - KIRAN S.K. HITESH PATANGE.
POVERTY WHAT IS POVERTY? TYPES OF POVERTY ABSOLUTE RELATIVE HISTORY SETTING A POVERTY LINE TRENDS IN POVERTY
CAUSES The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the 41 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (567 million people) is less than the wealth of the world’s 7 richest people combined. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn’t happen. The poorest people will also have less access to health, education and other services. Problems of hunger, malnutrition and disease afflict the poorest in society. The poorest are also typically marginalized from society and have little representation or voice in public and political debates, making it even harder to escape poverty.
Food wastage is high Inefficient agricultural practices War Famine Drought Over-fishing Poor crop yield Lack of democracy and rights By contrast, the wealthier you are, the more likely you are to benefit from economic or political policies. The amount the world spends on military, financial bailouts and other areas that benefit the wealthy, compared to the amount spent to address the daily crisis of poverty and related problems are often staggering.
FACTS Over 9 million people die worldwide each year because of hunger and malnutrition. 5 million are children. Approximately 1.2 billion people suffer from hunger (deficiency of calories and protein); Some 2 to 3.5 billion people have micronutrient deficiency (deficiency of vitamins and minerals); Yet, some 1.2 billion suffer from obesity (excess of fats and salt, often accompanied by deficiency of vitamins and minerals); In the last decade the amount of food British people threw into the bin went up by 15%; Overall, £20 billion (approximately $38 billion US dollars) worth of food is thrown away, every year. In the US 40-50% of all food ready for harvest never gets eaten;
The IMPACTS OF THE WASTE IS NOT A FINANCIAL WASTE . ENVIRONMENTALLY THIS LEADS TO Wasteful use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides; More fuel used for transportation; More rotting food, creating more methane — one of the most harmful greenhouse gases that contributes to climate change. In a world of plenty, a huge number go hungry. Hunger is more than just the result of food production and meeting demands. The causes of hunger are related to the causes of poverty. One of the major causes of hunger is poverty itself. The various issues discussed throughout this site about poverty lead to people being unable to afford food and hence people go hungry.
STATISTICS ABOUT POVERTY .
BY UNICEF Over 22,000 children die every day around the world. That is equivalent to: 1 child dying every 4 seconds 15 children dying every minute A 2010 Haiti earthquake occurring almost every 10 days A 2004 Asian Tsunami occurring almost every 10 days An Iraq-scale death toll every 18–43 days Just under 8.1 million children dying every year Some 88 million children dying between 2000 and 2009 At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day.1 More than 80 percent of the world’s population lives in countries where income differentials are widening The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.
Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. Almost two in three people lacking access to clean water survive on less than $2 a day, with one in three living on less than $1 a day. More than 660 million people without sanitation live on less than $2 a day, and more than 385 million on less than $1 a day. 1.8 billion people who have access to a water source within 1 kilometer, but not in their house or yard, consume around 20 liters per day. In the United Kingdom the average person uses more than 50 liters of water a day flushing toilets (where average daily water usage is about 150 liters a day. The highest average water use in the world is in the US, at 600 liters day.) Some 1.8 million child deaths each year as a result of diarrhea
SOLUTIONS TO ERADICATE POVERTY Generating more employment; Raising the level of minimum education; Making the social elite aware of the possibility of removing it; Presenting the government concrete programs of prosperity; Drawing upon the resources of every social institution like Chamber of Commerce, university, research institutions, government, voluntary organization, U.N., U.N. agencies, press, etc. Educating the public opinion that poverty is not inevitable.
Appeal for the changed PERCEPTION from charity to MAN coming into his own right -- a right to good living. Assess the effectivity of information, ideas, opinions, statistics, studies, data, arguments, examples, etc. on the segment of populalation that can move to eradicate poverty and give them in that measure through appropriate media. Introduce in the curriculum at the right stage a full explanation that poverty is not inevitable, it is there because it is suffered and explain how it can be eliminated. Appeal for an apex national organization in each country that will address itself to the task of creating all these programmes and ideas. Suggest UN should take on itself the authority of accepting the invitation of any nation to eradicate poverty or illiteracy or major diseases. Suggest UN should declare that within 5 to 10 years poverty should be eradicated from the world. At the end of that period UN may take over one or more countries under its administration to eradicate it compulsorily.
INEFFICENCY SPECALISATION(DIVISION OF LABOUR) STANDARDISATION INCOME PURCHASING POWER STANDARD OF LIVING POVERTY
CORRUPTION BLACK MONEY POVERTY
INEQUALITY INCOME POVERTY
The topic given to us (POVERTY) was more over concentrated on macro level rather than concentrating on the causes and solutions in INDIA. The data was more of secondary and not primary.
INTERNET: www.google.com www.economics.ox.ac.uk/members/stefan.dercon/conclusion.pdf www.gurusoftware.com/gurunet/knowledgebase/social/poverty.htm www.wikipedia.org www.goodnewsindia.com/Pages/content/economy/poverty.html www.globalissues.org/issue/2/causes-of-poverty BOOKS: The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid –C.K. Prahalad From poverty to prosperity- Arnold Kling, Nick Schulz BIBLIOGRAPHY