Ankapur a model village in india


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Ankapur(Ankapoor) Village has been recognized as a Model Village by many agencies including International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Manila, Philippines, for outstanding achievements in the field of agriculture development. Besides cultivating commercial crops and vegetables on a large scale, the local farming communities have been raising various crops for seeds in preference to cereals and traditional crops of food grains. The Peasant Association of the village coordinates, organizes and controls various agricultural development programmes. The village also boasts of modern amenities for the inhabitants and is also taking up its marketing activities itself.

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Ankapur a model village in india

  1. 1. 1 Ankapur- A Model VillageAnkapur Village has been recognized as a Model Village by manyagencies including International Rice Research Institute (IRRI),Manila, Philippines, for outstanding achievements in the field of agriculturedevelopment. Besides cultivating commercial crops and vegetables on alarge scale, the local farming communities have been raising various cropsfor seeds in preference to cereals and traditional crops of food grains. ThePeasant Association of the village coordinates, organizes and controlsvarious agricultural development programmes. The village also boasts ofmodern amenities for the inhabitants and is also taking up its marketingactivities itself.Ankapur is a small, self sufficient, progressive Model Village located inArmoor Mandal, Nizamabad District, Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.The village is 400 years old and is located on eastern side of the NationalHighway 16 connecting Nizamabad with Jagdalpur (CHG) also near to theanother National Highway (NH7) connecting Hyderabad and Nagpur. It lies77 degrees 51 E longitude ad 18 degrees 30 N latitude at an elevation of 404meters above the level. It receives an annual rainfall of about 1100 mm andexperiences a subtropical climate. This village is considered one of theModel Villages in the country due to an overall development in generaland agricultural development in particular. It is recognized as a modelvillage by many agencies including International Crops ResearchInstitute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Indian council ofAgricultural Research (ICAR) and International Rice ResearchInstitute (IRRI), Manila, Philippines.According to the oral history provided by the village elders, Ankapur was apassive village till 1920. The entire village lands were under the ownershipof one Sri Gaddam Venkatabhooma Reddy, a Zamindar. His migration toHyderabad later has changed the complexion of the village from one oftemporary to permanent ownership. The villagers were prompted by him topurchase the lands at a very nominal rate and that too on easy installments.
  2. 2. 2Some parts of the lands had been endowed with irrigation facilities from theNizamsagar Branch Canal. During the years 1920-70, the villagers used togrow local rice (nallavadlu and doddavadlu) and sorghum (Mainland)varieties. They followed the traditional practices. The yields of rice wereabout five quintals per acre, and the local sorghum yielded about threequintals per acre. In 1970-71, Sri Hema Chander, the Assistant Director ofAgriculture (ADA) introduced the hybrid seed production through AndhraPradesh State Seed Development Corporation (APSSDC) and the NationalSeeds Corporation (NSC). Convinced by the profit brewing seedproduction the farmers slowly switched over from the subsistenceagriculture to commercial seed production. At present the entire farmhouseholds of this village are engaged in commercial seed production.They grow bajra and sorghum for seed production followed by maize(for fresh cobs) and turmeric. The gross income per acre from rice, maize,bajra, and turmeric were estimated to be about Rs.5000, 9000, 7000 and10000 respectively.In recent years Ankapur has earned a great name in agriculturaldevelopment. The farmers have started adopting modern methods andthey have succeeded in substituting subsistence orientation withcommercialization. Besides cultivation commercial crops like turmeric,maize and vegetables on a large scale the local farming communitieshave been raising various crops for seeds in preference to cereals andtraditional crops for food grains.The basic information about the village revealed that the total geographicalarea is 2205 acres. There are 567 pattadars of which 560 are the actualcultivators. The barren land and uncultivable land is 260.05 acres, landunder non-agricultural use are 383.10 acres, the permanent pasture andgrazing land is 50.12 acres, land suitable for cultivation is 1686.38 acres,other follow land is 16.15 acres and current follow land is 104.26 acres. Thegross cropped area is 1618.37 acres, of which 1545.37 acres are sown morethan once and average land holding under each family is 2.7 acres.According to 2001 decennial census the total population of the village is6066 i.e. 2995 men (49.4%) and 3070 women (50.6%). The overall literacyrate among the adult population is 69%.
  3. 3. 3Social OrganizationThe social organization of Ankapur constitutes to castes. Each caste has itsown association (Sangam) with a president and 4-12 members dependingupon the numerical strength of the caste. These associations solve almost allthe social problems that arise within the caste. However, inter-caste disputesare referred to Sarvasamaj (association of all the castes of Ankapur),which has 42 members and a president, considered to be the supremebody of the village to take final decisions pertaining to all the matters. Itis binding on the constitutent members to abide by the decisions. In additionto the Sarvasamaj, there is a Rythu Sangam (peasants association) consistingof 11 members and a president. This peasants association is the mostimportant body of the farmers, which cater their needs. The bodycoordinates, organizes, monitors, and controls various agriculturaldevelopment programmes. No members of the Sangam/Sarvasamaj willcontinue for more than 12 months. In all these sangams women folk are notrepresented at all. The data on various castes, their categories, number offamilies, and the traditional occupations, collected from the villagers werecategorized. There are four major categories, i.e. forward caste, backwardcaste, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and there are a total of 20 castesin the village. The Maximum number of families are with GudatiReddy/Gudati Kaapu (landowning peasant caste) followed byMadiga(scheduled caste), Goud(toddy tappers), Mala(scheduled caste)Munnur kaapu (landowning peasant caste), Besta(fisherman), Vysyas(mercantile caste), padmasali (weavers), Tenugu (peasant caste), ViswaBrahmins (consists of carpenters, black smith and gold smith),Kummari(potters), Darjis(Tailors), Boya(fisherman), Yadava(Shepard)Saakali (washerman), Katika (butcher), Nayee Brahmin (barbers), Vaddera(agricultural labour) and Gosangi (agricultural labour).Basic AmenitiesThe village has post office, telephone office, four primary schools, two highschools a primary agricultural cooperative society, a commercialbank(Andhra bank), a Panchayath Office (three storied building) , veterinarycenter with artificial insemination facilities, library, two fair price shops, 20seed processing plants, a market yard, and 35 DWCRA groups. There areabout 800 houses and a majority of them have ultra modern facilities. In thisvillage, there are about 500 television sets with cable connection. There are100 cars, 400 two wheelers, 27 tractors, 05 lorries, 02 buses, 26 multiplecrop harvesters, 20 paddy threshers, 60 maize shellers, 11 bajra powerthreshers, 250 hand sprayers and 15 power sprayers. There are 2473telephone connections (includes both land line and mobile) in this village.
  4. 4. 4Agriculture Income generationAccording to the available statistics in the village Rythu Sangam (peasantassociation) the income of the farm families has registered a manifoldincrease from Rs.1980 in 1970 to Rs.10000 in 2001. This increase can beattributed to the introduction of hybrid seed production programme forsorghum and bajra. Over the years the agricultural labour wages alsoincreased manifold. This is the reason why the labourers form the adjoiningdistricts of the Mahaboobnagar and Medak are migrating to this villageduring the peak season.Crop RotationThe cropping pattern followed by the farmers in Ankapur village includedfour important rotations. They grow maize for fresh (green) cobs alongwithturmeric as intercrop. These crops occupy the land from mid March to midDecember. Then they grow hybrid bajra and sorghum as commercial seeds,from November to February. Rice as a khariff crop is cultivated betweenJuly to November. Recently the farmers have included sunflower for seedproduction in their enterprise list. The main vegetables grown theses includetomato, brinjal, cabbage, and cauliflower. Although the leafy vegetables aregrown throughout the year, the other vegetables are cultivated mostly Marchto June. The cropping intensity varies from 250 to 300 per cent.Livestock ManagementThe number of livestock present in Ankapur village includes cows (982),she-buffaloes (200), bullocks (44), sheep (300) and goats (174). There arefour commercial poultry units owned by the villagers. Animals are fed withcrop residues like paddy straw, maize stocks (fresh), sorghum and bajra. Allthe animals are managed by male servants engaged on yearly basis. Bullocksare used for draught purpose. The Yadava caste has sheeps and goats, whichare sent for grazing in the hills. The grazing is managed by men exclusively,in this village, not much importance is given to livestock including dairy andtheir management because farming community got benefited through seedproduction in crops such as sorghum, bajra and paddy, and also throughproducing fresh maize crops.
  5. 5. 5Decision MakingThe decision making pattern on domestic affairs is dominated by thewomen, irrespective of the communities. Men dominated in decision makingon agricultural activities, and is true with all communities. However, thewomen dominated in the decision making on the utilization and supervisionof labour. There was a mixed trend in decision-making on modernization,construction of houses and maintaining savings account of the family.MarketingThe marketing for almost all the crops produce is done in the village itself.Usually, no crop produce is taken to their houses for storage. The village ishaving open market place constructed with zinc sheet, and the produce issent to far away places from there. Dried turmeric is sent to Nizamabadregulated market in Lorries. Green maize cobs are sent to Nanded, Nagpur,Nizamabad, and Hyderabad. These brokers handle the produce of farmersand extend credit facilities to them for a fortnight. Misuse of credit facilitiesby broker is never heard of as he will not be allowed to enter there later, andas such he will be the loser forever. For perishables like chillies, tomato,brinjal, etc the village society fixes the base price depending on the inflowand outflow of the produce.Village developmentThe village utilizes the profits and income for the development of the villageby construction ultra modern building and also purchasing vehicles for theiruse. No farmer has tried to construct a house, or to acquire property in anytown or city. They constructed a road of 1½ km for which they spend Rs.4lakhs over and above the estimates made by the public department. Thewhole money was mobilized from the farming communities. In 1986, all thecommunities of the village spent 7.5 lakhs for the construction of threestoried panchayath office building. They also spent about Rs.40,000/- forconstructing a bridge across Nizamsagar canal branch, and another Rs.1.0lakh extra amount for construction of the overhead tank for drinking water.There is a Spices Board godown, which was constructed in collaborationwith the Central Spices Board, Kochi. The board donated Rs.5 lakhs and thevillagers contributed Rs.5 lakhs to complete the construction work. Atpresent many rural development programmes are on in the village whichincludes, Velugu, Annapurna Pathakkam, Adarana Pathakkam, MundaduguPathakkam, Deepam Pathakkam, Girl child protection scheme andAnthyodaya.
  6. 6. 6Mahila MandaliAnkapur has a Mahila Mandali Sangam. It has a president-cum-cashier andmembers. The Mahila Mandali members maintain a fair price shop. Allprovisions are made available in this shop. It runs on no profit and no lossbasis. The Mahila Mandali maintains systematically the fair price shop in allaspects.Small family normIt is told all the women (86%) of different caste groups undergo familyplanning operations after two or three children. Men undergoing operations(vasectomy) accounts for above five percent of the total population.According to villagers 20-30 people in a year undergoes the family planningoperation.Recreational facilitiesA number of recreation facilities in terms of games and sports andentertainment programmes are available in the Ankapur village. Theimportant games played by the men are kabaddi, cricket (children) and thebadminton. Men go for movies to either Armoor or Nizamabad. Most of thevillagers have cable TV facilities provided by the cable operators. There areno sports facilities for women, and they are devoted for domestic and fieldworks.Management of social evilsSome social evils such as consumption of alcohol and the dowry systemsstill exist in Ankapur village. However, other evils like gambling and theftsare completely prohibited within the village limits. There is no policestation; and police do not visit this village as there are no complaints; and nocase is pending in any court. Social ostricization is the main instrumentemployed in the management of social evils. Erring men and women are alsofined by the respective caste association or the Sarvasamaj, failing whichthey will have to either comply the edicts of the society or leave the villageby leaving their property behind as there will be nobody to buy them. Thereis complete freedom for exercising religious, political and philosophicalbeliefs. Selfishness is allowed as long as it does not interfere with others. Itmay appear that moral and cultural moorings of the village are medieval, butall men enjoying their individual and groups relevance in the model Ankapurvillage, without being affected by politics and police station.
  7. 7. 7Safety and SecurityThere are no problems about the security of women in general, the head ofthe family , invariably men, drops their women at the field and brings themback after the working hours of the day by using their two wheelers (motorcycle or scooter). The working hours for labour in the field are 8 hours i.e.,10.00 am to 6.00 pm, with a lunch break. Usually, the lunch break rangesfrom half-an-hour to one hour. In case of emergency the labourers are askedto go immediately on humanitarian grounds.ConclusionThe success of agricultural development in Ankapur village can be attributedto the following factors that made this village to attain the status of ModelVillage is (i) a strong socially fabricated organizational set-up which solvesthe villager’s personal problems, in the lead role, (ii) the lead role thewomen play in carrying out the agricultural activities viz., sowing, weeding,harvesting and supervision of farm labour, (iii) their shift from traditionalagriculture to commercialization of agriculture through seed production withhigh cropping intensity, (iv)the importance of role played by the women ingetting more income from various crops, particularly in the communities likeGuradi Kapu/Guradi Reddy, Munnur Kapu, Yadava, Mala and Madiga (v)more than 90 per cent of the domestic activities are attended by women (vi)appreciable influence of women on the decision making process related todomestic affairs ad also on agricultural activities like labour utilization andsupervision, (vi) small operational landholding size with intensivecultivation, (vii) raising three crops in a calendar year thus the crop intensityis about 300% (vii) application of three truck load of farmyard manure(FYM) whenever the soil losses its fertility status which is tested basedupon the turbidity of the soil (x) (xi)lesser application of chemical fertilizerand plant protection measures (xii)seed production of maize, sorghum, bajraand commercial crops like turmeric, and vegetables. (xiii) no land is keptbarren in the village, (xiv) turmeric and maize are cultivated as intercrop(xv) all the crops grown in this village meet the domestic requirement of thefarm household (garlic, ginger, chillies, red gram, coriander, raddish andleafy vegetables raised in small areas), (xiv) when the power supply iserratic each farmer collects the water in a pond on the elevated structure andthe water is released to the fields as per the convenience, (xvii) village leveldisciplinary committees is formed, if anybody does not obey the committeehe/she will be socially boycotted, (xviii) the village market yard facilitate thefarmers to sell those farm produce, (xix) the farmer’s financial disciplinemade both the cooperative bank and nationalized bank (Andhra Bank) to run
  8. 8. 8in a profitable way and they are pro-farmer, (xx) organic and sustainableagriculture is the main concern of the farmers which ultimately protected thenatural resource base of the village over the years, (xxi) farmers periodicallyattend the soil health problems, and (xxii) women folk generally take care offarm operations and men look after the marketing related works.There are certain issues which demand special attention for the continueddevelopment of the model village Ankapur on a sustainable basis. Theseinclude (i) How long the present society fabricated society set up willcontinue? (ii) How long women will continue to play the lead role for fieldworks? (iii) How the future generation of Ankapur will focus on commercialagriculture also the community solidarity? (iv) How long the village willcontinue to plough back its resources without investing on the establishmentof small and large-scale industries? and (v) whether the political parties andmarket forces will allow the villagers to uphold their societal values and richtradition?Authors:Muthuraman, P. and J.Takeda (2006 a) Ankapur: A Model Village.Kurukshetra (The Monthly Journal of Ministry of Rural Development)54(4): 42-47.Muthuraman, P. and J.Takeda (2006 b) Ankapur Village-Substitutingsubsistence orientation with commercialization. Kurukshetra (AJournal on Rural Development) 54(11): 35-39.Muthuraman.P is Senior Agricultural Extension Scientist associatedwith Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India.J.Takeda is a professor of Anthropology at Saga University, Japan.Article was published in the monthly journal (Kurukshetra) of Ministryof Rural Development, Government of India. Dated -September, 2006.Note: mail your feedback to Ankapur Development Team (ADT).E-mail:, Web:
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