Background & Main Representatives
It was developed and published as a book by
Mr. Stephen Krashen and Mrs. Tracy Terrell in
Mr. Stephen Krashen is a famous linguist. He
is currently a professor at University of
Mrs. Tracy Terrell is an educational theorist
and a professor at University of California.
Background & History
believes that adults
can still acquire
second languages. The
ability of language
acquisition does not
disappear as we grow
Adults also acquire
language by following
the principles of
Background & History
The different between adult and children acquisition
skill is that adults have two things to follow when
they learn foreign language: Acquisition and
learning. But, children only acquire the languages.
In the book, Mr. Krashen and Mrs. Terrell consider
their approach as a traditional method.
The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
• The most basic steps of all in the Krashen’s theory.
• It’s the most well known among linguists and language
• The learner has two ways of learning the second
language, which are the acquired system and the learned
The monitor hypothesis
• When the learner can check and correct language
The Natural Order hypothesis
• When people acquire language by using grammatical
structures in a predictable order.
The input hypothesis
• The acquisition of language is in a predictable
order. Everybody have the same steps of
The Affective Filter hypothesis
• Three kinds of affective or attitudinal were
• Motivation: learners with high motivation generally
• Self-confident: learners with self-confidence and a
good self-image tend to be more successful.
• Anxiety: Low personal anxiety and low classroom
anxiety are more conducive to second language
Concept or definition
Is a language teaching approach which claims that
language learning is a reproduction of the way humans
naturally acquire their native language.
"traditional approach to language teaching [because it
is] based on the use of language in communicative
situations without recourse to the native language."
(Richards & Rodgers 2001: 178)
"language teaching methods based on observation
and interpretation of how learners acquire both first
and second languages in non-formal settings."
(Richards & Rodgers 2001: 190)
"Focus of instruction is on communication rather than
"Speech production comes slowly and is never forced.“
"Early speech goes through natural stages
(yes or no response, one- word answers, lists of words,
short phrases, complete sentences.)"
• To help adults in learning the foreign language
• The learner will be able to pick up the grammar by
themselves when they are ready.
• Act as an authority in the class
• Imitate the first language learning process
• Creatively instruct students to do activities that
benefit the language learning.
• Pre-production stage: learners participate in the
language activity without having respond.
• Early-production stage: learners answer questions,
with single words and short phrases.
• Speech-emergent stage: learners involve themselves
in role plays, games and other activities.
The Role of Instructional Materials
• Make classroom activities as meaningful as possible
and promote comprehension and communication.
• The primary aim of materials is to promote
comprehension and com-munication.
• Pictures and other visual aids are essential, because
they supply the content for communication
• Materials come from the world of realia rather than
In Class Activities
Pointing, handing objects, writing or drawing , standing,
walking, sitting down
For advanced learners:
Like listening and reading tasks that learners order
pictures, follow written instruction or maps.
• Using inputs like pictures, objects
• Body language
• Audio-visual aids
• Memorizing games
Strengths & Weaknesses
• This method is very easy.
• Reliable as it’s widely used
• There’s no grammar instruction in this method.
• It takes long time and learner can do only elementary
• It does not suit for those who do not have much time.
• The method rarely concerns about correctness
• Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne.
Cambridge University Press
• Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching
Approaches. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching
English as a Second or Foreign Language. (pp.3-10).
Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle.
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