“Specified patterns of behavior and/orperformance according to which the individualapproaches a learning experience; a way inwhich the individual takes in new informationand develops new skills; the process by whichan individual retains new information orskills” . (Sarasin, L.C, 2006)
“The manner in which individualschoose, or are inclined to approach,a learning situation “. (Cassidy, 2004). “The way an individual perceives, organizes, processes, and remembers information “. (Beebe, Mottet, Roach, 2004).
VisualIs also referred to as the visual-spatial style. People who favor this style prefer to use colors, images, maps,charts and graphs to communicate and organize information.
Auditory Is one in which the learnerinterprets meaning and solidifies understanding through the form of active listening.
Tactile/kinestheticThe tactile learning style is almost always joinedwith the kinesthetic learning. Both styles involvebodily movement, and are very similar, but thetactile style is more moderate. it involves thesense of touch, and fine motor movements,rather than the large, whole-body movementsseen in the kinesthetic learning style. The TactileLearning Style takes in information through thesense of touch and feeling, and generally hasgood eye-hand coordination.
Have to thinkGood at spelling awhile before Are good but forgets understanding at names. lecture. spelling Like Need colors & quiet fashion. study time. Are good Understa with sign nd/like language. charts.
Draw a map of events in history or drawscientific process.Make outlines of everything!Copy whats on the board.Ask the teacher to diagram.Diagram sentences!Take notes, make lists.Watch videos.Color code words, research notes.Outline reading.Use flashcards.Use highlighters, circle words, underline.
good at grammar Enjoy Notice sound and foreign music. effects in Remember language. movies. names.Read slowly. good at Follow explainin spoken g. directions good in Like oral well. study reports. groups. Cant keep are notquiet for long afraid to periods. speak in Enjoy acting, class.to read Likebeing on stage. to self out loud.
Using word association to remember factsand lines.Recording lectures.Watching videos.Repeating facts with eyes closed.Participating in group discussions.Using audiotapes for language practice.Taking notes after writing them.
Like Study with Like role adventure loud music Like science lab. playing. books, on movies. Do not have Take breaks greatwhen studying. handwriting. are notBuild models. great at spelling.involved in Cant sitmartial arts, still for dance. long. Nervous good at during sports. lectures.
Studying in short blocks.Taking lab classes.Role playing.Taking field trips, visitingmuseums.Studying with others.Using memory games.Using flash cards to memorize.
Are the tools that students themselves can employindependently to complete a language task.
“Learning strategies are specific actions taken bythe learner to make learning easier, faster, moreenjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, moretransferable to new situations”. “Operations …to aid the: -acquisition, Source (Oxford, 1990) -storage, -retrieval, and -use of information…” source (Oxford, 1990)
Language learning strategies are thepurposeful steps used by language learners to:-comprehend and process new information moredeeply,-to help to recall old information, and-apply knowledge and skills to facilitateproblem-solving. Source (Nyikos, 1991)
There are two main types of learningstrategies:Strategies for planning.Strategies for learning.
Directing Advance Attention Organization This meanspaying attention Doing a to studying preview of something, and what you arenot doing other Self- going to management learn. things like This is surfing the understanding Internet. the conditions that help you learn, and organizing them.
AdvanceSelf-monitoring Preparation Correcting Planning andyourself if you learning that Delayedmake a mistake you will need Production when you are for something When you first start tousing English learn a new language you may decide not to try speaking until you have learned some vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. You may just want to try listening first, before speaking.
Working Alone Self-reinforcement or with Other This means get People more ideas giving yourself a suggest improvements present when mistake you haveencourage you to do better Self-evaluation Explaining/understa successfully (Self-assessment learned nd Teamwork or testing) Deciding if you something. have finished learning a topic because your English is good enough to do the things you need
Imagery: This Grouping: Putting means making things in groupspictures in your and in order helpsmind to help you you to build aremember things framework for learning
Form a group of Questions forpeople to practice Clarification: talk to speaking English-speakers English Club and asking for them Recording yourself: to repeat, record yourself paraphrase, explain speaking, either on or give examples. your own, or with other people
Imagine: Imaging Sing: You canthat you are in a sing English situation where songs that you you need to like, either speak English alone, or with Act: you can friends join a drama club or group that puts on English plays
Sound: This means Repetition: You remembering can repeat a wordEnglish sounds by out loud or using sounds in silently toyour own language practice pronunciation
Note-taking : its a good idea to write down the main ideas,important points, an outline or a summary of a topic.Organization : You can use a mind-map, to help you organizethe information.Proof-reading : you can use this program to automaticallycheck for some common mistakes.Peer-review : ask a friend to read your text and comment on it.To-do list : write a list of 10 specific problems you have withyour writing. Put them in order of seriousness or solvability.Work on the highest priority problems until you solve them.
Transfer : Use ideas that you already have to make learning easier.Translation : Read a story in a newspaper in your ownlanguage first, then read the same story in another language.Most of the story will probably be the same, so the story inyour own language will help you to prepare for reading in(English).Inference : use the strategy of reading a newspaper story inyour own language first for prediction. Prediction : As well as predicting from newspaper stories in your own language, you can predict from your knowledge of the world, you knowledge of how people think, write and talk, and your knowledge of what the writer is like.
Motivate yourself : like movies or music, you Physical Response: listen to instructionscan practice listening to about how to do them. something, and follow the instructions. Preparation : listen to the news in your own language, then listen to Prediction : predict what it in English. Listening someone is going to say in your own language by the topic of the will help to predict what conversation and your topics and vocabulary knowledge of that will be in the English persons opinions. news.
Deduction Use rules to work out the answer or how to do something.Recombination Join together things you already know to make new thingsWriting your Can contain rules, examples, yourown grammar notes, lists of exceptions, etc.book
After you learn some new grammar, use it in Using new conversation or writing, and see what your grammar listeners or readers reaction is: do they understand you? You can ask "Did I say that right?" Get a Go to a bookshop and look at the differentgrammar book grammar books. Choose one that you understand.Read and listen To see how writers and speakers use English grammar to communicate their ideas
Put new vocabulary words into sentencesto help you remember them and to test if Contextualizationyou are using them correctly.Relate new information to information Elaborationyou already know. Use available information to predict or guess the meanings of new Inference vocabulary items.
Personalization Write down why the vocabulary item is important to you, where you first saw it, and when you used it. Writing entries for the dictionary will help to Dictionary learn words. Read a story in your own language first, and then Translation read the same story in an another language. Most of the story will probably be the same, so the story in your own language will help you to prepare for reading in another language. Group words into different areas, such Groupi as words in the different courses you ng study.